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    11) Indirect exporting occurs when a company sells its products to intermediaries who then resell to buyers in a target market.   12) Agency relationships are popular among exporters because they are easy to terminate should difficulties arise.   13) Countertrade can provide access to markets that are otherwise closed because of a lack.
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1) An entry mode is the institutional arrangement by which a firm gets its products, technologies, human skills, or other resources into a market.   2) The most common methods of buying and selling goods internationally are joint ventures and strategic alliances.   3) Most large companies use exporting as a means of expanding.
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    61) Once an audience receives a message, it ________ the message and interprets its meaning. A) sources B) decodes C) intensifies D) encodes   62) ________ refers to anything that disrupts the audience's ability to receive and interpret a promotional message. A) Noise B) Interpolation C) Blending D) Resonance   63) Which of the following reflects the correct sequence of the marketing.
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    51) A company proposes that in exchange for a hard-currency sale, it will make a hard-currency purchase of an unspecified product from the buyer nation in the future. The company is proposing which of the following? A) Counterpurchase B) Offset C) Switch trading D) Barter   52) An offset agreement differs from a counterpurchase agreement in.
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  140) Explain how a country's political environment can influence its choice of market entry strategy, and discuss the risks posed by by political instability on the management contract entry mode.   141) Discuss the advantages of licensing, low-cost production, and low-cost shipping for international companies.       .
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  41) Which of the following occurs when a company sells its products to intermediaries who then resell to buyers in a target market? A) Indirect exporting B) Investment entry C) Strategic alliance D) Direct exporting   42) The different types of intermediaries involved in indirect exporting include all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) export management companies B).
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    101) The four components of a marketing strategy are ________.   102) A(n) ________ is the name of one or more items in a product line that identifies the source or character of the items.   103) ________ are language building blocks that make up all company and product brand names. 104)  A company's ________.
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    51) Manufacturers of products that are commonly sold through department and grocery stores often use a(n) ________. A) pull strategy B) exclusive channel strategy C) push strategy D) value chain strategy   52) When there are many levels of intermediaries in a distribution channel, a ________ strategy is often the easiest. A) push B) pull C) direct function D) brand 53).
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    91) Alistair has identified one option that might help the firm: selling goods or services that are paid for in whole or in part with other goods or services. Alistair is considering which of the following? A) Open trade B) Pre-purchase C) Countertrade D) Counterselling 92) If Gro-Tru exchanges its products directly for other goods.
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    81) The value of a product relative to its weight and volume is called its ________. A) promotional density B) duty quotient C) price quotient D) value density   82) The ________ a product's value density, the more ________ the distribution system. A) lower; localized B) lower; globalized C) higher; localized D) lower; costly   83) A pricing policy in which one.
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    31) Some argue that because the world is becoming standardized and ________, companies should market the same products the same way in all countries. A) richer B) heterogeneous C) homogeneous D) poorer   32) Some argue that ________ is causing people's needs and preferences to converge worldwide. A) inflation B) religion C) technology D) politics 33) Lower levels of education and.
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  81) A ________ joint venture is formed when each partner requires the same component in its production process. A) backward B) multistage C) forward D) buyback   Scenario: Sanjeer's HomeCare Products Sanjeer Sengupta, owner of Sanjeer's HomeCare Products, is considering going international. He feels that the products he manufactures will be well received, especially in developing countries..
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    11) A push strategy is a promotional strategy designed to pressure channel members to carry a product and promote it to final users.   12) A common example of a push strategy is creating consumer demand through direct marketing techniques.   13) When distribution channels are lengthy, a push strategy is typically most successful. 14).
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  138) Explain why the availability of data is a challenge when conducting international research, and discuss how interviews and focus groups can act as a primary source of international information. 139) Discuss why economic freedom, market receptivity and country risk are important variables     .
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    111) A(n) ________ is one in which a producer grants the right to sell its product to many resellers.   112) ________ refers to the number of intermediaries between the producer and the buyer.   113) In a(n) ________ channel, producers sell directly to final buyers.   114) Another term for a zero-level channel is ________. 115).
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1) Product standardization is more likely when nations share the same level of economic development.   2) Cultural differences demand that all companies modify their products to local cultures.   3) A brand name is central to a product's personality and the image it presents to buyers.   4) A brand name can function as legal.
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    71) A(n) ________ is guaranteed by both the exporter's bank in the country of export and the importer's bank in the country of import. A) revocable letter of credit B) confirmed letter of credit C) bill of lading D) irrevocable letter of credit   72) Letters of credit are popular among traders because most of the.
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  21) Letters of credit are popular among traders because banks assume most of the risks.   22) The advance payment method reduces the risk of non-shipment the importer faces under the open account method.   23) Cross licensing occurs when companies employ licensing agreements to swap intangible property with one another.   24) The brand name.
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    41) ________ are imitation products passed off as legitimate trademarks, patents, or copyrighted works. A) Brand name goods B) Counterfeit goods C) Foreign goods D) Intangible goods   42) Which of the following is a marketplace of underground transactions that typically appears because a product is either illegal or tightly regulated? A) Black market B) Farmer's market C) Flea.
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    21) The dual extension method extends the same home-market product and marketing promotion into target markets.   22) The dual extension method adapts both the product and its marketing communication to suit the target market.   23) Low economic development can force communications to be adapted to local conditions.   24) Under the dual adaptation method,.
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  134) What are the factors managers consider when analyzing industrialized markets? Discuss why the comparability of data is a challenge of conducting international research. 135) What is primary market research? Describe any four primary market research methods.       .
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    91) Which of the following might be most appropriate for its consumer product line? A) Pull strategy B) Transfer pricing strategy C) Push strategy D) High-level channel strategy   92) Which of the following might be most appropriate for its industrial product division? A) Pull strategy B) Transfer pricing strategy C) Push strategy D) Zero-level channel strategy 93) If Silk Industries.
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    31) A(n) ________ is the institutional arrangement by which a firm gets its products, technologies, human skills, or other resources into a market. A) investment process B) export C) entry mode D) market transfer   32) Types of entry modes available to companies include all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) exporting, importing and countertrade B) contractual entry C).
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    71) The physical path a product follows on its way to customers is called a ________. A) distribution channel B) promotional mix path C) value density D) just-in-time path   72) Companies along a distribution channel that work together in delivering products to customers are called ________. A) arbitrageurs B) intermediaries C) solicitors D) reduction planners 73) A distribution channel in.
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  123) Explain why an exporter would use a sales representative or a distributor, and discuss why the exporter might be reluctant to offer an open account payment method. 124) Discuss the steps companies can take to avoid export and import blunders, and explain why an advance payment method can help exporters.
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    111) ________ is the export of industrial equipment in return for products produced by that equipment.   112) Export/import financing in which a bank acts as an intermediary without accepting financial risk is called ________.   113) A(n) ________ requires the importer to pay when goods are delivered.   114) A(n) ________ is a contract between.
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    61) Which of the following financing methods entails the greatest risk for importers? A) Documentary collection B) Advance payment C) Letter of credit D) Open account   62) Which of the following financing methods entails the greatest risk for exporters? A) Documentary collection B) Advance payment C) Letter of credit D) Open account   63) The ________ payment method is commonly used.
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    101) ________ occurs when a company sells its products directly to buyers in a target market.   102) A(n) ________ organization represents only its own company's products, not those of other companies.   103) ________ take ownership of merchandise when it enters their country. 104) ________ occurs when a company sells its products to intermediaries.
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