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    31)Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on which value, as defined by sociologist Robin Williams?  A) efficiency and practicality B)achievement and success C)group superiority D)freedom 32)The sociologist who identified ten underlying core values of American society was.
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  13)What are the characteristics of a "peer group"? 14)List four of the seven agents of socialization discussed in the textbook. 15)What is the manifest function of school? 16)In school, what is the "corridor curriculum"? 17)A mental rehearsal for some future activity, or the attempt to learn to play a role before entering it, is.
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    41)The anthropologist recognized for his work on personal space was ________. A)Talcott Parsons B)Edward Hall C)William I. Thomas D)Robert K. Merton 42)Which of the following statements best describes how stereotypes affect our interaction with others when we first meet?  A) Stereotypes are usually based on objective facts and hold true. B)Stereotypes are rarely important in social.
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  1)The sociologist who studied feral children, including the abused child Isabelle who was discovered in 1938 living in an attic with her deaf-mute mother, was ________. A)Michael Burawoy B)Kingsley Davis C)Wilbert Moore D)Herbert Gans 2)In the "nature versus nurture" argument regarding socialization, the "nurture" component refers to ________.  A) heredity B)the social environment C)instinct D)genetic composition 3)Which of the.
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  1)Of the following research topics, which  qualifies as research on the micro level?   A) doctor-patient relationships B)race relations C)the military D)multinational corporations 2)Which of the following represents a correct sequence of steps in the research process?  A) Select a topic, collect the data, review the literature, share the results. B)Review the literature, select a topic,.
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  1)Sociologists use two levels of analysis. List the two and discuss the focus of each. What level of analysis accompanies the three theoretical perspectives? 2)What is the sociological significance of social structure? Give examples of social structure in this course and how it affects your understanding of sociology. 3)What is social class?.
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  10)Explain how value contradiction can be a major force for social change. Provide an example of how a value contradiction resulted in social change. 11)What is a culture war? Are culture wars beneficial to society? 12)Edward Wilson believes that sociobiology explains human behavior more accurately than sociology does. Wilson claims that human.
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    11)The process by which we develop a sense of self, referred to as the "looking-glass self," was developed by ________.  A) George Herbert Mead B)William I. Thomas C)Charles Horton Cooley D)Robert K. Merton 12)Our image of how others see us is called the ________. A)id B)super ego C)libido  D) self 13)Professor Zale bases her self-concept as a professor.
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  11)Not knowing who gathered the data or which research methods were employed to gather them are major issues to consider when using secondary analysis as a research method. 12)Researchers are violating people’s privacy when gathering information from Facebook because the Internet is technically a private domain. 13)When utilizing correlations to assess variables.
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  7)Why do we lose rights to make certain decisions about our own behavior when we join a group?   8)How do social institutions affect the people of a society?   9)Name five of the ten social institutions discussed in the text.   10)What are the five functional requisites that social institutions provide?   11)How would the division of.
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)social environment 2)feral children 3)socialization 4)id 5)ego 6)super ego 7)culture within us 8)agents of socialization 9)hidden curriculum 10)corridor curriculum 11)anticipatory socialization 12)degradation ceremony 13)resocialization 14)life course 15)adultolescence A)the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group, as well as the knowledge, attitude, skills, values, and actions thought to be appropriate for them B)people or groups that affect our self-concept,.
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    11)Sociologists have clearly demonstrated that most emotions are universal and are "products of our genes." 12)Parents are the first significant others to teach children about the fundamental symbolic division of the world. 13)The research of Melissa Milkie demonstrated that there is little difference today in how boys and girls interpret the cultural.
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  14)What are background assumptions? Describe what happens when background assumptions are violated. What does the ethnomethodological study of background assumptions tell us about the nature of social life? 15)Explain what W. I. and Dorothy S. Thomas meant when they said, “If people define situations as real, they are real in their.
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    21)Sam is conducting interviews to assess students' opinions on how President Bush handled the second Gulf War. Because this is a controversial topic at Sam's conservative campus, what is the best way for him to develop a sense of rapport with the sample? A)He should pay the interviewed students a stipend.
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      11)John and Doug are both full professors in a state university, holding doctorate degrees from Ivy League schools. Both make about the same salary and enjoy a similar sense of prestige in the community and on campus. Based only on this information, what do John and Doug have in common? A)They.
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1)Identical twins share exactly the same genetic heredity. 2)Without language there can be no culture, no shared way of life. 3)The research of the Harlows demonstrated that the key to mother-child bonding is the ability of the mother to provide food and other nutrition to the offspring. 4)Mead's theory of personal development is.
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  1) Discuss the "nature versus nurture" argument and provide support for each aspect of the controversy. 2) Discuss the classic experiment that the Harlows conducted on social development using monkeys. Compare their results to the effects that lack of social contact had on isolated and feral children discovered in Ohio (Isabelle),.
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    21)Mead describes the active, creative, and spontaneous part of the self as the ________.  A) I B)me C)id D)ego 22)According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, looking, and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the ________ stage. A)formal operational B)preoperational C)sensorimotor D)concrete operational 23)Jean Piaget's use of the term "operational" is.
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    41)People and groups that influence our orientation to life – our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors – are called ________. A)total institutions B)generalized others C)agents of socialization D)out-groups 42)Video games have begun to portray women in changing gender roles, such as Lara Croft, the adventure-seeking archaeologist, and Xena, Warrior Princess. This change in roles may.
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1)In Amsterdam, a 21-year-old prostitute is scantily clothed, exhibiting her attributes in a storefront, smiling at potential patrons as they walk by. Based on this mental image, which statement best describes what is in progress?   A) This is an example of social interaction. B)A misdemeanor is being committed. C)The prostitute is guilty.
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  1)In the "nature versus nurture" argument, what is another term for "nurture"? 2)What is the difference between feral children and "regular" children? 3)What was the physical makeup of the two "mother" monkeys the Harlows developed for their experiment? 4)What are the three elements of Cooley's looking-glass self concept? 5)What is the difference between significant.
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  6)What is language? 7)What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? 8)What is a "moral holiday"? 9)As opposed to a subculture, a counterculture ________. 10)The U.S. is made up of many different groups. This classifies it as a __________. 11)A set of values that are usually linked together to describe a larger whole, such as hard work, education,.
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  7)In Mead's theory of development, what is the difference between the "I" and the "me"? 8)What are the three elements of Freud's theory on the development of personality? 9)What are the four stages in Kohlberg's theory of development? 10)What were the six "global emotions" identified by anthropologist Paul Ekman? 11)What is another name for.
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    1)material culture     2)nonmaterial culture     3)ethnocentrism     4)symbolic culture       5)Sapir-Whorf hypothesis       6)negative sanction       7)positive sanction       8)moral holiday       9)folkways     10)subculture       11)counterculture       12)culture war     13)real culture     14)ideal culture     15)cultural diffusion       A)another term for nonmaterial culture B)a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture C)a reward or expression of approval for following a norm D)the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for.
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    41)Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors and most citizens are not wealthy. This condition characterizes the difference between ________ and ________.  A) material culture; symbolic culture B)ideal culture; real culture C)real culture; symbolic culture D)unrealistic culture; realistic culture 42)The anthropologist who gathered data on hundreds.
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  13)What is a culture war? 14)What is the difference between real and ideal culture? 15)Values, norms, and other cultural traits found in all societies are called ________. 16)What is natural selection? 17)What are two other names for sociobiology? 18)What is technology? 19)The main difference between traditional technology and what is classified as new technology is ________. 20)What.
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  7)What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? Provide at least two examples of how the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis impacts our perceptions of the world. 8)Folkways, mores, and taboos are types of norms. Describe the differences between them and give an example of each. 9)Monique, Alice, and Rebecca are high-priced call girls who work large conventions.
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  6)What is status inconsistency? Provide an example to illustrate a condition of status inconsistency. How might status inconsistency affect social interaction?   7)List the ten major social institutions and briefly explain the assumptions that functionalist and conflict theorists have about social institutions. Pick three social institutions and explain the basic needs that.
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  12)Why did Durkheim use the term "mechanical" to describe the intimate community that shared values?   13)Why are the Amish classified as a  society?   14)For a symbolic interactionist, what is the most important part of life in society? 15)What impact do stereotypes have on social interaction? 16)Give at least three examples of body language. 17)Why is.
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  4)In Down-to-Earth Sociology: "College Football as Social Structure," the statuses and role expectations of football players are described. If you go back to your high school, why would you know how to behave in classes, at lunch, in the hallways, and in after-school activities? What may pose a problem for.
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  13)Define the concepts "culture lag," and "new technology." Provide an example to illustrate how the introduction of a new technology in society produced a condition of culture lag. . 14)Why is it most common for the nonmaterial culture to lag behind material culture?   15) Describe the process of cultural diffusion and explain how.
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1)On the micro level, sociologists study matters such as race relations and multinational corporations; on the macro level, they study human interactions, such as the behavior seen on street corners and in doctor-patient relationships. 2)Commonsense ideas are the best topics to choose for sociological research, because they represent "what everyone knows." 3)The.
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  1)macrosociology 2)microsociology 3)status 4)social class 5)status symbols 6)master status 7)status inconsistency 8)social group 9)social institution 10)functional requisites 11)mechanical solidarity 12)organic solidarity 13) 14) 15)Thomas theorem A)a status that cuts across other statuses that an individual occupies B)the position that someone occupies is society or in a social group C)items used to identify the position that someone occupies in society D)the basic tasks that a society must fulfill if.
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1)Conflict theorists and functionalists would most likely focus on such things as social class and group relationships and would use the macrosociological approach. 2)The sociological significance of social structure is that it guides our behavior. 3)The broadest framework that determines what kind of people we will become is social status.   4)Ascribed status is.
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  1)When would a sociologist use the microsociological approach? 2)What is the sociological significance of social structure? 3)What are the elements that cluster together to determine social class? 4)What do status and role have in common? How are they different? 5)How are norms and status inconsistency related? 6)What is the sociological significance of roles?     .
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  1)Why is culture often taken for granted and considered as being "natural" for members of the society in which it is practiced? 2)What is ethnocentrism? Discuss how ethnocentrism can have both positive and negative consequences for group life. Provide examples to illustrate your discussion of the positive and negative consequences of.
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    31)Theorists who would argue that the mass media represents the interests of society's political and economic elites would be most aligned with the ________ perspective. A)functionalist B)symbolic interactionist C)structuralist D)conflict   32)According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend upon one another and become.
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  9)Why is there controversy over the source of emotions and whether they are products of biological instinct or products of socialization? 10) Discuss how mass media and media images affect gender socialization. 11) Identify the major agents of socialization in U.S. society today and briefly describe the role of each in the.
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  4)Why did Robert Edgerton advance the notion that cultures should be evaluated on their "quality of life" and not their own merit? How does this reject the concept of cultural relativism? 5)Are gestures universal? Defend your answer.   6)Identify and define the seven basic elements of nonmaterial culture.       .
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  1)What is the difference between material and nonmaterial culture? 2)Understanding a culture in its own terms, and from the perspective of those who practice that culture, is referred to as ________. 3)Why did anthropologist Robert Edgerton challenge unconditional cultural relativism? 4)Why is nonmaterial culture also called symbolic culture? 5)Why can gestures lead to misunderstanding.
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  6)Briefly summarize Freud's theory of personality and explain why most sociologists have negative reactions to his analysis. 7)Sigmund Freud's theory of personality – involving the three elements of id, ego, and superego – has been criticized as being unscientific. Why are Freud's three elements of personality less scientific than sociological factors.
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    11)Tiffany has a keen interest in the original theories of William Sheldon regarding the relationship between body type and juvenile delinquency. She has duplicated the study using Sheldon's original methodology to see if her results are compatible to Sheldon's. Such a study illustrates the concept of ________. A)validity B)reliability C)replication D)correlation 12)Which research method involves.
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    31)In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the stage in which the child has no sense of right or wrong and only personal needs to be satisfied is the ________ stage. A)amoral B)preconventional C)conventional D)postconventional 32)In developing his theory on moral development, when did Kohlberg claim most people reach the postconventional stage?  A) Most people reach.
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  11)Of all the social institutions, the mass media is one of the oldest.   12)The more industrialized a society becomes, the less formal its social institutions tend to be.   13)Mechanical solidarity and  both describe the most intimate societies that are personal and have close kinship connections.   14)Although social structure acts as a major control.
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  10)Compare and contrast Durkheim's classifications of society to the typology developed by Tönnies.   11)Erving Goffman introduced the idea that in everyday life we perform our assigned roles, and maintained that our social life was like a drama enacted on a stage. Discuss his approach to the study of everyday life. Include.
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