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Multiple Choice Questions 1. Unlike the Enlightenment’s “Newton’s of the Mind”, the Romantics’ conception of the Will was captured in the phrase, ____________. a. The Will is motivated by love and art. b.The Will is reason without faith. c.The Will is a wild beast. d.The Will arises from the brain doing its work. 2.In his treatment.
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11. American psychologist preferred Binet’s intelligence test over Galton’s because: a. Binet’s test took less time to administer and score than did Galton’s test b.Binet’s test was based on the traditional Scottish moral values. c.Binet’s test was cheaper and professional psychologists made greater profit. d.Binet’s test met the practical and applied needs of American.
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11.Genetic epistemology is most centrally concerned with: a.how human knowledge develops c.how beliefs control behavior b.cognitive development d.eliminating “junkshop psychology” 12.The theory of cognitive dissonance was developed by: a.Charles Osgood c.Leon Festinger d.Herbert Simon d.Herbert Simon 13.The findings from Leon Festinger’s experiment (boring task) on cognitive dissonance did what? a.showed the New Look in perception was flawed. b.showed that Piaget’s theory underestimated.
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21.Which of the following scientists believed that the cerebral cortex is not a set of localized abilities but acts as a unit (“mass action”)? a.J. M. P. Flourens b.F. Gall c.P. P. Broca d.J. C. Spurzheim 22. In terms of mental chronometry, the first quantitative way of measuring mental processes arose in the field of.
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11. Eventually Mesmer’s claim that his patients trance was the result of animal magnetism was investigated. As a result a simpler explanation was found. As a result, Mesmerism was transformed into ________. a. Voodoo. b.hypnotism. c.a religion. d.a theory of synaptic communication. 12. What Frederic Myers once studied was known as Psychical research. Today it.
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21.According to scholars from the time of the Greeks (i.e. Aristotle) through the Middle Ages, when we perceive an object we: a.perceive it as it really is with all its sensory properties (e.g. beauty) b.perceive it indirectly through a copy, or idea, in consciousness c.actively construct the object via the Categories of Apperception d.are.
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11.Central to Freud’s biological conception of human development and behavior was _______ because this provided a truly universal basis for his theory that was not culture specific. a.eating b.sleeping c.sex d.emotion and affection 12. One reason the sex drive is so important in Freud’s theory is that the sex drive is __________. a.the most sinful b.the one.
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11.Which of the following was the view of Reid and the Scots? a.is a God-given mental faculty and is therefore a reliable source of knowledge b.results from the Transcendental Ego’s imposition of the Categories of Apperception on raw sensory experience c.depends on careful use of demonstrative logic to prove our conclusions d.is useful in.
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41.The basic notion behind cognitive science is the idea that: a.cognition is a biological process b.all cognizers, regardless of physical makeup, think the same way c.epistemology has much to learn from computer science d.humans and machines are conscious 42.The hypothesis that links together artificial intelligence and human cognition is the idea that: a.both machines and people.
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31.The French naturalist philosophers replaced the Greek ethical goal of eudaemonia with ethical hedonism.  Eudaemonia meant: a.living one’s life in order to get as much pleasure as possible b.following the commandments of the Greek Gods c.living well—flourishing d.acting strictly in accord with reason, whether it made one happy or not 32.The Scottish commonsense philosophers said.
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11.Watson thought that traditional psychology’s interest in consciousness reflected: a.psychologist’s desire to be socially useful b.secret belief in a human soul c.neurotic preoccupation with the self d.a need to justify continued use of introspection 12.According to Watson a child’s attachment to its mother is: a.determined by genetically based responses to maternal stimuli b.a conditioned emotional response c.a by-product.
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31.In the early decades of the 1900’s, Popular psychology simultaneously accomplished two apparently contradictory things. The two things were: a.provide a sense of sexual liberation from the outdated past religious morality b.provided new and supposedly scientific techniques for social control c.both of these d. none of these 32.According to social scientists in the 1920s, the.
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41-44. During the 18th century, philosophers argued about human nature.  Match the philosopher to their view of human nature. 41.Thomas Hobbes a.Human beings are naturally peaceful “noble savages”. 42.French empiricism b.Human nature is a blank slate that is shaped by culture and education. 43.Jean-Jacques Rousseau c.Human beings are selfish and dangerous: without government.
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11.William of Ockham: a.rejected the real existence of universals and forms. b.rejected the idea that the soul has distinct mental faculties like will or intellect. c.Separated faith and reason by arguing that only faith provides knowledge of the immortal soul. d.all of the above 12. Renaissance humanism turned the focus of human inquiry away from.
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21. According to the Turing Test, we may say that a machine is intelligent when it can: a.play chess as well as any human c.win a political debate b.practice psychotherapy d.fool us into thinking it is a person 22.A computer that plays chess exactly as grandmasters do would be an example of: a.artificial intelligence c.task analysis b.computer simulation d.heuristic.
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Multiple Choice Items 1.The author of the text notes that any theory of evolution needs at least two components.  One of which is? a.preserving changes b.an engine of change c.both of these d. none of these 2.In Lamarck’s Romantic theory of evolution, the engine of change was proposed to be: a.a living species innate drive to perfect.
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61.  David Hartley strove to see the mind through Newtonian eyes.  Hartley believed in the close correspondence of mind and brain and ___________. a. he proposed parallel laws of association for both in his physiological theory. b.yet he refused to agree with associationism, instead he argued for nativism. c.developed a major theory of.
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31.According to the text, Humanistic Psychology is the product of modern age.  Yet Rogers and Maslow recipe for happiness is most like which previous era? a.Hellenistic b.Medieval c.Greek d. Victorian 32.According to the text, which of the following was a reason for Timothy Leary and many of the Hippies of the 1960s using LSD and.
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41.Chauncy Wright took __________ as a model by which to understand how we come to accept some beliefs as true and others as false. a.Gall's phrenology c.Darwinian evolution b.Lamarckian evolution d.positivism 42.Analyzing beliefs as useful habits is the essence of the American philosophy of: a.Transcendentalism c.rationalism b.psychologism d.pragmatism 43.Which of the following is the correct series of events according to.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The uniquely German concept of Bildung refers to: a.constructing monumental architecture that is functional yet beautiful b.the establishment of new scientific fields based on rigorous experimentation c.cultivating self-formation through broad humanistic education d.using the fruits of science to increase industrial production and income 2.The products of the German concept of Bildung were the.
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11. Although not favored by Islamic thinkers, the concept of ________ developed by medieval thinkers was important to the development of natural science in Europe. a.separation of mind and body c.an omnipotent God b.secondary causation d.primary causation 12.Sigmund Freud called this work the first great blow to the human ego: a.Newton’s Principia Mathematica b.Copernicus’ Revolution of the.
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Multiple Choice Items 1.Using the findings from his puzzle box research, Thorndike argued that animals: a.reason but they also learn by trial and error. b.do not reason, but they do learn by trial and error. c.reason using cognitive problem skills similar to young children. d.none of these. 2.Mills and later Kohler criticized Thorndike’s puzzle box research,.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Which of the following was NOT one of the perceived enemies of the Enlightenment Project? a.religion c.tradition b.science d.the aristocracy 2.Which of the following was considered to be the “The lamp of the Enlightenment”? a.Hume          c.    Locke b.Newton          d.    Kant 3.The 17th century figure who had the most influence on Enlightenment philosophy was: a.Descartes b.Galileo c.Newton d.Hobbes 4.Locke argued for two.
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21.In Animal Intelligence (1883)George Romanes carried on work in comparative psychology by surveying the mental abilities of animals. Yet C. Lloyd Morgan objected to Romanes  ________. a.being overly objective in his observations and underestimating animal intelligence. b. attributing both a soul and the ability of some animals to learn language. c.overestimated animal intelligence.
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Multiple Choice Items 1.According to Noam Chomsky, Skinner's Verbal Behavior: a.did not go far enough in pursuing a behaviorist account of  language b.was mainly common sense recast in apparently scientific language c.provided a viable basis upon which to begin the scientific study of language d.failed to relate animal research findings to human behavior 2.  Noam Chomsky.
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21.In his Three Essays on the theory of sexuality, Freud viewed aggression as: a.occurring only when some other, innate, drive is thwarted b.an innate part of human, but not animal, nature c.an innate part of animal and human nature d.a result of Western repression of sexuality 22.Freud’s view of the relation between each individual and.
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30.The still unresolved controversy over the existence of a g factor in intelligence began in the work of ________ who first advocated the concept of general intelligence. a.T. H. Huxley b.J.-M. Charcot c.E. H. Weber d.F. Galton 31.Francis Galton was the first to try and develop tests of intelligence and his work influenced James Cattell.
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21.Which of the following best represents Robert Yerkes contribution to the WWI war effort? a.developed scientifically supported interrogation techniques to extract information from captured enemy soldiers. b.helped  developed an unbreakable code for the day to aid military communications. c.helped develop intelligence tests that could be given in large groups in brief periods of.
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31.Descartes doubting let him to conclude that there are two worlds. One is the objective scientifically knowable material world and the other is in some sense: a.a subjective world of human consciousness. b.the world of a person as a thinking being. c.a world only known through introspection. d.all of these. 32.If Descartes’ picture of the.
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31. Franz Brentano’s Act psychology: a.rejected the way of Ideas b.viewed the mind as the means by which a person actively grasps the real external world. c.both of these d.none of these 32. In some way, the Gestalt movement in psychology sprang from: a.The Würzburger’s concept of mental set b.Franz Brentano’s revival of realism and descriptive phenomenology c.Sigmund.
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11.In creating psychology as an independent discipline, Wundt proclaimed a strategic “alliance” between psychology and: a.physiology b.sociology c.anthropology d.philosophy 12.Which of the following characteristics of German universities was most important in making it more open than other nation’s systems of higher education to creation of psychology as a new, recognized, discipline? a.the high levels of tax.
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31.The development of scientific psychology in the United States was foreshadowed by the earlier _________ movement. a.Progressive c.phrenological b.Socialist d.pragmatist 32.Phrenology was changed by the Americans who popularized it, in ways that anticipate how psychology would be changed as it Americanized.  Which of the following changes did not occur? a.Phrenology became more theoretical. b.Phrenology became more practical. c.Phrenology.
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11.Joe believes that the government should do nothing to help the poor, weak and helpless and that natural selection should be allowed to take its course with the human species. Joe’s belief best matches the ideas of: a. Darwinism b.Embodied Cognition c.Social Darwinism d.The Metaphysical Club 12.Asking how different species have acquired different mentalities as.
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21.Rogers argued that behaviorism was a crippled, partial view of human nature because it limited itself to the ____ mode of knowing. a. logical b.sensorimotor c.empathy d.objective 22.The need to provide vocational guidance to GIs in college created the field of ________ psychology. a.counseling c.educational b.clinical d.school 23.Which of the following is NOT one of Carl Rogers’ three modes of.
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31.In autobiographical statements from the 1930s concerning the seduction episode in the history of psychoanalysis, Freud stated that: a.he had made his patients tell him of being seduced by their parents b.the seduction mistake had “never happened,” but was made up by his enemies c.his early patients had told him openly of being.
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51.Functional psychology was “functional” in three senses. One of which was ______? a.mind was viewed as a biological function b.the theoretical bases of functional psychology supported the research data c. it functioned to give psychologists more employment opportunities than structural psychology did. d.all of these 52.Functional psychology was “functional” in three senses. One of which.
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21.As with Freud and James, Wundt’s psychology changed over time by: a.retreating from the goal of linking mental processes to brain processes b.admitting that mental tests were as important as experimentation c.emphasizing psychology’s potential to solve social problems d.linking psychology more closely to religious concerns 22.The author of the text states that Wundt remade psychology.
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21.From reading about the inhabitants of the Pacific islands, ______ concluded that in a state of nature people are “noble savages.” a.Rousseau b.Herder c.Condorcet d.Berkeley 22.From the course of the French Revolution, many thinkers concluded that: a.peaceful change from monarchy to democracy was not very difficult b.the Enlightenment Project had come to a dangerous and violent end c.violent.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.One reason that the scientific revolution occurred in Europe and not some other   culture (e.g. Islam or China). a.Islam and China were intellectually underdeveloped at the time and new little about philosophy. b.  Europe never experienced a feudal system. c.Creation of self-governing Universities those were relatively free in terms of inquiry. d..
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Multiple Choice Items 1. Sigmund Freud wrote to his friend Wilhelm Fliess and described himself as a(n): a.experimenter b.patient worth of being analyzed c.conquistador d.none of these 2.Scholars have suggested three blows to human self-esteem with one of them being Freud’s psychoanalysis.  Freud claimed it was ___________that delivered the blow to human self-esteem. a.his work on the.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Until WW II, clinical psychology meant: a.application of psychology in hospitals b.doing psychotherapy c.administering mental tests d.teaching mental hygiene 2.During the 1920s and 1930s, traditional academic psychologists had a hard time accepting applied psychologists because applied psychologists: a.worked outside colleges and universities b.wanted to lobby for passing licensure laws c.did not do research d.all of the above 3.Although.
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31.Which of the following forms of behaviorism merged most easily with information processing psychology? a.radical behaviorism c.mediational behaviorism b.neurophysiological, behaviorism d.mentalistic behaviorism 32.According to cognitive science, computers and people are alike in that both: a.use language c.have CPUs b.have memories d.are informavores 33.According to the cognitive theory of mind called functionalism, the mind is: a.an illusion—it does not exist b.the set of.
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51. Regarding our ability to form generalizations, (i.e. form true beliefs), which of the following was the view of Reid (Scottish common sense philosopher)? a. It is a God given innate mental faculty and is therefore a reliable source of knowledge. b. It results from the Transcendental Ego’s imposition of Categories of.
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11.According to the text and lectures, an important hidden reason for adoption of the Boulder model of clinical training was to: a.satisfy the concerns of psychiatrists b.give clinical psychologists separate and higher status than physicians c.recognize the non-medical nature of psychotherapy d.ensure high enrollment in Ph.D. psychology programs According to the Boulder model, clinical psychologists.
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41.Skinner’s operant methodology included placing an organism in a space and reinforcing a behavior that it may make at any time. Yet, for Skinner the basic datum of analysis was: a.rate of responding b. trial and error learning c.time, in the sense of how long it took the organism to forget the response.
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21.Which of the following sentence completions is NOT an example of an operational definition of "anxiety?"  Anxiety may be operationally defined as: a.sweaty palms and rapid breathing b.an unpleasant feeling of unfocused fear c.the statement `I feel anxious' d.a score in the 95th percentile on the Anxiety Inventory 22.According to logical positivism, when we link.
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40.The field of psychiatry first developed in which of these institutional settings? a.rest spas for the “nervous” c.asylums for the insane b.prisons, to treat psychopaths d.research universities 41.The first theories about psychopathology emphasized _______ causes. a.emotional b.early childhood c.situational d.biological 42.Although today psychologists use the term “participant” for people taking part in a psychological study, the initial term “subject” was.
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31.Imagine an experiment by Tolman in which he measures how fast Norwegian rats run down a runway for different sizes of food pellets.  Using Tolman’s ideas, match the description of the dependent variable to one of the terms listed below from the experiment: a.running speed of rat b.size of food pellet c.species of.
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Multiple Choice Items 1.In 1892 the preamble to the American Psychological Association (APA) stated its mission was to “advance psychology as a science”. When re-organized in 1945 APA’s mission was ______? a.to no longer advance psychology as a science but instead focus solely on intelligence testing and education. b.to return psychology to the.
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