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    11. Exhibit 8-2To answer the following question(s), consider the information below:The heat of hydrogenation of 1,4-pentadiene is 254.4 kJ/mol. The heat of hydrogenation of 1-pentyne is approximately 292.9 kJ/mol. Refer to Exhibit 8-2. Which structure is more stable, 1,4-pentadiene or 1-pentyne?  Briefly explain your answer.            12. Exhibit 8-2To answer the following question(s), consider.
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    11. Exhibit 9-2Place asterisks at all the chirality centers in each molecule below.             12. Exhibit 9-2Place asterisks at all the chirality centers in each molecule below.             13. Exhibit 9-2Place asterisks at all the chirality centers in each molecule below.             14. Exhibit 9-3Assign R, S configurations to each indicated chirality center in the molecules below..
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    21. Exhibit 30-6Consider the reaction sequence below to answer the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 30-6. Step 2 is an example of:  a. an electrocyclic reaction b. a cycloaddition reaction c. a sigmatropic rearrangement d. a reverse cycloaddition reaction         22. Exhibit 30-6Consider the reaction sequence below to answer the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 30-6. Explain the stereochemistry of product C.    23. Exhibit.
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1. Exhibit 7-1To answer the question(s) below consider the following reaction:When cyclohexene reacts with chlorine in carbon tetrachloride the trans-dihalide is formed. Refer to Exhibit 7-1. Write the complete stepwise mechanism for this reaction. Be sure to show all intermediate structures and all electron flow using arrows.            2. Exhibit 7-1To answer the question(s).
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    21. In general, 5-alkyl substituents in 1,3-dioxane exhibit a smaller equatorial preference than they do in cyclohexane. To what might you attribute this observation?    22. Exhibit 4-4Label each pair of compounds below as: a. conformational isomers b. stereoisomers c. constitutional isomers d. identical     _____     23. Exhibit 4-4Label each pair of compounds below as: a. conformational isomers b. stereoisomers c. constitutional isomers d. identical     _____     24. Exhibit 4-4Label each pair of compounds.
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    31. Explain your energy order from lowest to highest.    32. Draw at least four isomers with molecular formula given below.C4H10O    33. Which of the following functional groups if bonded to a three-carbon chain would have the largest d– charge? A. phosphateB. etherC. alcoholD. sulfide   34. Which of the following functional groups contains a carbonyl group? A. ketoneB. amideC. carboxylic acidD. esterE. All contain a carbonyl group.   35. How many isomeric.
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    31. Draw two repeating units of the polymer formed by the reaction of 1,3-butadiene with the following substance.  Atoms other than carbon and hydrogen are labeled.    32. Draw the structure of the product produced by the acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) of 1,6-heptadiene.    33. Draw the structure of the monomer used to produce the following polymer.
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    41. Exhibit 5-11In each reaction below:  a. Label the nucleophile (Nu) and the electrophile (E). b. Draw arrows on the structures showing electron flow in the reaction.                 42. Exhibit 5-11In each reaction below:  a. Label the nucleophile (Nu) and the electrophile (E). b. Draw arrows on the structures showing electron flow in the reaction.                 43. The following represents the carbocation intermediate.
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    21. Exhibit 7-6Predict the products of each reaction below. Indicate regiochemistry and stereochemistry when relevant.             22. Exhibit 7-6Predict the products of each reaction below. Indicate regiochemistry and stereochemistry when relevant.             23. Exhibit 7-6Predict the products of each reaction below. Indicate regiochemistry and stereochemistry when relevant.             24. Exhibit 7-6Predict the products of each reaction below..
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    11. Exhibit 5-4Identify the nucleophile and electrophile in each reaction below and label them.             12. Exhibit 5-5Add curved arrows to the following reactions to indicate the flow of electrons in each.             13. Exhibit 5-5Add curved arrows to the following reactions to indicate the flow of electrons in each.             14. Exhibit 5-5Add curved arrows to.
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    31. Exhibit 5-9Use the reaction energy diagram below to answer the following question(s). Refer to Exhibit 5-9. The free-energy change for the reaction is indicated at point _____ on the diagram.            32. Exhibit 5-9Use the reaction energy diagram below to answer the following question(s). Refer to Exhibit 5-9. The reactants are found at.
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    11. Olive oil is comprised of 80% oleic acid, CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH. How many molecules of acetyl CoA are produced by catabolism of oleic acid and how many passages of the b-oxidation pathway are needed?            12. Exhibit 29-2Use the data below to answer the following question(s):Under certain metabolic conditions associated with a high rate of.
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    21. Exhibit 8-4Predict the product of each reaction below. Be sure to indicate stereochemistry when appropriate.             22. Exhibit 8-5To answer the following question(s) consider this reaction: Refer to Exhibit 8-5. On the structures provided, draw arrows showing the electron flow for the reaction mechanism for the electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to.
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    31. Predict the product (including stereochemistry) when the following substance reacts under thermal conditions.    32. Predict the product of the following reaction.    33. Define a pericyclic reaction.    34. Draw the structure of the product when the following substance reacts with maleic anhydride.  Classify the reaction according to the number of p electrons that interact.  Atoms other than.
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    46. Exhibit 6-14The reaction of isobutene with HBr in ether gives one of the two products below as the major product. Answer the following question(s) about this reaction. Refer to Exhibit 6-14. Which product would have a higher energy transition state for the formation of the intermediate leading to it?            47. Exhibit 6-14The.
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1. Exhibit 9-1For the following question(s) MATCH each definition to a term from the list below. Place the letter of the term in the blank to the left of the definition.  a. racemates f. meso compounds b. chirality center g. optically active c. chirality h. prochirality center d. diastereomers i. optically inactive e. enantiomers j. achiral         ____ describes organic molecules which rotate plane-polarized light.            2. Exhibit 9-1For the following question(s) MATCH each definition.
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    41. Exhibit 9-9Identify the indicated faces in the following molecules as re or si.             42. Acetoacetate synthase catalyzes the addition of pyruvate to b-ketobutyrate to yield a-aceto-a-hydroxybutyrate. If the addition occurs from the si face of b-ketobutyrate, what is the stereochemistry of the product?            43. Explain why a work glove is chiral but disposable.
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    21. Exhibit 5-7Consider this reaction when answering the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 5-7.  a. The structures below show the step-wise bond making and bond breaking in this reaction. Draw curved arrows to show the electron flow that has occurred in each step.           b. Calculate Keq for the reaction in part a.     c. Calculate DG? for the.
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1. Exhibit 5-1Classify each reaction below as a(n):  a. addition b. elimination c. substitution d. rearrangement     Place the letter corresponding to the correct answer in the blank to the left of the reaction. _____             2. Exhibit 5-1Classify each reaction below as a(n):  a. addition b. elimination c. substitution d. rearrangement     Place the letter corresponding to the correct answer in the blank to the left of the reaction. _____             3. Exhibit 5-1Classify.
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1. Exhibit 3-1MATCH a structure below to each of the following descriptions and place the letter corresponding to the structure in the blank. _____ is an amino aldehyde.    2. Exhibit 3-1MATCH a structure below to each of the following descriptions and place the letter corresponding to the structure in the blank. _____ is.
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    36. Exhibit 6-11Consider the following reaction: Refer to Exhibit 6-11. Why does the rearrangement that results in the formation of product B occur?            37. Write the complete stepwise mechanism for the following reaction. Show all intermediate structures and all electron flow with arrows.            38. Exhibit 6-12Predict the major organic product for each reaction below.             39. Exhibit.
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    11. Rank the following monomers in order of increasing reactivity toward cationic polymerization (least reactive to most reactive).  a. III, IV, I, II b. II, I, IV, III c. I, II, IV, III d. IV, III, I, II         12. Rank the following monomers in order of increasing reactivity toward anionic polymerization (least reactive to most reactive).  a. III, II, IV, I b. II, III, I,.
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    51. Consider the following grayscale electrostatic potential map.  The regions are labeled as to color.  Which atom is the most likely to be attacked by a nucleophile? A. 3B. 1C. 4D. 2   52. In a polar reaction mechanism, the atom that gives away electrons in a neutral nucleophile will end up as a(n): A. neutral moleculeB. cationC. radicalD. anion   53. Consider the following.This process would.
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    11. Exhibit 7-3Consider the reaction below to answer the following question(s).Alkenes may be hydrated by the hydroboration/oxidation procedure shown. Refer to Exhibit 7-3. Hydroboration/oxidation of alkenes occurs with:  a. anti stereochemistry. b. trans stereochemistry. c. syn stereochemistry. d. unpredictable stereochemistry.                 12. Exhibit 7-3Consider the reaction below to answer the following question(s).Alkenes may be hydrated by the hydroboration/oxidation procedure shown. Refer to.
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    41. How many p MO’s does the following compound have? A. 4B. 2C. 6D. 8   42. Consider the following MO diagram for a conjugated triene.  When irradiated with light of the appropriate wavelength,  how many electrons will be in bonding MO’s? A. 6B. 5C. 4D. 3   43. For an odd number of electron pairs (double bonds), for cycloadditions reactions which of the following rules is.
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    11. Exhibit 30-3To answer the following question(s), consider the reaction below: Refer to Exhibit 30-3. Explain the stereochemistry of compound Y.    12. Exhibit 30-4Consider the reaction below to answer the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 30-4. What type of pericyclic reaction is involved in this transformation?  a. sigmatropic rearrangement b. reverse cycloaddition reaction c. electrocyclic reaction d. cycloaddition reaction         13. Exhibit 30-4Consider the.
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    21. Exhibit 9-4Consider the structure of streptimidone to answer the following question(s). Refer to Exhibit 9-4. Will streptimidone have a meso stereoisomer? Explain your answer.            22. Exhibit 9-5Label each pair of stereoisomers below as:  a. enantiomers b. diastereomers c. identical     Place the letter of the correct answer in the blank to the left of the pair of stereoisomers. _____             23. Exhibit.
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  16. Exhibit 6-6Rank each set of substituents using the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog sequence rules by numbering the highest priority substituent 1 and numbering the lowest priority substituent 4. Place the number in the blank below the substituent.             17. Exhibit 6-6Rank each set of substituents using the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog sequence rules by numbering the highest priority.
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    11. Exhibit 4-1Refer to the structure below to answer the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 4-1. Which of the labeled bonds in the structure are equatorial bonds?    12. Exhibit 4-1Refer to the structure below to answer the following question(s): Refer to Exhibit 4-1. Which of the labeled bonds are trans to bond b?    13. Exhibit.
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1. Exhibit 6-1Calculate the degree of unsaturation in each formula below. Show your calculations. pinene, C10H18            2. Exhibit 6-1Calculate the degree of unsaturation in each formula below. Show your calculations. eicosapentaenoic acid, C20H30O2, a constituent of fish oil            3. Exhibit 6-1Calculate the degree of unsaturation in each formula below. Show your calculations. diazepam (Valium), C16H13N2OCl            4. Exhibit.
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    51. Which of the following will produce only one product upon dehydration? A. B. C. D. E. b and dF. a, b,  and cG. None produce a single product.   52. Consider the following intermediate.  Which is applicable to this structure? A. occurs during the addition of HBrB. results in anti stereochemistryC. is called a bromohydrinD. produces only the cis isomer   53. Which of the following is a difference.
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1. Exhibit 31-1MATCH a term or structure from the list below to each of the following definitions or names. Place the letter of the term or structure in the blank to the left of the definition or name which it describes.  A. BF3 + H2O B. elastomer C. chain-growth polymer D. AL(CH2CH3)3 + TiCl4 E. F. G. thermoplastic H. homopolymer I. plasticizers J. thermosetting resins K. copolymers L. step-growth polymer M. Grubb’s catalyst N. metallacycle O. P.         ____ Produced.
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    31. During b-oxidation the following reaction occurs.  What substances do the two question marks on the curve arrow represent?            32. Fatty acids always have an even number of carbon atoms.  Explain.            33. During the synthesis of fatty acids,  the following sequence occurs.  Draw the products presented by the question marks and identify the type of.
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    31. (2R,3S)-Dibromobutane is:  a. optically active. b. racemic. c. dextrorotatory. d. a meso compound.                 32. Estriol, a potent estrogenic hormone, has been isolated from the urine of pregnant women. When 40 mg of estriol is dissolved in 1.0 mL of dioxane and placed in a sample tube with 1 dm path length a rotation of +2.32? is observed. Calculate the specific.
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  11. Exhibit 6-42-Pentene is an example of a disubstituted alkene.CH3CH=CHCH2CH3 The original question was combined with #10. This placeholder question is here to maintain the integrity of the numbering system between the printed copy and ExamView.  Therefore, it has been marked "do not use on test" in ExamView's question information dialog. .
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    21. Which of the following statements about anabolism is false?  a. Anabolic reactions "spend" ATP by transferring a phosphate group to another molecule. b. As a rule, the anabolic pathway by which an organism makes a substance is the exact reverse of the catabolic pathway. c. Pathways that synthesize larger biomolecules from smaller ones are known as.
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    31. D-Pinitol is an interesting hexahydroxy cyclohexane, whose structure is shown below.On the templates provided, draw the two chair conformations that are in equilibrium for D-pinitol. Circle the most stable conformation.    32. The two structures show below represent: A. stereoisomersB. constitutional isomersC. a, b and cD. cis-trans isomersE. both b and c   33. What relationship exists between the following two structures?  .
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    41. Lyapolate Sodium, whose structure is shown below, is used as an anticoagulant. Identify the monomer unit(s) in lyapolate sodium.            42. Povidone is produced commercially as a series of products having mean molecular weights ranging from about 10,000 to 700,000. Complexed with iodine, povidone yields an iodophor, marketed under the tradename Betadine, which.
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1. Exhibit 29-1MATCH a term or structure from the list below to each of the following definitions or names. Place the letter of the term or structure in the blank to the left of the definition or name which it describes.  A. electron-transport chain B. C. citric acid cycle D. Embden-Meyerhoff E. glycolysis F. G. Hans Krebs H. catabolism I. ATP J. K. fatty acid spiral L. anabolism M. acetyl CoA N. O. P. gluconeogenesis     Q. metabolism         _____ Pathways that.
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    11. Exhibit 3-3Label the following pairs of compounds as:  a. identical b. constitutional isomers c. neither     Place the letter of the correct answer in the blank. _____     12. Exhibit 3-3Label the following pairs of compounds as:  a. identical b. constitutional isomers c. neither     Place the letter of the correct answer in the blank. _____     13. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC names. Name:(CH3)2CHCH2CH2CH(CH2CH3)CH2C(CH3)3    14. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper.
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  6. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each name below. Either condensed or line structures may be used. Draw: (3E)-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene            7. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each name below. Either condensed or line structures may be used. Draw: 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene            8. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each name below. Either condensed or line structures.
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    41. Consider the following reaction:Which of the following reactions per mole could not be driven by the hydrolysis of ATP? A. Reaction 1:  DG?' = 22.5 kJ/molB. Reaction 1:  DG?' = 40.6 kJ/molC. Reaction 1:  DG?' = 12.6 kJ/molD. Reaction 1:  DG?' = 29.6 kJ/mol   42. Consider the following reaction:Hydrolysis of which of the following biomolecules could drive.
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    21. Exhibit 31-3Classify each polymer below as step-growth or chain-growth.     22. Exhibit 31-3Classify each polymer below as step-growth or chain-growth.     23. Exhibit 31-3Classify each polymer below as step-growth or chain-growth.     24. Exhibit 31-4Draw the structure of the polymers obtained from the following reactions.     25. Exhibit 31-4Draw the structure of the polymers obtained from the following.
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    56. If the following compound were dissolved in ether and treated with HCl,  which of the following describes the product(s) of the reaction? A. a mixture of 3-bromoheptane and 2-bromoheptaneB. 4-bromoheptaneC. 3-bromoheptane   57. If the following compound was dissolved in ether and treated with HBr,  which of the following describes the major product(s) of the reaction? A. a.
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1. There are three major classes of pericyclic reactions. Which of the following types of reactions is not an example of a pericyclic process?  a. sigmatropic rearrangements b. cycloaddition reactions c. annulation reactions d. electrocyclic reactions         2. The mnemonic phrase "The Electrons Circle Around", TECA, assists in predicting stereochemistry of pericyclic reactions. Describe application of this mnemonic.    3. Exhibit 30-1To answer the following.
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1. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each of the given names. Draw: ethynylcyclopropane            2. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each of the given names. Draw: 3,10-dimethyl-6-sec-butylcyclodecyne            3. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each of the given names. Draw: 4-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-1-hexen-5-yne            4. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each of the given names. Draw: acetylene            5. IUPAC Naming.
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    21. Exhibit 3-4Experiments have shown that for 1,2-dichloroethane, ClCH2CH2Cl, in carbon tetrachloride solution at 25 ?C, 70% of the molecules are in the anti and 30% are in the gauche conformation. Refer to Exhibit 3-4. Draw a Newman projection of the gauche conformation of 1,2-dichloroethane.  Explain why the majority of the.
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1. Draw 7 constitutional isomers of a cycloalkane with the formula C6H12. Name each of the isomers you drew.    3. IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide IUPAC names for each structure. Name:    4. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each of the following names. Draw: cis-1-sec-butyl-2-ethylcyclopentane    5. Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to each of the following names. Draw:.
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    31. Exhibit 7-7Choose the best reagent from the list below for carrying out each transformation. Place the letter of the reagent in the blank to the left of the reaction.  a. 1. O3 e. 1. OsO4   2. Zn, H3O+   2. NaHSO3, H2O             b. 1. BH3, THF f. KMnO4, acid   2. H2O2, NaOH, H2O                   c. CHCl3, KOH g. CH2I2, Zn(Cu)         d. H2O, H2SO4, heat h. 1. Hg(OAc)2, H2O       2. NaBH4             _____             32. Exhibit 7-7Choose the best reagent from the list.
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    26. Exhibit 6-8Assign E or Z configurations to each alkene below.             27. Exhibit 6-9MATCH each definition to the term it describes. Place the letter corresponding to the term in the blank to the left of the definition.  a. Hammond Postulate b. Cahn-Ingold-Prelog Rules c. Markovnikov's Rule     ______ Predicts that the more stable carbocation intermediate is formed in electrophilic.
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