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  11)Which of the following theories of deviance is LEAST associated with sociobiology? A)intelligence theory: low intelligence leads to deviant and criminal behavior B)social learning theory: we learn deviance from our peers C)XYY" theory: the extra Y chromosome in males causes criminal behavior D)body type theory: people with muscular bodies are prone to be criminals 12)The.
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  1)Define social class.  Identify three criteria used to conceptualize social class placement. 2)Discuss power, and the ways in which functionalists and conflict theorists would disagree over the concept of power in a democracy. 3)What did C. Wright Mills mean by the term "power elite"? How do the power elite manage to maintain.
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    11)What is the background profile of most United States presidents? A)upper-class white men from traditional working families B)millionaire white men from families with old money C)individuals from a diverse pool of Americans who love their country D)politicians from new money families with upper-class backgrounds 12)Who was the sociologist who expanded upon the concept of the.
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    1)What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class? A)ethnicity, race, sex B)wealth, power, prestige C)sex, power, education D)occupation, neighborhood, wealth 2)Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?  A) none, as society is classless B)two C)four D)six 3)When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to ________. A)the property that.
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  11)The text points out a number of high-profile examples of white-collar crime by large corporations for which violators never went to jail. 12)Crime "in the suites" (white collar crime) actually costs the American taxpayer more in terms of dollars lost than "crime in the streets." 13)Violent crime in America is rather consistent.
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    41)Which of the following nations fails to fit into the stratification typology of Most Industrialized Nations, Industrializing Nations, and Least Industrialized Nations?  A) Kuwait B)Russia C)Australia D)South Africa 42)What was the purpose of colonialism as it was practiced by the major European powers during eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries? A)to exploit the annexed nation's people.
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  4)How do biological and psychological theories of deviance differ from sociological theories? What are some of the major theories aligned with these disciplines? 5)Briefly explain the focus of differential association, control, and labeling theories in the explanation of deviance. 6)How does Chambliss’s (1973) study of the Saints and the Roughnecks illustrate the.
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  21)What is Durkheim's term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that guide their behavior?  A) compurgation B)primogeniture C)negative affective state D)anomie 22)Erik Wright revised Marx's concept of social classes by regarding some people as simultaneously occupying more than one class. He termed their positions in the class structure ________. A)status.
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    21)Sally is employed as a computer programmer for the Ellis Corporation. She has a savings account of $15,000 and owns a few shares of Ellis stock. She thinks of herself as an investor rather than as a worker. Marx would maintain that Sally has experienced ________. A)false class consciousness B)misplaced commitment C)management ideology D)class.
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1)Defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class. 2)Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class. 3)Since 1970, the richest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S..
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    11)Mahatma is a member of India's Brahman caste. What is Mahatma's most likely occupation?  A) a general in the army B)a Hindu priest C)a skilled painter D)a water boy 12)Raul is a member of the Kshatriya who recently engaged in an intimate act with a member of the Dalit. Raul has seen the error.
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  13)What was Gaetano Mosca's primary argument for the reason why society is stratified? 14)According to Gerhard Lenski, what was the key to the development of stratification and class differences? 15)Why was the divine right of kings an effective means of maintaining the class differences between nobles and peasants? 16)What are the two most.
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  31)All of the following theories follow the principles of symbolic interactionism EXCEPT for which one?  A) differential association theory B)control theory C)labeling theory D)strain theory 32)The  ________ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving.
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1)Racism has traditionally been the cause of slavery. 2)Indentured servitude is a gray area between contract labor and slavery. 3)In a caste system, social stratification is based on ascribed status. 4)The replacement of India’s caste system with a social class system is an example of the strains in today’s global stratification system. 5)Because of.
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  6)Based on control theory, what are the four qualities that determine one's bond with society? 7)What is the purpose of a degradation ceremony? 8)What was the single greatest difference that explains why members of their community perceived the "Roughnecks" and "Saints" differently? 9)According to Merton's strain theory, what are the four typologies of.
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  1)Compare and contrast the traditional society with the nontraditional society in reference to production, relationships, and evaluations of each system. 2)Discuss Weber's explanation of why capitalism thrived in Protestant countries but was rejected in countries dominated by Roman Catholics. 3)What do formal organizations and bureaucracies have in common? How are they different?   .
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  1)Why is the relativity of deviance most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective? 2)What is the relativity of deviance? 3)What is the relationship between norms and social order? 4)What is the major difference between psychological and sociological theories in explaining deviance? 5)In control theory, what is the difference between inner and outer controls?   .
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  10)What is an "oligarchy"?  According to Robert Michels, why do oligarchies develop in organizations? 11)What does it mean to humanize the work setting? How would functionalists, symbolic interactionists, and conflict theorists view the humanizing of a work setting? 12)What is worker empowerment? Provide an example. 13)Briefly summarize how fads in the corporate culture.
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  41)The crime with the highest increase among women between 1992 and 2008 was ________.  A) drug offenses B)car theft C)bank robbery D)murder 42)Based on the 2011 edition of the Statistical Abstract in the United States, the state with the lowest rate of violent crime in America is ________, while the state with the highest.
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    31)Of the following methods, which would be the best way to preserve a stratification system? A)demonstrating violation of law through public punishment B)establishing a well-trained and highly armed police force C)controlling ideas, information, technology through ideology D)allowing brute force and coercion to keep dissidents in their place 32)The Acme Corporation has adopted "Tiny Brothers" as.
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  16)Define recidivism and identify the recidivism rate for violent offenders three years after they have been released from prison. 17)What is the major difference between serial killers and mass murderers? 18)Since the new laws governing the death penalty were enacted following Furman v. Georgia, what is the breakdown of the offenders executed.
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  1)How would a sociologist define deviance? How does the sociological definition of deviance differ from commonly held assumptions about deviance? 2)Why are sanctions an important part of understanding deviance? 3)Discuss the three theories used to explain deviance most aligned with biological explanations?     .
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)indentured service 2)ideology 3)j 4)ablution 5)apartheid 6)class system 7)bourgeoisie 8)proletariat 9)class consciousness 10)false class consciousness 11)power 12)prestige 13)meritocracy 14)divine right of kings 15)culture of poverty A)the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor are different from those of other people, and that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, which is perpetuated from one generation to the.
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  11)What are the most common characteristics shared by the American prison population? 12)What are the similarities and differences between serial killers and mass murderers? Why do each of these groups present such a potential danger to society? 13)Discuss the medicalization of deviance and how Thomas Szasz would respond to this concept. 14)Given Durkheim's.
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  1) Discuss the classical causes of slavery, and explain how the justification for slavery was modified by the colonial landowners in the New World. 2)Define social stratification and discuss the four systems of social stratification. 3)Although the system of apartheid has been abandoned in South Africa, the quality of life for Africans.
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  10)Discuss Gaetano Mosca's argument for the reason why society is stratified. 11)Discuss how elites maintain stratification, and point out the benefits and liabilities of each method. 12)What are the three models of global stratification discussed by the author? Why did the author choose one particular model over the others?     .
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  41)Numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the United States? A)white B)African American C)Latino D)Native American 42)The trend in the United States in which most poor families are headed by women is called ________. A)the male supremacy B)the economic genderization C)the feminization of poverty D)the culture of poverty 43)________ are the most likely segment of.
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  1)What are the three variables that contribute most to determining one's location in a system of social stratification based on class? 2)Based on the classical view, what were the three causes of slavery? 3)Why was slavery made inheritable when it was adopted by landowners in the American colonies? 4)What has been the unique.
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  11)Melvin Tumin advanced the concept of merit as the primary factor in determining social class. 12)Gaetano Mosca emphasized that every society is stratified based on power. 13)The key to effectively maintaining social stratification involves the privileged class controlling ideas and information rather than depending on the use of force. 14)Although it is expensive,.
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  21)In which of the following settings would shaming be LEAST effective? A)the family B)a close knit society, such as the Amish C)a small religious cult D)a large inner-city neighborhood 22)Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________. A)sanctions B)profiling C)degradation ceremonies D)stereotyping 23)The.
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  8)What were the four social classes identified by Erik Wright? 9)In Marx's model of social class, what were the major classes? 10)What are the social classes proposed by Joseph Kahl and Dennis Gilbert in their six-class model that revised Weber's original model? 11)By definition and example, who are the nouveau riche? 12)Why do members.
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1)Human sexuality illustrates how a group's definitions of an act, and not the act itself, determines whether or not it is considered deviant. 2)Stigma, characteristics that discredit people, includes violations of norms of ability and violations of norms of appearance. 3)Sociologically, an act cannot be classified as deviance if it does not.
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  13)Why do the oil-rich countries of the Middle East fail to fit into the classifications of Most Industrialized or Industrializing? 14)Why did President McKinley explain America's conquest of the Philippines as being motivated by the desire to "educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them"?  How did this approach.
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  31)Politically, the class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________. A)working class B)working poor C)lower-middle class D)underclass 32)What political party are members of the upper class more likely to belong? A)Republican B)Democrat C)Green D)Libertarian 33)What is the relationship between one's social class and.
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  1)In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been ________. A)race B)income C)education D)gender 2)The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________. A)social stratification B)social networking C)the diversification of society D)multiculturalism 3)In which.
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)traditional society 2)the rationalization of society 3)capitalism 4)formal organization 5)bureaucracy 6)"McDonaldization" of society 7)alienation 8)Peter principle 9)goal displacement 10)voluntary association 11)iron law of oligarchy 12)worker empowerment 13)humanizing a work setting 14)hidden corporate culture 15)cyberslacking A)a secondary group designed to achieve explicit objectives B)the adoption of new goals by an organization C)Robert Michel's term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated.
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  7)Why did a caste-like system exist in America following the Civil War, especially in the South? 8)What were the three estates in the estate stratification system of the middle ages? 9)What single factor controlled one's social class, according to Karl Marx? 10)Who were the lumpenproletariat? 11)According to Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore, how are.
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  7)How does Weber's view of social class differ from that of Marx's view? 8)According to the functionalists, stratification is universal. Discuss the reasons Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore concluded that stratification is inevitable. 9)Melvin Tumin pointed out flaws in the functionalist position to explain social stratification. What were his three major arguments?     .
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  11)Based on the model of Gilbert and Kahl, the upper middle class is the class most shaped by education. 12)Bill Gates, Donald Trump, and others who have made fortunes in business, the stock market, entertainment, and sports in the 20th century are classified as being "blue bloods." 13)Of the six social classes.
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  7) How do bureaucracies perpetuate themselves through goal displacement? Provide an example of goal displacement. 8)Discuss the history of voluntary associations and what motivates people to join this type of organization. 9)Discuss the seven functions of voluntary associations.     .
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  1)Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________. A)nonconforming behavior B)the need for social sanctions C)the cultural relativity of deviance D)the need for absolute standards in defining deviance 2)Violations of norms.
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  4)How does the class system in the United States resemble, and differ from, a caste system? 5) All societies use gender as a means of stratification. Discuss the consequences of this gender stratification. 6)How does the widespread ownership of stock in corporations by Americans obscure the relationship between Marx's two social classes,.
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  5)What is meant by the term "status inconsistency"? What consequences have been linked to being status inconsistent? 6)Professors of English are usually paid much less than professors of business. Apply your understanding of status inconsistency to predict the politics of English professors and the themes of books they prefer. 7)Describe Erik Wright's.
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  11)Why does illegitimate opportunity structure qualify so well as an explanation of deviance in the urban slums? 12)Based on the research of Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, what are the primary reasons urban male youth join gangs? 13)How has criminal behavior among women changed in recent years, based on statistics from 1992 and 2008? 14)What are.
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)deviance 2)social order 3)social control 4)negative sanction 5)positive sanction 6)genetic predisposition 7)personality disorder 8)degradation ceremony 9)techniques of neutralization 10)strain theory 11)white collar crime 12)recidivism rate 13)capital punishment 14)serial murder 15)medicalization of deviance A)an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction to a formal one B)Robert Merton's theory based on cultural goals and the institutionalized means.
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  14)What are the three basic types of social mobility? 15)What is the likelihood that children will experience an increase in social class in comparison to their parents? 16)What is the standard used by the U.S. government to determine if a family is in poverty? 17)What are the three greatest predictors of poverty in.
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  1)What are the three components Weber identified as being the key elements of determining one's social class? 2)What is the formula to determine one's wealth? 3)The median annual compensation package for CEOs is $10,100,000. What does this mean in relation to all CEO compensation packages? 4)What is the democratic facade? 5)What are the four.
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  4)What are the characteristics of bureaucracies? How does a university reflect these characteristics? 5)What is "McDonaldization"?  Describe some of its positive as well as negative consequences for social life. 6)Discuss the "ideal" versus the "real" bureaucracy. Does the ideal bureaucracy exist? Defend your answer.   .
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