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1.  Ideas that archaeologists have developed about the past and about the way we come to know about the past are referred to as ___________. a.antiquarianism b.archaeological theories c.hermeneutics d.historicism 2.  Which of the following represents the first clear evidence for the use of excavation to recover and explore the past? a.the exploration of a mound.
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  1.  __________ is a component of the study of agriculture. a.Community b.Aesthetics c.Stratification d.Architecture   2.  V. Gordon Childe defined the transition to agriculture as __________. a.cultural evolution b.the Neolithic Revolution c.a shift from savagery to barbarism d.broad spectrum foraging   3. Marshall Sahlins described hunter-gatherers as __________. a.middle stage barbarians b.the original affluent society c.broad spectrum foragers d.evolutionary throw-backs   4.  Ester Boserup suggested that __________ might.
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  11.  Though Early and Middle Woodland subsistence was based heavily on cultivated plants, __________ is rare and does not appear to have played a major role in the Woodland diet. a.maize b.beans c.squash d.wheat   12. The earliest crude ceramic vessels first appeared in eastern North America in the __________ culture. a.                Green River b.Weeden Island c.Stalling.
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  11. The earliest stone tool tradition is known as the __________. a.Acheulian b.Oldowan c.Auregnacian d.Mousterian 12.  What tool, associated with Homo erectus, is perhaps the most successful tool humans ever invented? a.Oldowan pebble chopper b.Acheulian handaxe c.Mousterian spear point d.Clovis fluted point 13.  Volcanic ash can be dated using what radiometric method? a.paleomagnetism b.radiocarbon c.argon dating d.luminescence 14.  The evidence for early hominin subsistence suggests.
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1. The ________ is the geological era beginning 1.8 million years ago and characterized by glacial activity. a.Jurassic b.Pleistocene c.Pliocene d.Holocene 2.  The record of global climate fluctuations can be found in the __________. a.oxygen isotope curve b.tree rings of the bald cypress c.oxygen reduction line d.straight line regression curve 3.  What does the climate record produced by the.
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  11.  Who was the catalyst for the New Archaeology? a.Walter Taylor b.Lewis Binford c.Flinders Petrie d.Ian Hodder 12.  Binford thought that for archaeology to be considered a science it must work by ________ from general laws and models. a.drawing b.induction c.extrapolation d.deduction 13.  Observations of archaeological materials in the present that can help create and test hypotheses about the past.
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  7.What is the significance of plastered skulls during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B?   8.What technological innovations occurred during the Late Neolithic?   9.How has our concept of the Neolithic Revolution changed since V. Gordon Childe proposed it?   10.What was the Linear Band Keramik culture?   .
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  1.King Tutankhamen conducted an early archaeological dig at the site of the Sphinx. 2.In Medieval Europe, prehistoric stone tools found in fields were thought to  be ?thunderstones? formed where lightening struck. 3.Thomas Jefferson?s excavations of a mound on his property proved it was not made by                Indians. 4.Danish antiquarian, Jean.
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  1.What was the geography of Southeast Asia and Australia like during periods of glacial advance and low sea level?   2.What happened to the Pleistocene megafauna?   3.What is the significance of Australian rock art?   4.What is Clovis culture?   5.What is the significance and controversy surrounding Meadowcroft Rockshelter?       .
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  1.Domestication refers to changes in plants and animals that allow them to survive better in the wild.   2.The Neolithic Revolution refers to the subsistence strategy known as broad spectrum foraging.   3.The Fertile Crescent is a ribbon of Mediterranean climate that arcs across the Middle East.   4.The first true agriculture in the Middle East.
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  1.What were the three major regions where plants were indigenously domesticated in Africa?   2.What is the importance of the Nabta Playa site?   3.What sort of plants were domesticated in New Guinea, and how did they differ from other areas?   4.What is the role of the Humboldt Current in the subsistence of the Andean.
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  6.What are the major areas of biological analysis and what do they describe?   7.How can an archaeologist get an accurate quantitative picture of the relative frequency of different animals in the faunal assemblage?   8.How are typologies used in archaeology?   9.How can seriation be used to develop a relative chronology of an artifact.
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1. This wild grass found in the Mexican highlands is the ancestor of maize. a,  Curcubita pepo b.  marsh elder c.teosinte d.chenopodium   2.  Excavations at __________ have produced the earliest evidence of domesticated plants in the Americas. a.                Poverty Point b.Guilá Naquitz c.Las Capas d.Milagro   3.  Which of these is an early domesticated plant in Mesoamerica? a.tomatoes b.squash c.rhubarb d.cabbage   4.  What.
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  11.  Any object that shows traces of human manufacture is referred to as a/n. __________. a.                ecofact b.artifact c.site d.feature   12.  ________ are natural objects that provide information about the environmental context                of past human activity. a.                Artifacts b.Ecofacts c.Features d.Fossils   13.  Lithic analysis is the study of __________. a.lithium artifacts b.stone tools c.ceramic dishes d.metal weapons   14.  What is.
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  1. The initial hominin occupation of Australia and the Americas was by which species? a.Homo erectus b.Homo floresiensis c.Neanderthals d.Homo sapiens   2.  The most recent known Homo erectus fossil is from what site? a.Nauwalabila Island, Australia b.Ngandong, Java c.Lake Mungo, Australia d.Sahul Land   3. What is the boundary that separates Sunda and Sahul called? a.the Marianas Trench b.the Wallace Line c.Arnhem Land d.Beringia   4.  This.
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1.  ________ refers to the evolutionary history of a species. a.Cladistics b.Phylogeny c.Ontogeny d.Taxonomy 2. ________ is genetic material inherited exclusively from the mother. a.Nuclear DNA b.Nuclear RNA c.Mitochondrial DNA d.Mitochondrial RNA 3.  What taxon includes all members of the human lineage after it split with the chimpanzees? a.hominin b.prosimian c.anthropoid d.hominoid 4.  What is the oldest known fossil thought to belong to the hominin.
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  1.In Africa, pastoral societies based on domesticated animals developed without plant domestication.   2.In central Africa, two critical cereals—quinoa and sorghum—were domesticated. 3.Prior to 5,000 years ago, the Sahara Desert had more rainfall and was extensively occupied.   4.Pastoral societies are sedentary societies with an economy based on horticulture. 5.In New Guinea, domestication focused.
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  1.The first hominins in Australia and the Americas were Homo erectus.   2.The Wallace Line separates the prehistoric landmasses known as Sunda and Sahul. 3.Homo floresiensis is the first hominin species to appear in China. 4.Early modern humans were able to cross over to Australia on the Wallacea land bridge between 53,000–60,000.
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  6.What is the Frison Effect? 7.What was the role of meat in the Neanderthal diet? 8.How did the Neanderthal dispose of their dead? 9.What is micromorphology and how can it help interpret an archaeological site? 10.              What was Stiner’s hypothesis on the nature of Neanderthal group size and mobility?   .
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  1. The oldest know fossil of a modern human was discovered at __________. a.Swartkrans b.Klasies River Mouth c.Herto d.Howiesons Poort   2.  Which of these physical skull traits distinguishes modern humans from Neanderthals? a.                big brain b.pronounced brow ridges c.vertical forehead d.minimal chin   3. The archaeological period of the earliest modern humans in Africa is referred to as.
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  3.Why did Marshall Sahlins call hunter-gatherers the original affluent society?   4.What characterized the Natufian Period?   5.Archaeologically what is the major technology that distinguishes the Early Neolithic and Natufian?   6.How did Pre-Pottery Neolithic A villages differ from those later in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B?       .
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  11. __________ is the focus of the Guerilla Girls. A.The gender inequities in the art scene B.The nudity of female art figures C.The need for more minority representation in art gallery attendance D.The need to make art galleries handicapped accessible E.both A and C 12. The stories of Maxine Hong Kingston’s Woman Warrior derive from.
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  1.What is the basis for our stereotype of Neanderthals as hulking ape-men? 2.What might explain the absence of handaxes in the east Asian Acheulian? 3.What is the significance of the site of Zhoukoudian? 4.What is the Berekhat Ram figurine? 5.What is the genetic relationship of Neanderthals to modern humans?     .
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  1.What is remote sensing and what is it relevance to archaeology? 2.How are geographic information systems (GIS) used in archaeology? 3.Explain the difference between and the purpose of horizontal and vertical excavation. 4.What are some methods that archaeologists employ in a stratigraphic analysis? 5.What is the goal of archaeological recording and what are.
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  1.What is the significance of the site of Cerro Juanaqueña?   2.What is the advantage of accelerator mass spectrometry over conventional radiocarbon dating?   3.What is optimal foraging theory?   4.How did the Formative period compare with the preceding Archaic period?   5.How did agriculture develop in eastern North America?       .
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1.  The goal of archaeology is to __________. a.find treasure b.dig square holes c.understand past human lives by studying the objects they left behind d.more fully understand dinosaurs 2.  An archaeological survey maps the distribution of __________. a.the oldest stones in the region b.only sites over 100 years old c.the physical remains of human activity d.only those sites.
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  11.  __________ are patches nurtured by mist from coastal fog in which dense vegetation grows. a.Sunis b.Punas c.Llomas d.Yungas   12.  AMS dates of beans at Guitarrero Cave indicate that they were domesticated __________. a.at the same time as llamas b.10,000 years ago c.4, 300 years ago d.well after highland cities had been established 13.  A(n) __________ is a domesticated.
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  1.The most important archaeological sites are found within a foot of the ground surface. 2.The goal of horizontal excavation is to expose large areas of a site to reconstruct a single  point in time.   3.The law of superposition states that each layer is younger than the layer beneath it. 4.Anthropogenic deposits.
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  6.What have we learned about social inequality from burials of the Upper Paleolithic?   7.What is use-wear analysis?   8.What evidence is there of open air Upper Paleolithic sites? 9.What differences are evident in the subsistence of modern humans and Neanderthals?   10.What happened at the end of the Middle Stone Age/Paleolithic that led to the elaboration.
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  6.Why is the site of Monte Verde significant?   7.How do Anna Roosevelt’s excavations at Pedra Pintada challenge the Clovis First model? Clovis culture and suggests that Clovis was only one of several adaptive strategies.   8.What is K. R. Fladmark’s alternative to migration to North America through an ice-free corridor?   9.What is the Early Arrival.
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  1.The term “modern humans” refers to several subspecies of Homo sapiens, including Neanderthals.   2.The earliest modern Homo sapiens human fossil was discovered at the site of Hadar, Ethiopia.   3.There are no modern human fossils found in southern Africa. 4.The Middle Stone Age refers to the archaeological period of the earliest modern humans.
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  1.Ontogeny is the evolutionary history of a species. 2.Mitochondrial DNA is inherited exclusively from the mother. 3.Genetic evidence shows that gorillas have the greatest similarity to humans of all the                great apes. 4.According to the molecular clock, chimpanzees and humans diverged four to six million                years ago. 5.Paleoanthropologists study past.
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  6.Discuss the evidence for the earliest use of tools at the Gona site in Africa. 7.How was Raymond Dart?s ?killer ape? hypothesis called into question?  8.How can chimpanzees be used as an analogy for hominin hunting activity?  9.What is the home-base/food-sharing model? 10.What evidence is there for use of fire among.
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  11.  What specimen from Atapuerca has been proposed as intermediate between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens? a.               Homo habilis b.Homo rudolphensis c.Homo ergaster d.Homo antecessor 12.  Where was the oldest fossil that can clearly be classified as Neanderthal (175,000 years ago) discovered? a.Biache-Saint-Vaast b.Le Moustier c.Mezmaiska Cave d.Shanidar Cave 13.  What is the cultural period associated with the.
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  1.Marcelin Boule’s characterization of the Neanderthal as a degenerate side branch of human evolution has been recognized as generally correct. 2.The Pleistocene is characterized by the frequent buildup and retreat of continental ice sheets. 3.The global climate record, as revealed by the oxygen isotope curve has been remarkably stable for the past.
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  11. The oldest modern human remains in Europe (ca. 36,000 years old) were found in __________. a.Herto b.Pe?tera cu Oase Cave c.Klasies River Mouth d.St. Cesaire   12.  Fossils of modern humans dated to between 120,000 and 70,000 years ago have been discovered at __________. a.Klasies River Mouth, South Africa b.Lascaux Cave, France c.Kebara Cave, Israel d.Howiesons Poort, South Africa.
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  1.What is a modern human?   2.What is the African Middle Stone Age?   3.What is the significance of the Blombos Cave objects?   4.What is the archaeological evidence for the fate of the Neanderthals?   5.How do Upper Paleolithic tools differ from the Middle Paleolithic industries?       .
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  11.  The Early Neolithic includes the period __________. a.Pre-Pottery Neolithic A b.Post-Pottery Neolithic B c.Chalcolithic C d.Dravidian D   12.  Although the Natufians did not appear to domesticate herd animals, there is evidence that they did domesticate __________. a.                cats b.camels c.dogs d.chickens   13.  The most spectacular example of Pre-Pottery Neolithic A construction is the 9-meterhigh structure at __________..
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  11.  Which of these is a model for the human occupation of the Americas? a.Beringia b.Indigenous development c.Clovis First d.Wallacea Ancestry   12.  The land bridge that connected Asia and North America during periods of low sea level is called _________. a.the ALCAN highway b.Beringia c.Wallacea d.the Aleutian Islands   13. Which migration route has been proposed for entry of humans into.
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  3.What was Graham Clark?s contribution to scientific archaeology? 4.What were the goals of the New Archaeology? 5.What is the difference between induction and deduction? 6.What is middle-range research? 7.How has systems theory been applied to archaeology?     .
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1. Indigenously domesticated plants are found in this region of Africa. a.Ethiopia and Eritrea in the northeast b.southern African c.tropical East Africa d.desert of the northwest   2.  One of the most complete pictures of a hunter-gatherer village in North Africa comes from the North African site of __________. a.                Akhreijit b.Uan Afuda c.Dhar Tichit d.Nabta Playa   3.  The.
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  1.Teosinte, found in the highlands of Mexico, is the wild ancestor of squash. 2.Guilá Naquitz is an early agricultural site in Arizona with canal-irrigated fields. 3.AMS radiocarbon dating makes it possible to date very small samples. 4.Cerro Juanaqueña has produced the earliest evidence of domesticated plants in the Americas.   5.Optimal foraging.
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  1. __________ is the chief practitioner of Poststructuralism. A.Roland Barthes B.Jacques Derrida C.Søren Kierkegaard D.Jean-Paul Sartre E.Simone de Beauvoir 2. Arguably, __________ has had the greatest impact on the public’s opinion of women in the arts. A.Marisol B.Eleanor Antin C.Betye Saar D.Cindy Sherman E.Judy Chicago 3. The approach to culture called Structuralism was developed by __________. A.Roland Barthes B.Jacques Derrida C.Jean-Paul Sartre D.Søren Kierkegaard E.Emanuel.
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  21.In Learning from Las Vegas, the architect Robert Venturi suggests that the eclectic rearrangement of a variety of styles, signs, and symbols composes a new kind of unity. 22.Marisol Escobar’s work is created in the Minimalist style. 23.Leonard Bernstein was successful at popularizing not only classical music, but also at classicizing.
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