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  14)What are background assumptions? Describe what happens when background assumptions are violated. What does the ethnomethodological study of background assumptions tell us about the nature of social life? 15)Explain what W. I. and Dorothy S. Thomas meant when they said, “If people define situations as real, they are real in their.
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    41)In experimental research, the variable that is the cause of change (the independent variable) must precede that which is changed (the dependent variable). This condition is called ________. A)reliability B)rapport C)random selection D)temporal priority 42)There is a high correlation between the number of Americans who pay income tax in the month of April and the.
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  6)What is status inconsistency? Provide an example to illustrate a condition of status inconsistency. How might status inconsistency affect social interaction?   7)List the ten major social institutions and briefly explain the assumptions that functionalist and conflict theorists have about social institutions. Pick three social institutions and explain the basic needs that.
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  12)What is the difference between a social network and a clique? 13)How did recent internet studies on social networking compare to Milgram’s 1967 conclusions? 14)How do social networks perpetuate inequality? 15)In what group is a coalition impossible? 16)What is the relationship between group size, intimacy, and stability? 17)What are the two types of leaders? 18)What are.
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  4)In Down-to-Earth Sociology: "College Football as Social Structure," the statuses and role expectations of football players are described. If you go back to your high school, why would you know how to behave in classes, at lunch, in the hallways, and in after-school activities? What may pose a problem for.
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1)The idea that efficiency and practical results should dominate human affairs is referred to as "rationality." 2)According to Karl Marx, capitalism was responsible for breaking the bonds of tradition. 3)Weber discovered that countries dominated by the Roman Catholic faith were more likely to rely on the traditional orientation to life and less.
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  1)macrosociology 2)microsociology 3)status 4)social class 5)status symbols 6)master status 7)status inconsistency 8)social group 9)social institution 10)functional requisites 11)mechanical solidarity 12)organic solidarity 13) 14) 15)Thomas theorem A)a status that cuts across other statuses that an individual occupies B)the position that someone occupies is society or in a social group C)items used to identify the position that someone occupies in society D)the basic tasks that a society must fulfill if.
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  16)What are the four primary factors that affect how sociologists choose a research method? 17)What are unobtrusive measures? 18)Jim would like to conduct interviews with women who have been victims of rape. What could we suppose about the kind of responses he will get? 19)As dictated by the American Sociological Association, what are.
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  11)Reference groups are reserved for members of professional networks and are utilized almost exclusively by people with career aspirations. 12)Social networking, by definition, breaks down social inequality and leads to a more egalitarian society, regardless of the culture or the nature of the network. 13)The Internet is providing new opportunities through Facebook.
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  11)The "dawn of civilization" is most associated with which social revolution? A)domestication B)agricultural C)industrial D)information 12)Which of the following set the stage for the emergence of the earliest form of social inequality? A)the domestication revolution B)the horticultural society C)the Industrial Revolution D)the postindustrial society 13)Which sociologist suggested that gender inequality became more pronounced with the development of the plow, as.
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  11)Which distinguishing feature of Calvinism contributed to the rise of capitalism?  A) the belief that money is the root of all evil B)the belief that man was naturally sinful C)the belief that heaven was a myth and there was no hereafter D)the belief that people were destined before birth for either heaven or.
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  6)What is the advantage of using a stratified random sample over a sample gathered by selecting volunteers? 7)What is interviewer bias? 8)Why is it important to ask neutral questions while conducting sociological research? 9)Asking interview questions that direct the respondents’ answers is asking __________. 10)Why is participant observation also called fieldwork? 11)What does the term.
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  7)Discuss the consequences of dividing our world into in-groups and out-groups. 8)Identify an example of a small group. Explain how the size of this group effects its members’ attitudes and behaviors and what role leadership plays. 9)What is the "small world phenomenon"? How does this phenomenon relate to social networks?   .
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  1)What are the two qualities that members of a society must share? 2)In the hunting and gathering society, what were the major social divisions on which social stratification was based? 3)In order of their historical occurrence, what are the seven types of societies? 4)What is the major difference in technology between the horticultural.
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  1)What topics qualify as appropriate for sociological research? 2)What are the eight basic steps followed in scientific research? 3)In research, what is meant by replication? 4)What is the difference between a "sample" and a "random sample"? 5)What are the three ways to measure the "average" of a set of scores?     .
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  10)What is secondary analysis? In terms of research, what are documents? How are these two methods different from the other research methods discussed in the chapter? 11)Identify and define the three conditions necessary for a change in one variable to be caused by another variable. 12)How is gender significant in sociological research?     .
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    11)Tiffany has a keen interest in the original theories of William Sheldon regarding the relationship between body type and juvenile delinquency. She has duplicated the study using Sheldon's original methodology to see if her results are compatible to Sheldon's. Such a study illustrates the concept of ________. A)validity B)reliability C)replication D)correlation 12)Which research method involves.
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1)On the micro level, sociologists study matters such as race relations and multinational corporations; on the macro level, they study human interactions, such as the behavior seen on street corners and in doctor-patient relationships. 2)Commonsense ideas are the best topics to choose for sociological research, because they represent "what everyone knows." 3)The.
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  1)group 2)pastoral society 3)horticultural society 4)agricultural society 5)primary group 6)secondary group 7)social network 8)clique 9)group dynamics 10)coalition 11)instrumental leader 12)expressive leader 13)authoritarian leader 14)laissez-faire leader 15)groupthink   A)the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together B)the alignment of some members of a group against others C)a society based on large-scale food production using plows drawn by animals D)a narrowing of thought by several people leading.
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  7)List the six practices that can distort data, misrepresent answers, or lead to fraudulent research. Briefly explain what each practice is. 8)How can interviewer bias create skewed results in sociological research? 9)How is participant observation research different from unobtrusive measures?     .
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  31)Which phrase became synonymous with the research Stanley Milgram conducted on "the small world phenomenon"?  A) the world is a stage B)six degrees of separation C)society as the sum of its parts D)situations defined as real are real in their consequences 32)Milgram's experiment involving the "small world phenomenon" utilized two groups. He referred to.
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  13)List three leadership styles and briefly describe the characteristics of each. Which style is the best one to adopt? 14) How did Solomon Asch conduct his classic experiment on group conformity? Why did many of the subjects in Solomon Asch's experiment give answers that they knew to be incorrect? 15) Discuss groupthink..
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  10)Compare and contrast Durkheim's classifications of society to the typology developed by Tönnies.   11)Erving Goffman introduced the idea that in everyday life we perform our assigned roles, and maintained that our social life was like a drama enacted on a stage. Discuss his approach to the study of everyday life. Include.
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  1)hypothesis 2)operational definition 3)survey 4)population 5)random sample 6)sample 7)median 8)mean 9)stratified random sample 10)fieldwork 11)rapport 12)generalizability 13)experimental group 14)control group 15)unobtrusive measures A)in a series of scores, the score that falls halfway between the top and bottom scores B)the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions C)a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an.
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  21)Patti Sue is having difficulty adjusting to George, the new office supervisor. George is quite a "bean counter" and has shown a great deal of insensitivity toward everyone in the office. In view of this, what is the most likely course of action Patti Sue and the other office workers.
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  21)There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept best describes these fans?  A) They are a group. B)They are a social group. C)They are an aggregate. D)They are a category. 22)Nancy and Don took their children to the zoo while.
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  11)Not knowing who gathered the data or which research methods were employed to gather them are major issues to consider when using secondary analysis as a research method. 12)Researchers are violating people’s privacy when gathering information from Facebook because the Internet is technically a private domain. 13)When utilizing correlations to assess variables.
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  7)What is an "ideal type" of bureaucracy, based on Weber's interpretation of the term? 8)What are the dysfunctions of bureaucracies? 9)How do workers resist alienation? 10)What is the Peter principle? 11)Why does your author believe that a new form of social organization will soon replace the dominance of the burearcray?   .
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  12)Why do bureaucracies practice goal displacement? 13)What are three qualities that permanent voluntary associations (e.g., Boy Scouts, Kiwanis Club, the Democratic Party) share? 14)What characteristics would individuals who make up an organization's inner circle likely possess? 15)Why are organizations that are classified as oligarchies less likely to embrace change? 16)What did Rosabeth Moss Kanter.
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  41)In which group would there be the greatest number of relationships? A)a traditional marriage B)a panel of three C)the starting five on a basketball team D)the starting nine on a baseball team 42)A phenomenon of group dynamics that results in a decrease in one's willingness to help others as the size of the group increases.
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  11)Bureaucracies tend to perpetuate their existence, even after their initial purpose has been fulfilled, through a process called bureaucratic ritualism. 12)A classic example of goal displacement is the shift in NATO's mission from protecting Europe from a Soviet invasion to being a rapid deployment force to fight terrorism. 13)The common thread that.
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  1)An approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results is ________.  A) traditional orientation B)rationality C)utilitarianism D)empiricism 2)Which of the following communities would be most aligned with the rational approach to life? A)a twentieth-century tribal village in the Amazon River Basin B)a sixteenth-century community of peasants in Sherwood Forest C)a.
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  6)Why is the postindustrial society also called the information society? 7)What is the earliest explanation for the advent of the biotech society? 8)Why don't aggregates and categories qualify as social groups? 9)Why are secondary groups essential to the functioning of society? 10)What is the difference between a primary and secondary group? 11)What are some of.
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  1)Of the following research topics, which  qualifies as research on the micro level?   A) doctor-patient relationships B)race relations C)the military D)multinational corporations 2)Which of the following represents a correct sequence of steps in the research process?  A) Select a topic, collect the data, review the literature, share the results. B)Review the literature, select a topic,.
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1)In hunting and gathering societies, men routinely contributed the most food to the group. 2)The domestication revolution was the immediate stimulus for the advent of the agricultural society. 3)The advent of the biotech society can be traced to the invention of the microchip in 1953. 4)The dawn of civilization is most associated with.
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  4)List the seven research methods used to gather data, and identify the major strengths and weaknesses of each approach. 5)Describe the difference between a "population" and a "sample." What is a "representative sample"? What is the best way to achieve representativeness in a sample? 6)What are the two ways researchers use to.
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  1)In Professor Jones' social problems course, the students interact freely with one another, think of themselves as "Dr. J's class," and feel they are significant because of their mutual interest in social reform. Which concept best describes Dr. Jones' class? A)aggregate B)category C)social frame D)group 2)What term best applies to people who share a culture.
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    21)Sam is conducting interviews to assess students' opinions on how President Bush handled the second Gulf War. Because this is a controversial topic at Sam's conservative campus, what is the best way for him to develop a sense of rapport with the sample? A)He should pay the interviewed students a stipend.
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  4) Define a group and explain the differences between primary and secondary groups. 5)Describe the social changes that resulted from the invention of the plow. 6)Did equality among the masses increase or decrease following the Industrial Revolution? Provide evidence to support your answer.     .
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  10) What was the conclusion reached by Stanley Milgram following his small group phenomenon experiment involving "starters" and "targets"? What is the major criticism of the results reached by Milgram? 11)Stanley Milgram's small world experiment came to the remarkable conclusion that people in the United States are linked to all other.
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  41)It is believed by some sociologists that attempts to humanize the workplace are simply ways to manipulate workers into cooperating in their own exploitation. This belief is most aligned with the ________ perspective.  A) functionalist B)symbolic interactionist C)conflict D)structuralist 42)One of the latest fads to build corporate teamwork and solidarity is the "cook-off." Which.
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  1)What are the four types of societies that would be most appropriately classified as traditional societies? 2)What are the three societies that would be most appropriately classified as nontraditional societies? 3)As it pertains to salvation, what was the philosophical view held by Calvinists? 4)What are formal organizations? 5)What are the five characteristics of bureaucracies.
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  31)The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called ________. A)the Thomas theorem B)the Protestant ethic C)the iron law of oligarchy D)the spirit of capitalism 32)By a narrow margin, Dr. Moreau was elected chair of the largest academic department at Faber College. She appointed faculty members who support her views to the most.
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