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41.In contrast to Plato, but anticipating today’s cognitive psychology, Aristotle defined soul in terms of: a.personal immortality b.a separate substance (res cogitans) c.the transcendental Form it resembles d.the life functions it carries out 42.According to Aristotle, people could flourish (achieve eudaemonia) only if they: a.underwent rigorous education in ethics b.lived in the right sort of society c.were innately.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 5 1. What is the psychological term for originality or the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way? a. Formal intelligence    b. Creativity   c. Informal intelligence d. Empirical  reasoning    e. Field independent style 2. What is the psychological term for experience and cognitive operations drawn from everyday.
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  9.4.     Short-answer questions 1. Which European country has the highest suicide rate among Western nations? 2. Which Asian country has the highest suicide rate among Asian nations? 3. Personality disorders are viewed as enduring patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviates markedly from what? 4. It was found that about one-half of people.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.During what evolutionary psychologists call the Era of Evolutionary Adaptation, it appears that H. Sapiens most important adaptation was not upright posture or a tool using grip, but rather _________. a.written language b.the invention of trade and money c.folk psychology d.the democratic state 2. According to XAM”s Blog (forward to the past), in.
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  7.4.   Short-answer questions 1.  Do incarceration rates provide an accurate picture of violent behavior across nations? 2. How is premarital sex viewed in nontraditional cultural settings? 3.What is Holy Anorexia? 4.Along with some psychological factors that may predispose an individual to develop an eating disorder, there are several social factors contributing to the formation.
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  8.3.   True/false questions 1. A study found that more than 50 percent of Southeast Asian parents reported having used physical punishment of their children at some point. 2. An early fundamental comparative study called The Six Cultures Study of Socialization began in 1954 and involved investigators from three universities. 3.  Cross-culturally, girls mature.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. The key economic development that appeared during the High Middle Ages (1,000-1350) was: a.The first large sailing ships used for trade b.the invention of smelting and trading Bronze c.the first autonomous European cities d.all of these 2.The rise of autonomous cities in Europe was a historical turning point because: a. the citizens of.
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  12.3.  True/false questions 1. In the United States, African Americans have the highest mortality on most causes of death, along with Native Americans. 2. Younger and unmarried immigrants (age and marital status) are more likely to be registered voters in the United States. 3. A study of Americans with both Japanese and European.
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51. Whig histories of science are typically internalist, seeing science as: a.open disciplines with ill defined problems that are largely influenced by social and historical events. b.   self-contained disciplines solving well-defined problems by the rational use of the scientific method and unaffected by social/historical events. c.not scientific at all, but simple cultural constructions.
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9.1.     Multiple choice questions 1. What is the name for recurrent, locally specific patterns of aberrant behavior and troubling experience that are generally limited to specific societies or areas and indicate repetitive sets of symptoms? a. Painful syndromes b.Culture-bound syndromes c. Schizophrenia d. Abnormal symptoms e. Universal syndromes 2. Symptoms of psychological disorders that are observable in.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 3 1.The propensity to resolve discrepancies between pre-existing schemas and new information in the direction of assimilation rather than accommodation, even at the expense of distorting the information itself is called _________________. a. post-hoc error   b. accommodation error   c. bidirectional causation   d. Barnum effect             e. assimilation bias 2..
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  10.3.True/false questions 1. Evolutionary psychologists suggest that values allow human groups to adjust to their environments. They become embedded in cultures and passed on to new generations. 2. The term collectivist refers to a pattern by which a country scores low on the measure of power distance and high on the measure.
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  11.4.  Short-answer questions 1. What is cultural embeddedness? 2. What is the difference between conformity and conformism? 3. What phenomena would be considered the opposite of social loafing? 4. How are “individualism” and “conformity” related? 5. The text discusses the distinctions between primary and secondary control as it relates to conformity.  Name a country (cited.
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  11.2.   Multiple choice questions (comprehension and application) 1. According to the old Indian caste system, an individual’s social status was primarily ________________. a. achieved in adolescence b. ascribed for boys, but achieved for girls c. achievedin adulthood d. ascribed e. achieved in childhood 2. In terms of cultural context, Western countries are typically defined as _____________. a. high-context.
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  10.2.Multiple choice questions (comprehension and application) 1. What type of values is associated with exercising control over society and exploiting its natural resources? a. Mastery values b. Democratic values c. Liberal values d. Conservative values e. Harmony values 2. Individuals who believe in the status quo, advocate self-discipline, and care about social order and tradition share what.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 11 1. A form of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes and/or behavior in order to adhere to existing social norms is called ________________. a. social loafing  b. social facilitation  c. group polarization d. authoritarian power  e. conformity 2. What is the psychological term for the tendency.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 9 1. Symptoms of psychological disorders that are observable in practically all cultures are called ______________________. a. peripheral  b.culture-bound  c. medical  d. central  e. professional 2. What is the repressive adaptive style in coping with illness? a. An individual’s desire to seek immediate help     b. An individual’s desire to.
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  9.2. Multiple choice questions (comprehension and application) 1. According to international statistics, suicide is the lowest in _______________ countries. a. East European b. Muslim c. Protestant d. Hindu e. West European 2. As a board certified professional, you diagnosed your client, a 22-year-old man, with “demonic possession.”  Upon submitting your claim to his insurance company for payment,.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 4 1. Studies suggest that individuals from hunter and gatherer cultures have _______ rates of color blindness than/as individuals from agricultural cultures. a. lower   b. the same  c. higher    d. significantly higher  e. highly unusual 2. _________ is a quiet and relaxed state of tranquility in which a.
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  8.2.    Multiple choice questions (comprehension and application) 1. More than 3,300 adolescents from 12 countries responded to the question about how many children they would love to have in the future. In most countries, on average, adolescents preferred: a. to have one child b. to have between three and four children c. to have.
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8.1.    Multiple choice questions 1. What is the common psychological label for the developmental period during which a child has reached sexual maturity but has not yet taken on the rights and responsibilities of the adult status? a. Immaturity b. Adolescence c. Juvenile behavior d. Early adulthood e. Youth 2.What is the common term for the developmental.
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  11.3.  True/false questions 1. The rules of greeting and introducing oneself to other people appear similar across various ethnic groups. 2. Overall, collectivist cultures maintain weaker systems of sanctions and rewards related to group behavior as compared to individualist cultures. 3. Compared to other national groups, Americans score lower on tests and experiments.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 10 1. Perceived predominant behavioral and psychological features and traits common in most people of a nation are labeled as  “_______________.” a. psychological profile   b. general personality trait   c. national character d. specific personality trait      e. social profile 2. How do professionals call psychological tensions caused by the perceived.
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11. Studies show that collectivism is positively correlated with what style of parenting? a. Democratic style b. Inconsistent style c. Abusive, violent style d. Equality-oriented e. Authoritarian style 12. Jean Piaget’s comparative studies have been criticized because of some controversy related to the age of his subjects.  What specifically did this criticism refer to? a. There were.
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11-13. Match the group to their values: 11. Greek Bronze Age warriors a. Unit coordination and egalitarian ethos 12. Phalanx of soldiers called hoplites b. extreme ethos of the polis 13. Spartans       c.  individual glory won in battle 14.The city-state (polis) that carried Greek ideas to their extreme was: a.Sparta b.Athens c.Melos d.Carthage 15.The democratic life of the Greek.
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  9.3.   True/false questions 1. In Psychology, “folk beliefs” refer to common assumptions about normal and abnormal psychological functioning. 2. A detailed description of known diseases and injuries called the DSM-III is published by the World Health Organization, a branch of the United Nations. 3. In Caribbean cultures, symptoms that involve a belief that.
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31.To the positivist, a shortcoming of the causal perspective or explanation is: a.not having an adequate account of causation itself b.avoidance of metaphysics c.avoidance of looking for truth d.over-emphasis on laws of nature 32.The perspective on explanation that focuses on the social context of explanations is the: a.epistemic c.pragmatic b.unification d.causal 33-35.Match model of explanation to description. 33.covering law a.analysis of.
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21.Who was the Archaic Greek Philosopher that in essence told his student, “This is how I see things- how I believe things are. Try to improve upon my teaching.” a. Thales b. Achilles c. Elgin Marbles d. Leahey 22.Many of psychology’s intellectual roots can be traced to Ancient Greece, yet a concept we today have,.
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31.Of Aristotle’s 4 causes, which one remained part of modern natural science? a.spiritual cause c.efficient cause b.formal cause d.final cause 32.In Aristotle’s treatment of human beings, what is the unique function of the human soul, or mind? a.knowledge of universal truths b.sexual reproduction c.conscious experience d.movement (i.e., behavior) 33.Aristotle distinguished between memory and knowledge.  This distinction reflects the modern distinction.
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21.An important step toward scientific psychology taken by the Islamic faculty psychologists was their: a.preservation of Aristotle's ideas b.addition of new faculties to Aristotle's list c.attempt to combine faculty psychology with brain structures d.introduction of experimentation 22.According to the Medieval philosopher-physicians such as Ibn-Sina, the only mental function which was not to be explained in.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology. Quiz on Chapter 2 1. What is the name of the type of survey in which the researcher’s personal impact is very small because there is no direct communication between the respondent and the interviewer? a. Content-analysis    b. Direct survey   c. Focus group methodology d. Indirect survey  e. Psycho-biographical research 2. The.
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  10.4.   Short-answer questions 1. Imagine that a store-owner is experiencing an unpleasant state of emotions caused by a mismatch (disparity) between his belief that anger is inappropriate and his angry reaction to the rude behavior of a foreign tourist. What is the psychological term for this state? 2.  The Collectivist pattern of.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.In a disturbing world, people seek freedom from disturbance. During such at time the Hellenistic schools of philosophy shared the goal of: a. attempting to seize power and control over all the other Greek cities. b.   rejecting ataraxia while focusing on economics and trade. c.      creating and teaching a therapy.
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12.1.  Multiple choice questions 1. An individual who has left his or her native country and is unwilling or unable to return to it because of persecution or fear of persecution (because of race, religion, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion) is called a(n) _____________. a. colonist b. settler c. explorer d..
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  7.3.   True/false questions 1. Carl Jung as one of the most prominent followers of the psychoanalytic tradition, was among the first psychologists to criticize the ethnocentric worldview of Western psychology. 2. Maslow's theory of motivation suggests that lower-level motives cannot be activated until higher-level ones are satisfied. 3. Jay is looking for a.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 12 1. An individual who has left his or her native country and is unwilling or unable to return to it because of persecution or fear of persecution (because of race, religion, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion) is called a(n) ______________. a. colonist .
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50-52Match Aristotelian soul to its function. 50.vegetative soul a.sensation 51.animal soul b.reason 52.human soul c.nutrition 53.You buy and are about to watch The Avengers movie on DVD. Which of the following is the best example of an efficient causal explanation of a DVD of  the movie The Avengers? a.A laser cuts divots into the surface.
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41-43.  Logical Positivism:  Match type of term to a suitable example 41.observation a.equals 42.theoretical b.weight at sea level 43.mathematical c.mass 44.Which of the following is the BEST example of an operational definition? a.Atoms are the smallest particles of matter. b.Intelligence is a score on an IQ test. c.The superego is the moral component of personality. d.Neurotics tend to.
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11.When two scientific theories clash over their ability to explain some phenomena there are two possible outcomes. One of these outcomes is when one theory is right and the other is wrong and the wrong theory is discarded. This outcome is known as: a. replacement b. falsification c. naturalism d. reduction 12.In terms of.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 8 1. The term ________ refers to the rituals that recognize an individual’s movement from one status to another. a. means of access   b. check points   c. rites of passage    d. pledges   e. written tests 2. Critics of Piaget’s theory maintain that he provoked a temptation to interpret.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 6 1. Which of the following terms refers to the process of identification, description and explanation of an emotional expression? a. Stress reduction   b. Display rules   c. Emotion recognition  d. Feeling rules e. Intellectual challenge 2. What is the term for an individual assessment of emotions according to certain.
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10.1.Multiple choice questions 1. How do psychologists call psychological tensions caused by the perceived mismatch between attitudes and behavior? a. attribution b. cognitive power c. frustration d. stereotype e. cognitive dissonance 2. The tendency to be closed-minded, rigid, and inflexible in one's opinions and subsequent behavior is called “_____________.” a. dogmatism b. attitude c. cognitive dissonance d. egalitarianism e. skepticism 3. The generalized.
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Cross-Cultural Psychology. Quiz on Chapter 1 1. ________ is the study that seeks to discover systematic relationships between culture and psychological variables. a. Multiculturalism   b. Cross-cultural psychology  c. Cultural relativism   d. Cultural psychology e. Cultural absolutism 2. If a researcher examines the degree to which people in a certain country accept inequality between the.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. While the conceptual foundations of psychology came from philosophy, the inspiration for the creation of an independent science of psychology came from: a. Mathematics b. Biology c. Chemistry d. Religion 2. Isaac Newton’s critics argued that he never explained how gravity actually worked. Newton’s response was “Hypotheses non fingo”, which essentially means: a.I.
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  12.4.  Short-answer questions 1. Psychologists have different views on when an individual’s life ends. What is the official guideline or principle that defines the end of human life in the United States? 2. Studies show that a key source in the transmission of AIDS in Africa is: 3. As a managing editor of.
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  8.4.   Short-answer questions 1. Across cultures, a child’s early temperament is primarily a function of ______________. 2. “What major factors contribute to the quality of life? 3. In Hinduism life is represented circularly. Explain what it is. 4. Name one life stage that is not necessarily recognized in all countries (but recognized in relatively.
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  Cross-Cultural Psychology Quiz on Chapter 7 1. Researching for his theory of self-actualization, Maslow collected a sample consisted primarily of_________. a. Chinese and Japanese    b. African-American and European-American c. Asian Hispanic    d. Europeans and European-Americans   e. Russian, French, and Hungarian 2. What do psychologists call the type of achievement motivation that directs a person.
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11.Identifying Aristotle’s concept of mind with the Christian soul presented difficulties, because unlike the Christian soul, mind: a.represented the essence of the individual person b.was impersonal, containing only universal concepts c.was regarded as immortal d.was located in the heart instead of the head 12.More generally, Aristotle’s philosophy was difficult to merge with Christian theology because: a.Aristotle’s.
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11.1.Multiple choice questions 1. Actions that reward those who follow the norms and reprove those who are deviant are called _________________. a. roles b. sanctions c. groupthink d. social loafing e. social facilitation 2. A form of social interaction in which individuals or groups attempt to maximize their own outcomes, often at the expense of others is.
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21.In terms of two scientific theories clashing with each other to explain phenomena, which of the following is an example of reduction: a. Mendelian genetics to molecular genetics. b.Ptolemaic view of the solar system to the Copernican system. c.Copernican system to Mendelian theory. d.Whig theory to epistemology. 22.If a scientist believes that his or her.
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