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  1)In the "nature versus nurture" argument, what is another term for "nurture"? 2)What is the difference between feral children and "regular" children? 3)What was the physical makeup of the two "mother" monkeys the Harlows developed for their experiment? 4)What are the three elements of Cooley's looking-glass self concept? 5)What is the difference between significant.
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  9)Why is there controversy over the source of emotions and whether they are products of biological instinct or products of socialization? 10) Discuss how mass media and media images affect gender socialization. 11) Identify the major agents of socialization in U.S. society today and briefly describe the role of each in the.
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  7)In Mead's theory of development, what is the difference between the "I" and the "me"? 8)What are the three elements of Freud's theory on the development of personality? 9)What are the four stages in Kohlberg's theory of development? 10)What were the six "global emotions" identified by anthropologist Paul Ekman? 11)What is another name for.
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  13)What are the characteristics of a "peer group"? 14)List four of the seven agents of socialization discussed in the textbook. 15)What is the manifest function of school? 16)In school, what is the "corridor curriculum"? 17)A mental rehearsal for some future activity, or the attempt to learn to play a role before entering it, is.
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1)Identical twins share exactly the same genetic heredity. 2)Without language there can be no culture, no shared way of life. 3)The research of the Harlows demonstrated that the key to mother-child bonding is the ability of the mother to provide food and other nutrition to the offspring. 4)Mead's theory of personal development is.
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  12) Trace the development of sociology as an academic discipline in North America from the late 1800s until the mid 20th century. 13)Describe the major differences between basic (pure) sociology and applied sociology. 14)Social life can be interpreted from one of three major theoretical frameworks. Describe the major points of each framework..
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  1)Define the sociological perspective (or imagination), cite its components, and explain how they were defined by C. Wright Mills. 2)What four social sciences does the author cite as those that are most closely aligned with sociology? What is the fundamental emphasis of each?   3)Briefly describe the four factors that contributed to the.
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)social environment 2)feral children 3)socialization 4)id 5)ego 6)super ego 7)culture within us 8)agents of socialization 9)hidden curriculum 10)corridor curriculum 11)anticipatory socialization 12)degradation ceremony 13)resocialization 14)life course 15)adultolescence A)the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group, as well as the knowledge, attitude, skills, values, and actions thought to be appropriate for them B)people or groups that affect our self-concept,.
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  6)The prevailing ideas in society, the things that "everyone knows" as true, are collectively referred to as ________. 7)What is the scientific method? 8)Herbert Spencer suggested that to help lower classes is to interfere with the natural process of "survival of the fittest." This concept was the key element in his view.
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    11)When on "moral holiday," norms are expected to be broken. 12)The Ten Commandments, the U.S. Constitution, and the penal code of a major city are all examples of folkways. 13)By definition, subcultures are a threat to the mainstream culture. 14)When the Mormons first established their settlement in Utah, they would have been classified.
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    11)The process by which we develop a sense of self, referred to as the "looking-glass self," was developed by ________.  A) George Herbert Mead B)William I. Thomas C)Charles Horton Cooley D)Robert K. Merton 12)Our image of how others see us is called the ________. A)id B)super ego C)libido  D) self 13)Professor Zale bases her self-concept as a professor.
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  4)Trace the historical development of sociology in Europe, beginning with an explanation of positivism. Conclude the answer with a brief description of the contributions of Comte, Spencer, Durkheim, Marx, and Weber. 5)Explain the development of social Darwinism, as well as the differences between this concept and the philosophical ideals held by.
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    41)Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors and most citizens are not wealthy. This condition characterizes the difference between ________ and ________.  A) material culture; symbolic culture B)ideal culture; real culture C)real culture; symbolic culture D)unrealistic culture; realistic culture 42)The anthropologist who gathered data on hundreds.
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  6)Briefly summarize Freud's theory of personality and explain why most sociologists have negative reactions to his analysis. 7)Sigmund Freud's theory of personality – involving the three elements of id, ego, and superego – has been criticized as being unscientific. Why are Freud's three elements of personality less scientific than sociological factors.
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  8)Summarize what Weber meant by Verstehen and what Durkheim meant by social facts. How does a sociologist utilize both concepts? 9)How did Max Weber explain the emergence of the "spirit of capitalism"? 10)What was Weber's view on how one's personal values should affect social research? Has his view been adopted as the.
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  1)The author's experience in Morocco, which included the absence of women from public positions, intense stares directed at him, pushing and shoving at the train station, and total disregard for sanitation by food vendors, left the author with a profound sense of ________. A)ethnocentrism B)culture shock C)cultural relativity D)stereotyping 2)Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material.
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    31)In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the stage in which the child has no sense of right or wrong and only personal needs to be satisfied is the ________ stage. A)amoral B)preconventional C)conventional D)postconventional 32)In developing his theory on moral development, when did Kohlberg claim most people reach the postconventional stage?  A) Most people reach.
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1)A group's way of thinking, including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world, is classified as material culture. 2)Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us. 3)There is nothing "natural" about material or nonmaterial culture. 4)Ethnocentrism is purely a negative trait with no.
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  1)Why is culture often taken for granted and considered as being "natural" for members of the society in which it is practiced? 2)What is ethnocentrism? Discuss how ethnocentrism can have both positive and negative consequences for group life. Provide examples to illustrate your discussion of the positive and negative consequences of.
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    41)People and groups that influence our orientation to life – our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors – are called ________. A)total institutions B)generalized others C)agents of socialization D)out-groups 42)Video games have begun to portray women in changing gender roles, such as Lara Croft, the adventure-seeking archaeologist, and Xena, Warrior Princess. This change in roles may.
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    11)Symbols can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. This is referred to as ________.  A) technology B)gesture C)language D)pattern 12)All of the following statements are accurate regarding language, EXCEPT for which one?  A) Language is the primary method people use to communicate with one.
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    1)material culture     2)nonmaterial culture     3)ethnocentrism     4)symbolic culture       5)Sapir-Whorf hypothesis       6)negative sanction       7)positive sanction       8)moral holiday       9)folkways     10)subculture       11)counterculture       12)culture war     13)real culture     14)ideal culture     15)cultural diffusion       A)another term for nonmaterial culture B)a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture C)a reward or expression of approval for following a norm D)the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for.
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  1)What is the difference between material and nonmaterial culture? 2)Understanding a culture in its own terms, and from the perspective of those who practice that culture, is referred to as ________. 3)Why did anthropologist Robert Edgerton challenge unconditional cultural relativism? 4)Why is nonmaterial culture also called symbolic culture? 5)Why can gestures lead to misunderstanding.
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  1)Sociologists use two levels of analysis. List the two and discuss the focus of each. What level of analysis accompanies the three theoretical perspectives? 2)What is the sociological significance of social structure? Give examples of social structure in this course and how it affects your understanding of sociology. 3)What is social class?.
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    41)The anthropologist recognized for his work on personal space was ________. A)Talcott Parsons B)Edward Hall C)William I. Thomas D)Robert K. Merton 42)Which of the following statements best describes how stereotypes affect our interaction with others when we first meet?  A) Stereotypes are usually based on objective facts and hold true. B)Stereotypes are rarely important in social.
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  7)What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? Provide at least two examples of how the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis impacts our perceptions of the world. 8)Folkways, mores, and taboos are types of norms. Describe the differences between them and give an example of each. 9)Monique, Alice, and Rebecca are high-priced call girls who work large conventions.
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    31)Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on which value, as defined by sociologist Robin Williams?  A) efficiency and practicality B)achievement and success C)group superiority D)freedom 32)The sociologist who identified ten underlying core values of American society was.
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  1)When would a sociologist use the microsociological approach? 2)What is the sociological significance of social structure? 3)What are the elements that cluster together to determine social class? 4)What do status and role have in common? How are they different? 5)How are norms and status inconsistency related? 6)What is the sociological significance of roles?     .
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  13)Define the concepts "culture lag," and "new technology." Provide an example to illustrate how the introduction of a new technology in society produced a condition of culture lag. . 14)Why is it most common for the nonmaterial culture to lag behind material culture?   15) Describe the process of cultural diffusion and explain how.
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  6)What is language? 7)What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? 8)What is a "moral holiday"? 9)As opposed to a subculture, a counterculture ________. 10)The U.S. is made up of many different groups. This classifies it as a __________. 11)A set of values that are usually linked together to describe a larger whole, such as hard work, education,.
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  11)Of all the social institutions, the mass media is one of the oldest.   12)The more industrialized a society becomes, the less formal its social institutions tend to be.   13)Mechanical solidarity and  both describe the most intimate societies that are personal and have close kinship connections.   14)Although social structure acts as a major control.
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  4)Why did Robert Edgerton advance the notion that cultures should be evaluated on their "quality of life" and not their own merit? How does this reject the concept of cultural relativism? 5)Are gestures universal? Defend your answer.   6)Identify and define the seven basic elements of nonmaterial culture.       .
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  1)The sociologist who studied feral children, including the abused child Isabelle who was discovered in 1938 living in an attic with her deaf-mute mother, was ________. A)Michael Burawoy B)Kingsley Davis C)Wilbert Moore D)Herbert Gans 2)In the "nature versus nurture" argument regarding socialization, the "nurture" component refers to ________.  A) heredity B)the social environment C)instinct D)genetic composition 3)Which of the.
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  13)Name the first three American universities to develop a sociology curriculum in the late 19th century. 14)What did C. Wright Mills mean by the term "power elite"? 15)Sociologically, what is the meaning of "symbols"? 16)Robert Merton's two classifications of function, both of which can help a system adjust, are called ________ and ________.
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  1) Discuss the "nature versus nurture" argument and provide support for each aspect of the controversy. 2) Discuss the classic experiment that the Harlows conducted on social development using monkeys. Compare their results to the effects that lack of social contact had on isolated and feral children discovered in Ohio (Isabelle),.
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  10)Explain how value contradiction can be a major force for social change. Provide an example of how a value contradiction resulted in social change. 11)What is a culture war? Are culture wars beneficial to society? 12)Edward Wilson believes that sociobiology explains human behavior more accurately than sociology does. Wilson claims that human.
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    11)Sociologists have clearly demonstrated that most emotions are universal and are "products of our genes." 12)Parents are the first significant others to teach children about the fundamental symbolic division of the world. 13)The research of Melissa Milkie demonstrated that there is little difference today in how boys and girls interpret the cultural.
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    21)Mead describes the active, creative, and spontaneous part of the self as the ________.  A) I B)me C)id D)ego 22)According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, looking, and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the ________ stage. A)formal operational B)preoperational C)sensorimotor D)concrete operational 23)Jean Piaget's use of the term "operational" is.
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  7)Why do we lose rights to make certain decisions about our own behavior when we join a group?   8)How do social institutions affect the people of a society?   9)Name five of the ten social institutions discussed in the text.   10)What are the five functional requisites that social institutions provide?   11)How would the division of.
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  12)Why did Durkheim use the term "mechanical" to describe the intimate community that shared values?   13)Why are the Amish classified as a  society?   14)For a symbolic interactionist, what is the most important part of life in society? 15)What impact do stereotypes have on social interaction? 16)Give at least three examples of body language. 17)Why is.
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  1)What is social location? 2)In addressing the sociological perspective, what did C. Wright Mills mean by "history"? 3)The social science closely related to sociology, which traditionally focuses on the study of tribal peoples, is called ________. 4)What is the primary difference between the social and natural sciences? 5)The two goals of a scientific discipline.
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1)In Amsterdam, a 21-year-old prostitute is scantily clothed, exhibiting her attributes in a storefront, smiling at potential patrons as they walk by. Based on this mental image, which statement best describes what is in progress?   A) This is an example of social interaction. B)A misdemeanor is being committed. C)The prostitute is guilty.
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    31)Theorists who would argue that the mass media represents the interests of society's political and economic elites would be most aligned with the ________ perspective. A)functionalist B)symbolic interactionist C)structuralist D)conflict   32)According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend upon one another and become.
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      11)John and Doug are both full professors in a state university, holding doctorate degrees from Ivy League schools. Both make about the same salary and enjoy a similar sense of prestige in the community and on campus. Based only on this information, what do John and Doug have in common? A)They.
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    21)Clarisse and Cindy are honor students who conduct themselves in a mature manner at the Christian college they attend in Philadelphia. This year for spring break, they decided to go to Cancun, where they auditioned for the "Girls Gone Wild" video. Which statement best describes the probable reason behind the.
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)sociological perspective   2)society 3)the scientific method 4)positivism 5)bourgeoisie 6)social integration 7)replication 8)values 9)basic sociology 10)applied sociology 11)theory 12)micro analysis 13)macro analysis 14)globalization 15)globalization of capitalism A)repeating a study in order to test its findings B)Marx's term for capitalists, those who own the means of production C)investing to make profits within a rational system becoming the globe’s dominant economic system D)an examination of small-scale.
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  13)What is a culture war? 14)What is the difference between real and ideal culture? 15)Values, norms, and other cultural traits found in all societies are called ________. 16)What is natural selection? 17)What are two other names for sociobiology? 18)What is technology? 19)The main difference between traditional technology and what is classified as new technology is ________. 20)What.
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1)Conflict theorists and functionalists would most likely focus on such things as social class and group relationships and would use the macrosociological approach. 2)The sociological significance of social structure is that it guides our behavior. 3)The broadest framework that determines what kind of people we will become is social status.   4)Ascribed status is.
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