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    11. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each of the given names. Draw: (E)-2,4-dimethyl-2-hexenoyl chloride    12. What is the correct structure for phenylbenzoate?  a. b. c. d.             13. Exhibit 21-1What is the order of decreasing reactivity towards nucleophilic acyl substitution for the carboxylic acid derivatives? (most reactive first)   a. I, II, III, IV b. I, III, IV, II c. II, IV, III, I d. II, I,.
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    41. Write the saponification reaction of glyceryl monooleate distearate with aqueous NaOH.    42. Describe how a micelle and cell membrane are similar.    43. Using a condensed formula, draw the product of the complete reaction of the following with the 30-carbon saturated straight chain alcohol, triacontanol.  Atoms other than hydrogen and oxygen are labeled.    44. Examine the following.
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    41. Exhibit 20-6Carboxylic acids are synthesized from alkyl halides via Grignard reagent carboxylation or nitrile hydrolysis. Choose the best method for effecting each of the following conversions. Explain each of your choices. If neither method is appropriate, explain.     42. Propose a synthesis of the anti-inflammatory drug Ibuprofen from benzene. Show all reagents.
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    31. Consider the following molecular model.  Atoms other than carbon and hydrogen are labeled.Which of the following is a characteristic of this compound? A. pairs with thymineB. pyrimidine baseC. found in both DNA and RNAD. found in DNA   32. Consider the following molecular model.  Atoms other than carbon and hydrogen are labeled.Which of the following is a characteristic.
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1. Exhibit 27-1MATCH each of the following terms to a structure from the list below. There is only one correct structure for each term, and structures may be used more than once. Place the letter of the structure in the blank to the left of the corresponding term.  A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Malonyl ACP H. I. J.         _____ starting.
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    41. Explain how to use an alkylation reaction to produce:fromAtoms other than carbon and hydrogen are labeled.            42. Which of the following is not correct? A. Tautomerization is catalyzed by both acids and bases.B. Tautomers are constitutional isomers.C. Tautomers rapidly interconvert.D. The enol form is generally more stable..E. All of the above are correct with respect to tautomers.   43. Examine the.
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    21. Rank the following compounds in order of increasing basicity. Label the least basic compound "1" and the most basic compound "4". Place the number corresponding to the compound's rank in the blank below the compound.    22. When a THF solution of phenyl-2-propanone and bromobutane is treated with 50% aqueous NaOH, poor yields.
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    11. Exhibit 23-4Each of the following compounds can be prepared by a mixed aldol condensation reaction. Give the structures of the aldehyde and/or ketone precursors for each aldol product and formulate the reaction.     12. Exhibit 23-4Each of the following compounds can be prepared by a mixed aldol condensation reaction. Give the structures.
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    11. Exhibit 26-2MATCH a structure from the list below to each of the following terms. Place the letter of the structure in the blank to the left of the term which it describes.  A. B. C. Val-Phe-Leu-Met-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Trp-Cys-Glu D. E. F. Asp-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe-Arg-Val G. apoenzyme H. I. J. K. L. Val-Lys-Phe-Gly-Arg-Met-Arg-Phe M. vitamins         _____ an amino acid in its zwitterionic form.    12. Exhibit 26-2MATCH a structure from the list below to each of.
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    21. Exhibit 21-3Consider the reaction below to answer the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 21-3. The purpose of the base catalyst in this reaction is:  a. to polarize the carbonyl group to make it more electrophilic b. to convert the ester to an intermediate carboxylic acid c. to convert the alcohol group to an alkoxide anion, which.
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    41. Exhibit 21-5Provide structure(s) for the starting material(s), reagent(s) or the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions. Show all relevant stereochemistry.     42. Exhibit 21-5Provide structure(s) for the starting material(s), reagent(s) or the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions..
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  51. Experimentally to produce 2-ethylpentanal from pentanal,  how should the reaction conditions be adjusted to ensure the alpha substitution product rather than the aldol product result or a mixture of the two products? A. use a catalytic amount of a relatively weak baseB. add a full equivalent of a strong baseC. add the base and.
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    31. Exhibit 25-8Draw structures for the products you would expect to obtain from reaction of b-D-galactopyranose with each of the following reagents. Be sure to include all relevant stereochemistry.b-D-galactopyranose warm dilute HNO3    32. Exhibit 25-8Draw structures for the products you would expect to obtain from reaction of b-D-galactopyranose with each of the following.
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    11. Exhibit 22-3Consider the reaction below to answer the following question(s). Refer to Exhibit 22-3. On the structures provided above, draw arrows indicating electron flow in the generation of the intermediate C.            12. Exhibit 22-4Consider the reaction sequence below to answer the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 22-4. Compound X, diethyl propanedioate, is.
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    31. Exhibit 26-6MATCH a term from the list below to each definition. Place the letter of the term in the blank to the left of the definition.  a. Ligases e. Simple protein b. Fibrous proteins f. Globular proteins c. Conjugated protein g. Lyases d. Hydrolases h. Transferases         _____ Enzymes that catalyze the bonding together of two substrates.    32. Assign an S or R configuration and a D or L.
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    21. Ethyl acetate can be prepared from ethanol as the only organic starting material. Show all reagents and structures for all intermediates in this preparation.    22. Give the structures of the ester precursors for the following Claisen condensation product and formulate the reaction.    23. Exhibit 23-8Consider the compound 2-methyl-2-carboethoxycyclopentanone, whose structure is shown below, to.
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    61. Poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is the polymeric material of MylarÒ and DacronÒ. What are the monomers from which PET is prepared?    62. Name the following substance. Atoms other than carbon and hydrogen are labeled.    63. Name the following substance. Atoms other than carbon and hydrogen are labeled.    64. Which of the following will take place via nucleophilic.
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1. Exhibit 25-1Convert the following Fischer projections into tetrahedral representations, and assign R or S stereochemistry to each.     2. Exhibit 25-1Convert the following Fischer projections into tetrahedral representations, and assign R or S stereochemistry to each.     3. Exhibit 25-1Convert the following Fischer projections into tetrahedral representations, and assign R or S stereochemistry to.
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    31. Chemically, these are triacylglycerols, triesters of glycerol with three long-chain carboxylic acids.  a. waxes b. fats and oils c. fatty acids d. soaps         32. The major lipid components of cell membranes are:  a. sphingolipids b. prostaglandins c. phosphoglycerides d. terpenoids         33. A group of C20 lipids that contain a five-membered ring with two long side chains.  a. sphingolipids b. prostaglandins c. phosphoglycerides d. terpenoids         34. Plant extracts, called essential oils, are largely a mixture of these lipids.  a. sphingolipids b. prostaglandins c. phosphoglycerides d. terpenoids         35. When soaps disperse in.
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1. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:    2. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:    3. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:    4. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:    5. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:    6. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each of the given names. Draw: 2-propenamide    7. Drawing Instructions: Draw.
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    41. Exhibit 23-11Give the major organic product(s) for each of the following reactions or reaction sequences.     42. A multistep synthesis can be used to prepare 3,3-dimethylindanone. From the list provided below, choose the best reagent(s) for each step in this sequence. Place the letter in the box over the reaction arrow.  a. Cl2, HOAc e. I2,.
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    51. A solution of glycolic acid  is prepared such that the glycolic acid is 69% dissociated.  Calculate the pH of this solution.  ( ) A. 6.06B. 4.18C. 3.48D. 3.83   52. Calculate the percent dissociation of a 0.00100 M solution of  lactic acid which has a pH of 4.00.  ( ) A. 78%B. 58%C. 42%D. 39%E. Nearly 100%   53. In a solution of acetic acid () at.
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1. Exhibit 26-1Refer to the data below to answer the following question(s):Leucine is an essential amino acid with the systematic name 2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid. It has pKa1 = 2.36 and pKa2 = 9.60. Refer to Exhibit 26-1. Draw the condensed structure for leucine, and label all chirality centers with an asterisk.    2. Exhibit 26-1Refer.
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    21. Exhibit 27-3Indicate by asterisks the stereogenic centers present in each of the indicated terpenes. linalool    22. Exhibit 27-3Indicate by asterisks the stereogenic centers present in each of the indicated terpenes. lineatin    23. Abietic acid is an example of:  a. a monoterpene b. a sesquiterpene c. a diterpene d. a sesterterpene         24. Suggest a mechanism by which caryophyllene is transformed into humulene by treatment with.
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    11. Bolecic acid, C18H26O2, yields stearic acid, CH3(CH2)16COOH, on catalytic hydrogenation. Ozonolysis of bolecic acid yields the following products:CH2O     HOOC-COOH     HOOC(CH2)7COOH     OHC(CH2)4COOHPropose a structure for bolecic acid.    12. Exhibit 27-2Refer to the structures of the terpenes below to answer the following question(s):Show the positions of the isoprene units in each of the indicated.
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    21. When DNA is replicated, the new chain is synthesized in what direction?    22. Give a one sentence definition of replication.    23. Give a one sentence definition of transcription.    24. Give a one sentence definition of translation.    25. Give the single letter  amino acid sequence that is coded for by the following segment of  DNA coding strand (sense strand)?(5').
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    31. Exhibit 24-5Give the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions. Show all relevant stereochemistry.     32. Exhibit 24-5Give the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions. Show all relevant stereochemistry.     33. Exhibit 24-5Give the major organic product(s) of each of the.
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    21. Exhibit 26-4Refer to the data below to answer the following question(s):Porcine dynorphin is a neuropeptide having 17 amino acid residues. Its structure is shown below.Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Arg-Arg-Ile-Arg-Pro-Lys-Leu-Lys-Trp-Asp-Asn-Gln Refer to Exhibit 26-4. Leu5-enkephalin is a pentapeptide contained as the N-terminal sequence of dynorphin. Write the structure of Leu5-enkephalin using both the three letter.
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    11. Exhibit 25-4From the sugars below, choose the one that best fits each description below. Place the letter of the sugar in the blank to the left of the description. There is only one correct answer for each question. _____ a D-sugar.    12. Exhibit 25-4From the sugars below, choose the one that best.
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    41. Exhibit 25-9Choose a structure from the list provided below that best fits each of the following descriptions. Place the letter of the structure in the blank to the left of the description. There is only one correct answer for each question.  A. B. C. D. E. F.         _____ a 1,4' b-glycoside    42. Exhibit 25-9Choose a structure from the.
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1. Exhibit 28-1MATCH each of the following terms to a structure from the list below. There is only one correct structure for each term and structures may be used more than once. Place the letter of the structure in the blank to the left of the corresponding term.  A. Sanger dideoxy method B. GAUCGUAAA C. Watson-Crick D. translation E. F. G. transcription H. Maxam-Gilbert method I. AUGGCUGAG J. replication K. L. M. AGATCGCTC             .
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    41. Exhibit 24-5Give the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions. Show all relevant stereochemistry.     42. Exhibit 24-5Give the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions. Show all relevant stereochemistry.     43. Exhibit 24-5Give the major organic product(s) of each of the.
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    61. Examine the following molecular models.  Atoms other than carbon and hydrogen are labeled.                                     A                                                                       BWhich of the following correctly describes these substances? A. A is a D sugar and B is an L sugarB. A is a L sugar and B is an D sugarC. Both are D sugars.D. Both are L sugars.   62. For a.
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    51. Exhibit 21-7Show how you would accomplish each of the following transformations. More than one step may be required. Show all reagents and all intermediate structures.     52. Exhibit 21-7Show how you would accomplish each of the following transformations. More than one step may be required. Show all reagents and all intermediate structures..
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    31. Exhibit 23-10Consider the reaction below to answer the following question(s).The Stork enamine reaction is a variation on the Michael reaction which utilizes an enamine nucleophile. Refer to Exhibit 23-10. On the structures above, draw arrows indicating electron flow in each step of this reaction.    32. Exhibit 23-10Consider the reaction below to answer.
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    31. Exhibit 21-5Provide structure(s) for the starting material(s), reagent(s) or the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions. Show all relevant stereochemistry.     32. Exhibit 21-5Provide structure(s) for the starting material(s), reagent(s) or the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions..
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    21. Exhibit 25-5Refer to the equilibrium below to answer the following question(s). Refer to Exhibit 25-5. The correct name for the cyclic structure is _______.  a. a-L-ribofuranose b. b-D-ribofuranose c. a-L-ribopyranose d. b-D-ribopyranose         22. Exhibit 25-6Refer to the sugars below to answer the following question(s). Choose the sugar that best fits each description and place the letter of the sugar in.
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    71. Which line in the following spectrum would indicate the presence of a carbonyl group? A. 5B. 2C. 1D. 4E. 3   72. Based on the following spectrum the sample used would probably be classified as a(n): A. ester.B. ketone.C. aldehyde.D. The spectrum is not specific enough to classify the substance.   73. The following is an excerpt from a spectrum taken on an unknown sample.To which of.
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    21. Write the complete stepwise mechanism for the reaction of cyclopentanone with bromine in acetic acid to give 2-bromocyclopentanone. Show all intermediate structures and all electron flow with arrows.            22. Exhibit 22-7Give the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions. Show all relevant stereochemistry.             23. Exhibit 22-7Give the.
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    31. Exhibit 22-8How would you prepare each of the following compounds using either an acetoacetic ester synthesis or a malonic ester synthesis? Show all intermediate structures and all reagents.             32. Exhibit 22-8How would you prepare each of the following compounds using either an acetoacetic ester synthesis or a malonic ester synthesis? Show.
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1. Exhibit 22-1Refer to the compounds below to answer the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 22-1. Indicate all the acidic hydrogens in Compounds I through IV.            2. Exhibit 22-1Refer to the compounds below to answer the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 22-1. Indicate which hydrogens in Compound II are the most acidic. Explain.
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    61. Name the following substance.  Atoms other than carbon and hydrogen are labeled.    62. Draw the product of the reaction of the following substance with  1.) LiAlH4 in ether, 2.) H2O with the following substance.   From what alkyl bromide could this substance be produced when reacted with NaCN?  Atoms other than carbon and.
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1. Exhibit 23-1Draw the structure of the aldol self-condensation product for each of the following compounds. If a compound does not undergo aldol self-condensation, explain why it does not.     2. Exhibit 23-1Draw the structure of the aldol self-condensation product for each of the following compounds. If a compound does not undergo aldol.
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    51. Exhibit 25-11Consider the reaction below to answer the following question(s). Refer to Exhibit 25-11. Compound Z is:  a. the D-anomer. b. the a-anomer. c. the b-anomer. d. the L-anomer.         52. Exhibit 25-11Consider the reaction below to answer the following question(s). Refer to Exhibit 25-11. Which anomer is the LEAST stable?Q or Z    53. Exhibit 25-11Consider the reaction below to answer the following.
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    11. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:    12. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:    13. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:    14. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:    15. Exhibit 24-2Consider the reaction below to answer the following question(s).Methamphetamine can be synthesized by reacting phenyl-2-propanone with methylamine in the presence of.
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    71. The amino acid phenylalanine has the structure below. Which of the following is the best representation of this acid at pH 7.3? A. B. C. D.     72. Which of the following methods of preparation of amines results in an amine with one less carbon atom than the starting material? A. reductive amination of a ketoneB. Gabriel synthesis from an.
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1. Exhibit 24-1Classify each of the following nitrogen atoms in the following compounds as primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary.     2. Exhibit 24-1Classify each of the following nitrogen atoms in the following compounds as primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary.     3. Exhibit 24-1Classify each of the following nitrogen atoms in the following compounds as primary,.
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    51. Exhibit 24-7Choose the best series of reactions for accomplishing each conversion below.   a. b. c. d.         52. Exhibit 24-7Choose the best series of reactions for accomplishing each conversion below.   a. b. c. d.         53. Exhibit 24-7Choose the best series of reactions for accomplishing each conversion below.   a. b. c. d.         54. Mescaline is a hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from peyote cactus. Synthesize mescaline from 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene. Show.
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    11. Describe, in general terms, the steps involved in the automated synthesis of the DNA sequence GCT.    12. Draw and label the four DNA nucleosides.    13. Draw and label a G-C base pair. Indicate all hydrogen bonds with a dashed line.    14. Draw and label an A-T base pair. Indicate all hydrogen bonds with a dashed line.    15. Of.
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    41. Consider the following titration curve for an amino acid.At which of the following “pH” values would the amino acid be fully deprotonated? A. AB. BC. DD. F   42. Consider the following titration curve for an amino acid.At which of the following “pH” values would the amino acid have a net charge of zero? A. AB. BC. DD. F   43. Consider the following data for.
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