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  3)Apply the functionalist perspective to explain why free public education became widespread in the United States in the mid-1800s. 4)Discuss the differences between community colleges and four-year colleges and some of the factors related to which type college a student attends. 5) Discuss how Japanese education is related to its culture and.
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  1)How do sociologists define medicine? Explain how the concepts of sickness and health are socially constructed. 2)According to the functionalist perspective, if a society is to function well, its people need to be healthy enough to perform their normal roles. Explain how the elements of the sick role and the role.
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  18)Based on the author's assessment, what are two major solutions that will increase the success of education? 19)What two reasons were offered by the research of Coleman and Hoffer why Catholic school students did better scholastically than public school students? 20)If school shootings are actually on the decrease, why is school violence.
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1)Health and illness are medical absolutes. 2)The concepts of health and illness vary from culture to culture and in a pluralistic society, from group to group. 3)Parents and physicians are the primary gatekeepers to the sick role. 4)The United States has the lowest infant mortality rate in the industrialized world. 5)There is an international.
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  31)What is the correspondence principle? A)The social structure of schools reflects their society. B)Family structure is based on the school's structure. C)Students learn more easily through distance education. D)Large corporations control what is taught in U.S. schools. 32)How are public schools primarily funded? A)federal grants B)state grants C)state and federal grants D)local property taxes 33)The most significant predictor of whether.
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  1)What was Durkheim's influential book published in 1912 that identified the elements common to religion? 2)How does religion provide a means of social control? 3)Identify two organizations or practices that qualify as functional equivalents of religion. 4)What is meant by the term ? 5)What are the basic ideologies shared by Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
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  12)What is the fee-for-service approach to medicine and what is its consequence? 13)In previous generations, Americans were more physically fit and obesity was less common. What evidence do we have that contradicts the claim that Americans in the past were actually healthier than they are today? 14)In what ways have physicians used.
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  1)Prior to a formal system of education that included schools, teachers, and diplomas how was the manifest function of education accomplished? A)through a process of acculturation B)through heredity and genetics C)Children relied on instinct to develop skills needed. D)Children relied on experimentation and imitation. 2)What was necessary for education to develop as a separate social.
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  6) Compare the similarities and differences between education in the most industrialized, industrializing, and least industrialized nations. 7)Explain what a credential society is and why it develops. 8)How would the cultural transmission of values in the former Soviet Union and the United States be similar and different?     .
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  Match the term with the definition. 1)moral community 2)state religion 3)civil religion 4)functional equivalent of religion 5)religious experience 6)modernization 7)Protestant ethic 8)anti-Semitism 9)theocracy 10)nirvana 11)reincarnation 12)jen 13)charisma 14)denomination 15)secular A)a government sponsored religion, also called ecclesia B)a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God C)in Hinduism, spiritual perfection that marks the end of the cycle of death and rebirth D)Robert Bellah's term.
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1)The hunting-gathering societies have no separate social institution called education. 2)Once it began as a formal institution in the early city-states, education continually progressed throughout history to its present level. 3)All U.S. states have mandatory education laws requiring children to attend school. 4)In Japan, a philosophy based on cooperation and group effort ensures.
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  11)What is the relationship between industrialization and life expectancy?  A) It is an indirect relationship. B)It is a direct relationship. C)It is a null relationship. D)It is a spurious relationship. 12)Of the following nations, which one has the highest infant mortality rate? A)South Korea B)Canada C)the United States D)France 13)In the United States, what organization initiated efforts to professionalize.
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  41)Who developed the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy that explains why originally false assumptions become true because the outcome was predicted? A)Talcott Parsons B)Edwin Sutherland C)Robert Merton D)Donald Cressey 42)Using exceptionally simple questions on an exam and "dummying down" grading scales so everyone passes are examples of a growing problem in education called ________. A)mediocrity B)mainstreaming C)gatekeeping D)telescoping 43)What do.
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  11)Karl Marx was an avowed atheist who characterized religion as "the opium of the people." 12)Conflict theorists see religion as being the means of social change and an instrument to establish a perfect society. 13)The desire to accumulate capital as a duty and to constantly reinvest it is what Max Weber referred.
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  1)What is society's standard way of dealing with illness and injury? A)pharmacy B)science C)apothecary D)medicine 2)The perception of health varies considerably among societies of the world. The definition of what constitutes health and illness is most defined by which of the following variables? A)the culture of society B)the life expectancy of members of the society C)the life span.
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1)Sociologists are primarily concerned with verifying the basic principles that guide any religion for their value and validity. 2)The word  as used by Durkheim, is synonymous with the concept of a moral community. 3)Members of a religious cult who practice human sacrifice qualify as a moral community as much as any organization.
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  31)Which of the following elements are most emphasized in Jewish teachings? A)to love God and do good things B)to tithe wages and support the religious community C)to renounce materialism and accept salvation D)to establish missions to spread the word of God 32)What is the world's largest religion, with around 2 billion members? A)Islam B)Buddhism C)Judaism D)Christianity 33)The original goal of.
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  31)In the United States, doctors often convince women to have unnecessary hysterectomies because the uterus and ovaries are potentially disease-producing organs. What does this practice of convincing women to have unnecessary surgery suggest? A)Women are more likely to be psychosomatic. B)Women are more likely to have more serious medical conditions. C)Women need to.
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  15)Based on Hindu beliefs, what are the three gods that serve as the creator, the destroyer, and the preserver of the universe? 16)What are the four noble truths of Buddhism? 17)Why is evangelism important to sects and cults? 18)How are church members in the United States stratified by social class? 19)Why has Sunday morning.
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  8)How did Karl Marx view religion? 9)What is the primary criticism of Weber's theory that Calvinism led to capitalism? 10)What emphasis did Weber place on capitalism in his book, ? 11)What feature do Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share? 12)What is a central element in Jewish teaching? 13)What is the fundamental difference between Hinduism when compared.
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  7)What was the purpose of social placement as proposed by Parsons, Davis, and Moore? 8)What are some of the family functions that educational systems have greatly affected and even replaced in American society? 9)Identify two latent functions of education. 10)Provide reasons why home-schooled children score as highly as they do on a standardized.
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  13)In the Ray Rist study, what was the basis of selection used by the kindergarten teacher to assign students to their respective reading groups? 14)According to the research of George Farkas, which students were most successful at signaling teachers that they were better students and deserved better grades? 15)Name two major problems.
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  9)According to functionalist theorists, education provides a number of social benefits. Identify five of the manifest functions of education and briefly state how they benefit society. 10) According to functionalist theorists, education provides a number of social benefits. Identify some of the latent functions of education and briefly state how they.
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    Match the term with the definition. 1)household 2)family 3)family of orientation 4)family of procreation 5)monogamy 6)neolocal residence 7)endogamy 8)exogamy 9)system of descent 10)egalitarian society 11)gendered division of labor 12)adultolescent 13)blended family 14)cohabitation 15)sandwich generation A)a family in which a person grows up B)the practice of couples establishing a new home following marriage apart from the groom's or bride's family C)how kinship is traced over generations D)the practice of marrying.
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  11)The U.S. Congress exempted itself from the medical system they are enforcing on the “common” people through the Affordable Care Act, opting to keep their luxurious, government-paid system of medical care. 12)Defensive medicine is practiced for the benefit of the doctor, not the patient. 13)Physician incompetence has been virtually eliminated in modern.
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  21)Which of the following is  a likely outcome of the Affordable Care Act?  A) People with higher incomes will receive higher quality healthcare. B)Inequality in medical care will be eliminated. C)The poor will continue to suffer from more health problems and die at a younger age. D)Congress will maintain its luxurious, government-paid medical.
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  21)Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________. A)"If people believe the situation is real, it is real in the consequences." B)"The sum of the whole is no greater than the sum of the.
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  1)acculturation 2)manifest function 3)latent functions 4)credential society 5)cultural transmission of values 6)gatekeeping 7)tracking 8)social integration 9)credentialing 10)mainstreaming 11)correspondence principle 12)self-fulfilling prophecy 13)grade inflation 14)social promotion 15)distance learning A)the promotion of a sense of national identity through practices shared by all members of society B)learning a culture to gain knowledge and skills C)the process by which education opens and closes doors of opportunity D)using diplomas and degrees to determine.
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  1)Why are the concepts of sickness and health not absolutes? 2)What are the three components of health as identified by international health experts and the fourth that has been identified by the author? 3)From a functionalist perspective, what are the four elements of the sick role? 4)Why are parents and physicians classified as.
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  1)Why did public education spread and develop a strong support system in the United States following the beginning of the Industrial Revolution? 2)What was the common school? 3)What was the requirement for fulfilling mandatory education laws in 1918? 4)Why did two-year colleges change their name from  college to  college? 5)If admission to college in.
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  41)In Hinduism, one of the central beliefs is karma, which means ________. A)personal enlightenment B)born again C)slain by the spirit D)spiritual progress 42)The basic moral principle of Confucianism is to maintain  and the key to is to ________. A)practice self-denial and meditate B)love God and do good deeds C)be loyal and place morality above self-interest D)follow your karma 43)A central.
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  11)Although cooperation is a core value in Japan, Japanese students are admitted to college only on the basis of intense competition. This is an example of a ________. A)cultural contradiction B)value conflict C)status inconsistency D)role ambiguity 12)What event was responsible for the change in the Russian education system in 1917? A)World War I B)the Russian Revolution C)the emergence.
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  1)Why is religion classified as a universal social institution?  A) It meets basic human needs. B)Without religion, there could be no salvation. C)All societies have churches. D)Religion unites all people of the world. 2)What is the primary reason sociologists study religion?  A) to verify or disprove the principles of specific faiths B)to evaluate the truth.
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  21)Schools determining which people will enter what occupation based on their capabilities is referred to as ________. A) mainstreaming B)multicultural representation C)telescoping D)social placement 22)The three functionalists who advocated gatekeeping as a means to support people on the basis of merit and advocated social placement were ________, ________, and ________. A)Robert Merton; Talcott Parsons; Pitirim.
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  11)Home schooling is new to the education scene, becoming popular due to the dissatisfaction of parents over the quality of public education. 12)Research has shown that people who go farther in school live longer. 13)Conflict theorists stress that the hidden curriculum in schools perpetuates social inequalities. 14)The correspondence principle is the idea that.
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  12)The conflict perspective emphasizes that education reproduces the social class structure. Show how the concept of the hidden curriculum perpetuates social inequality. 13) Explain how a positive stereotype such as “Asian students are smart” can become a self-fulfilling prophecy similar to what Rist viewed in teacher expectations of students based on.
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  11)As a state religion in past centuries, Lutheranism was to Sweden as ________ was to Switzerland.  A) Roman Catholicism B)Calvinism C)Lutheranism D)Presbyterianism 12)How would sociologists classify communism in respect to its religious qualities?  A) It is a secular religion. B)It is a functional equivalent of religion. C)It is a dysfunction of religion. D)It is a civil religion. 13)What.
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  1)What is the functional equivalent of religion?  Identify at least two organizations that serve as functional equivalents of religion. 2)Discuss the major functions of religion. 3)What is state religion? Provide an example. 4)How do functionalists and conflict theorists differ in their approach to the study of religion?   .
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  5) How do symbolic interactionists view religion? What are the major aspects of religion that are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective? 6)How does religion provide a legitimation of social inequality? What characteristics of religion make it so difficult to challenge beliefs that legitimate social inequalities?   .
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  13)What is the United States government's basic position on religion? 14)Explain how the secularization of religion sometimes leads to the splintering of churches. Provide at least one example of the result of the secularization process. 15)What are the four main concerns that are typically responded to by religious belief? Is there any.
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  6)The text describes the professionalization of medicine largely as dysfunctional, and a way to monopolize medical care. In what ways was professionalization functional for society? 7)Using the conflict perspective, briefly summarize how one group was able to establish a monopoly in health care in the United States. 8)Briefly explain from the conflict.
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  11) When religion and the culture are in conflict, three major patterns of adaptation are possible. Discuss the three adaptations and give a specific example of each. 12) What are the two variables cited by the author that are related to patterns of religious affiliation in the United States? Briefly describe.
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