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  1) Discuss the classical causes of slavery, and explain how the justification for slavery was modified by the colonial landowners in the New World. 2)Define social stratification and discuss the four systems of social stratification. 3)Although the system of apartheid has been abandoned in South Africa, the quality of life for Africans.
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  1)Sociologically, why is gender especially significant? A)It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life. B)It permits a comparison to superior male qualities. C)It provides one group to lead, another to follow. D)It reinforces the teachings of Genesis. 2)Which statement is least accurate regarding sex and gender? A)The world offers unequal access to power,.
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  41)Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion most likely illustrates ________. A)the.
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    11)What is the background profile of most United States presidents? A)upper-class white men from traditional working families B)millionaire white men from families with old money C)individuals from a diverse pool of Americans who love their country D)politicians from new money families with upper-class backgrounds 12)Who was the sociologist who expanded upon the concept of the.
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  4)How does the class system in the United States resemble, and differ from, a caste system? 5) All societies use gender as a means of stratification. Discuss the consequences of this gender stratification. 6)How does the widespread ownership of stock in corporations by Americans obscure the relationship between Marx's two social classes,.
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  13)Why do the oil-rich countries of the Middle East fail to fit into the classifications of Most Industrialized or Industrializing? 14)Why did President McKinley explain America's conquest of the Philippines as being motivated by the desire to "educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them"?  How did this approach.
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)indentured service 2)ideology 3)j 4)ablution 5)apartheid 6)class system 7)bourgeoisie 8)proletariat 9)class consciousness 10)false class consciousness 11)power 12)prestige 13)meritocracy 14)divine right of kings 15)culture of poverty A)the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor are different from those of other people, and that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, which is perpetuated from one generation to the.
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  1)What are the three variables that contribute most to determining one's location in a system of social stratification based on class? 2)Based on the classical view, what were the three causes of slavery? 3)Why was slavery made inheritable when it was adopted by landowners in the American colonies? 4)What has been the unique.
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  8)In terms of cultural goals and means to attain them, describe each of the five modes of adaptation that Merton outlined in strain theory. 9)Based on the research of Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, what are the primary reasons urban male youth join gangs? 10)Discuss how conflict theorists explain deviance.   .
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  11)Based on the model of Gilbert and Kahl, the upper middle class is the class most shaped by education. 12)Bill Gates, Donald Trump, and others who have made fortunes in business, the stock market, entertainment, and sports in the 20th century are classified as being "blue bloods." 13)Of the six social classes.
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  13)What was Gaetano Mosca's primary argument for the reason why society is stratified? 14)According to Gerhard Lenski, what was the key to the development of stratification and class differences? 15)Why was the divine right of kings an effective means of maintaining the class differences between nobles and peasants? 16)What are the two most.
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1)Gender stratification refers to the ranking of males and females according to their access to power, property, and prestige based on their sex. 2)Sociologically, "gender" and "sex" are interchangeable terms that have virtually the same meaning. 3)Sociologists believe that if biology were the principal factor in determining human behavior, there would be.
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    21)Sally is employed as a computer programmer for the Ellis Corporation. She has a savings account of $15,000 and owns a few shares of Ellis stock. She thinks of herself as an investor rather than as a worker. Marx would maintain that Sally has experienced ________. A)false class consciousness B)misplaced commitment C)management ideology D)class.
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  31)Politically, the class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________. A)working class B)working poor C)lower-middle class D)underclass 32)What political party are members of the upper class more likely to belong? A)Republican B)Democrat C)Green D)Libertarian 33)What is the relationship between one's social class and.
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  1)Define social class.  Identify three criteria used to conceptualize social class placement. 2)Discuss power, and the ways in which functionalists and conflict theorists would disagree over the concept of power in a democracy. 3)What did C. Wright Mills mean by the term "power elite"? How do the power elite manage to maintain.
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  1)What are the three components Weber identified as being the key elements of determining one's social class? 2)What is the formula to determine one's wealth? 3)The median annual compensation package for CEOs is $10,100,000. What does this mean in relation to all CEO compensation packages? 4)What is the democratic facade? 5)What are the four.
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  11)Why does illegitimate opportunity structure qualify so well as an explanation of deviance in the urban slums? 12)Based on the research of Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, what are the primary reasons urban male youth join gangs? 13)How has criminal behavior among women changed in recent years, based on statistics from 1992 and 2008? 14)What are.
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  14)What are the three basic types of social mobility? 15)What is the likelihood that children will experience an increase in social class in comparison to their parents? 16)What is the standard used by the U.S. government to determine if a family is in poverty? 17)What are the three greatest predictors of poverty in.
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)property 2)wealth 3)income 4)power elite 5)status 6)status consistency 7)status inconsistency 8)upper middle class 9)lower middle class 10)underclass 11)intergenerational mobility 12)structural mobility 13)exchange mobility 14)poverty line 15)deferred gratification A)money received, usually from a job, business, or assets B)material possessions C)Gilbert and Kahl's social class category most shaped by advanced degrees D)about the same number of people moving up and down the social class ladder,.
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  16)Define recidivism and identify the recidivism rate for violent offenders three years after they have been released from prison. 17)What is the major difference between serial killers and mass murderers? 18)Since the new laws governing the death penalty were enacted following Furman v. Georgia, what is the breakdown of the offenders executed.
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  4)How do biological and psychological theories of deviance differ from sociological theories? What are some of the major theories aligned with these disciplines? 5)Briefly explain the focus of differential association, control, and labeling theories in the explanation of deviance. 6)How does Chambliss’s (1973) study of the Saints and the Roughnecks illustrate the.
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  5)What is meant by the term "status inconsistency"? What consequences have been linked to being status inconsistent? 6)Professors of English are usually paid much less than professors of business. Apply your understanding of status inconsistency to predict the politics of English professors and the themes of books they prefer. 7)Describe Erik Wright's.
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    1)What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class? A)ethnicity, race, sex B)wealth, power, prestige C)sex, power, education D)occupation, neighborhood, wealth 2)Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?  A) none, as society is classless B)two C)four D)six 3)When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to ________. A)the property that.
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    11)Mahatma is a member of India's Brahman caste. What is Mahatma's most likely occupation?  A) a general in the army B)a Hindu priest C)a skilled painter D)a water boy 12)Raul is a member of the Kshatriya who recently engaged in an intimate act with a member of the Dalit. Raul has seen the error.
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1)Defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class. 2)Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class. 3)Since 1970, the richest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S..
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  10)Discuss Gaetano Mosca's argument for the reason why society is stratified. 11)Discuss how elites maintain stratification, and point out the benefits and liabilities of each method. 12)What are the three models of global stratification discussed by the author? Why did the author choose one particular model over the others?     .
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  1)In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been ________. A)race B)income C)education D)gender 2)The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________. A)social stratification B)social networking C)the diversification of society D)multiculturalism 3)In which.
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  7)How does Weber's view of social class differ from that of Marx's view? 8)According to the functionalists, stratification is universal. Discuss the reasons Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore concluded that stratification is inevitable. 9)Melvin Tumin pointed out flaws in the functionalist position to explain social stratification. What were his three major arguments?     .
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  11)Dominance behavior, such as winning a game, produce higher levels of __________. A)testosterone B)aggressive behavior C)progesterone D)stress 12)In what society were women and men often considered social equals? A)industrial B)pastoral and horticultural C)agricultural D)hunting and gathering 13)What classification or terminology do sociologists apply to women that describe their inability to gain equal access to power, property, and prestige?  A) the.
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  13)What are some characteristics of the U.S. workforce regarding women? 14)What is the "testosterone bonus"? 15)What is the glass ceiling? 16)Identify reasons discussed in your text as to why most women start at lower salaries than men after college graduation.   .
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  1)How would a sociologist define deviance? How does the sociological definition of deviance differ from commonly held assumptions about deviance? 2)Why are sanctions an important part of understanding deviance? 3)Discuss the three theories used to explain deviance most aligned with biological explanations?     .
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  10)Discuss the three reasons social class has such an impact on one's health.   11)In child rearing, what is the difference between punishment and supervision of children as it relates to social class? 12)Identify the three types of social mobility and distinguish the differences between them.     .
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)deviance 2)social order 3)social control 4)negative sanction 5)positive sanction 6)genetic predisposition 7)personality disorder 8)degradation ceremony 9)techniques of neutralization 10)strain theory 11)white collar crime 12)recidivism rate 13)capital punishment 14)serial murder 15)medicalization of deviance A)an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction to a formal one B)Robert Merton's theory based on cultural goals and the institutionalized means.
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  21)What is the practice of suttee? A)permitting only men the right to vote B)requiring women to cover their faces in public C)passing legislation that legally makes women inferior to men D)burning the living widow with the body of her dead husband 22)In Pakistan, Jordan, and Kurdistan, a woman who has brought disgrace to her family.
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  8)What were the four social classes identified by Erik Wright? 9)In Marx's model of social class, what were the major classes? 10)What are the social classes proposed by Joseph Kahl and Dennis Gilbert in their six-class model that revised Weber's original model? 11)By definition and example, who are the nouveau riche? 12)Why do members.
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  6)What did George Murdock discover to be the four most male-dominated occupations among the 324 societies he examined? 7)What are the primary reasons for kidnapping young women in many nations throughout the world? 8)How do feminists characterize female circumcision? 9)What is feminism? 10)In the 1990s, researchers found that almost twice as many women as.
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    31)Of the following methods, which would be the best way to preserve a stratification system? A)demonstrating violation of law through public punishment B)establishing a well-trained and highly armed police force C)controlling ideas, information, technology through ideology D)allowing brute force and coercion to keep dissidents in their place 32)The Acme Corporation has adopted "Tiny Brothers" as.
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  21)What is Durkheim's term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that guide their behavior?  A) compurgation B)primogeniture C)negative affective state D)anomie 22)Erik Wright revised Marx's concept of social classes by regarding some people as simultaneously occupying more than one class. He termed their positions in the class structure ________. A)status.
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  41)Numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the United States? A)white B)African American C)Latino D)Native American 42)The trend in the United States in which most poor families are headed by women is called ________. A)the male supremacy B)the economic genderization C)the feminization of poverty D)the culture of poverty 43)________ are the most likely segment of.
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1)Racism has traditionally been the cause of slavery. 2)Indentured servitude is a gray area between contract labor and slavery. 3)In a caste system, social stratification is based on ascribed status. 4)The replacement of India’s caste system with a social class system is an example of the strains in today’s global stratification system. 5)Because of.
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  7)Why did a caste-like system exist in America following the Civil War, especially in the South? 8)What were the three estates in the estate stratification system of the middle ages? 9)What single factor controlled one's social class, according to Karl Marx? 10)Who were the lumpenproletariat? 11)According to Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore, how are.
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  11)Melvin Tumin advanced the concept of merit as the primary factor in determining social class. 12)Gaetano Mosca emphasized that every society is stratified based on power. 13)The key to effectively maintaining social stratification involves the privileged class controlling ideas and information rather than depending on the use of force. 14)Although it is expensive,.
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  1)What is the difference between sex and gender; and, sociologically, why is gender significant? 2)Define primary and secondary sex characteristics, and give specific examples of each. 3)The sociological significance of gender is that it is a device by which society _______ its members. 4)What was the final outcome in the life of "Brenda,".
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  11)What are the most common characteristics shared by the American prison population? 12)What are the similarities and differences between serial killers and mass murderers? Why do each of these groups present such a potential danger to society? 13)Discuss the medicalization of deviance and how Thomas Szasz would respond to this concept. 14)Given Durkheim's.
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  6)Based on control theory, what are the four qualities that determine one's bond with society? 7)What is the purpose of a degradation ceremony? 8)What was the single greatest difference that explains why members of their community perceived the "Roughnecks" and "Saints" differently? 9)According to Merton's strain theory, what are the four typologies of.
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    41)Which of the following nations fails to fit into the stratification typology of Most Industrialized Nations, Industrializing Nations, and Least Industrialized Nations?  A) Kuwait B)Russia C)Australia D)South Africa 42)What was the purpose of colonialism as it was practiced by the major European powers during eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries? A)to exploit the annexed nation's people.
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  31)In which profession have women made the greatest change in earning professional degrees compared to the number of degrees conferred to men? A)engineering B)psychiatry C)agriculture D)dentistry 32)Of the following choices, the doctorate conferred with the greatest percentage of women recipients is ________, while the doctorate with the greatest percentage to men is ________. A)social science; agriculture B)biological.
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  11)Of nearly 1 billion adults worldwide who are illiterate, two-thirds are women. 12)Promotion of feminism and the rights of women in the Least Industrialized Nations has resulted in the practice of honor killing being outlawed throughout the world. 13)The fact that women are twice as likely to die after coronary bypass surgery.
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