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Anthropology Expert Answers & Study Resources : Page 45

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  21.Approximately one third of Native Americans in the U.S. live in urban areas. 22.The Yanomamö have become one of the wealthiest Native American tribes since gold was discovered on their traditional lands. 23.Yanomamö populations have been increasing steadily since 1987. 24.Bedouins, such as the Al-Murrah tribe of Saudi Arabia, are traditionally pacifists. 25.Before contact.

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  • 21.Approximately one third of Native Americans in the U.S. live
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  26.Most chiefdom societies: A.occupied areas that were rich in natural resources and conducive to producing a surplus B.were located in marginal lands that demanded intensive irrigation and plow agriculture C.were based on intensive foraging, supplemented by occasional hunting and fishing D.relied on herd animals as the basis of their subsistence economy E.were composed of two.

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  • 26.Most chiefdom societies: A.occupied areas that were rich in natural resources
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  21.Since individualistic religious practices and beliefs were deemed as threatening to the state, one of the major functions of priests was to standardize religious beliefs and practices for the society. 22.In ancient agricultural states, religion sanctified and legitimized the authority of political leaders. 23.Most cultures with matrilineal social organizations are found in.

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  • 21.Since individualistic religious practices and beliefs were deemed as threatening
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  41.In most tribal societies, rules of descent, marriage, and residence are: A.flexible and often subject to lengthy discussion and negotiations B.strictly enforced and rarely changed C.known only to village elders, who are consulted whenever a decision must be made D. unconscious, and therefore defined mostly by outsiders (such as ethnographers) 42.In general, divorces are.

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  • 41.In most tribal societies, rules of descent, marriage, and residence
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1.Hunting and gathering societies have always existed in marginal environments. 2.By studying contemporary foragers (hunter-gatherers) anthropologists can gain a better understanding of life during the Paleolithic period. 3.The nice thing about studying hunter-gatherer societies is the fact that they have never been in contact with or influenced by other cultures; thus, they.

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  • 1.Hunting and gathering societies have always existed in marginal environments. 2.By
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  18.The principal theoretical objective of modern anthropology is: A.to document differences between ethnic groups B.to study the close relationship between genetics and culture C.to provide useful explanations of human society and behavior D.to formulate laws for predicting human behavior and thought 19.Edward B. Tylor, who published a major book entitled Primitive Culture in 1871, is.

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  • 18.The principal theoretical objective of modern anthropology is: A.to document differences
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  11.The Ju/’hoansi or San were protected from exploitation and assimilation by the South African government. 12.Ju/’hoansi or San men fought against guerrillas who opposed apartheid as members of the South African military. 13.Rates of alcoholism among the Ju/’hoansi or San have increased as a result of wage labor. 14.Mbuti Pygmies have adapted well.

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  • 11.The Ju/’hoansi or San were protected from exploitation and assimilation
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1.States differ structurally from bands, tribes, and chiefdoms by having a bureaucratic or governmental organization. 2.The term “civilization” usually implies societies with a complex division of labor, with economic roles other than those pertaining to food production. 3.In contrast to horticulture, intensive agriculture allows a population to produce a surplus of food.

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  • 1.States differ structurally from bands, tribes, and chiefdoms by having
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  31.In order for a society to modernize it must first: A.stress individual achievement over traditional community reciprocity B.build roads and public utilities C.achieve universal literacy D.reduce population growth 32.According to modernization theorists, the primary impediments to economic development are: A.foreign investment and exchange B.poor nutrition and health care C.cultural values and traditionalism D.international relief agencies 33.The term "Second World" refers.

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  • 31.In order for a society to modernize it must first: A.stress
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  50.The phrase "original affluent society" refers to: A.the earliest foragers, who lived in rich environments B.the notion that hunter-gatherers spend little time working C.the ancient Egyptian civilization D.the concept of the "noble savage" 51.It has been suggested that, in forager societies, the more concentrated and predictable the resources: A.the less likely the group will be egalitarian.

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  • 50.The phrase "original affluent society" refers to: A.the earliest foragers, who
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  25.Conducting unstructured and structured interviews, talking with key informants, making naturalistic observations, engaging in participant observation, and collecting quantitative and qualitative data are all parts of a research design __________. A.in ethnographic fieldwork B.that attempts to uncover ecofacts that influence cultures C.of sociologists but not anthropologists D.to avoid getting culture shock 26.Ethnographic research can be.

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  • 25.Conducting unstructured and structured interviews, talking with key informants, making
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  25.A system of symbols with standard meanings is a __________. A.society B.phonology C.syntax D.language E.semantic 26.The gorilla named "Koko" was able to: A.speak and communicate by using over 100 English words B.learn to program a computer using the computer language called FORTRAN C.communicate using about 170 signs from American Sign Language (ASL) D.write her own name and verbally communicate her.

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  • 25.A system of symbols with standard meanings a __________. A.society B.phonology C.syntax D.language E.semantic 26.The gorilla
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  41.Since the 1960s, the Ju/’hoansi or San have become: A.increasingly independent and isolated from the modern world B.middle class citizens of the nation of South Africa C.increasingly dependent upon government assistance D.one of the few indigenous societies to become financially independent 42.The introduction of a cash economy has disrupted traditional Ju/’hoansi patterns of: A.egalitarianism and reciprocity B.food.

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  • 41.Since the 1960s, the Ju/’hoansi or San have become: A.increasingly independent
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  11.Fazenda and hacienda both refer to large-scale farms established during the Colonial period in Latin America. 12.The pattern of inefficient, localized production and marketing characteristic of haciendas is still present in Latin America today. 13.Catholicism was predisposed to accommodate elements of the pagan traditions of the Americas. 14.All of the West African countries.

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  • 11.Fazenda and hacienda both refer to large-scale farms established during
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1.Unilineal evolution is the view that all societies evolve in a single direction called "progress" toward complexity and civilization. 2.In the 19th century, E. B. Tylor suggested that all societies progressed through three evolutionary stages: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. 3.Lewis Henry Morgan believed in a hierarchical evolution of society from "savagery" to "civilization,".

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  • 1.Unilineal evolution the view that all societies evolve in a
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  28.The concept of                  maintains that societal change occurs when societies borrow cultural traits from one another. A.functionalism B.structuralism C.evolutionary dispersal D.cultural scatter E.diffusionism       29.The body of anthropological theory concerned with the spread of technology, religion, economic systems, art forms, and other expressions of culture is known as: A.idealism B.particularism C.functionalism D.diffusionism 30.Grafton Eliot Smith and William Perry, major figures.

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  • 28.The concept of                  maintains that societal change occurs
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  35.One goal of anthropological linguistics is to determine the number of phonemes (phonetic structure) that exist in different languages. This goal is accomplished by employing the use of: A.minimal pairs B.phone taps C.maximal differences D.syntax units 36.The word "lower" contains: A.two bound morphemes B.two bound phonemes C.two free morphemes D.one bound morpheme and one free morpheme E.no morphemes of any.

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  • 35.One goal of anthropological linguistics to determine the number of
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  38.According to Malinowski, magic __________. A.has a basis in the existence of supernatural powers in all cultures B.functions to relieve the anxieties of individuals C.only works when it has the full participation of a given society D. has no useful purpose for thinking people 39.According to White's theory of the evolution of sociocultural systems,.

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  • 38.According to Malinowski, magic __________. A.has a basis in the existence
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  40."Fission" and "fusion" in hunting and gathering societies refer to: A.hazards of contacts with the industrialized world B.cyclical change in population density relative to resources C.decision-making processes used by tribal leaders D.the dynamics of wild plant resources 41.Hunting and gathering societies will sometimes resort to infanticide in order to: A.engage in more frequent intercourse B.supplement scarce hunting.

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  • 40."Fission" and "fusion" in hunting and gathering societies refer to: A.hazards
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  30.A foraging society depends on                     for food. A.the cultivation of plants B.the herding of animals C.primitive agriculture D.wild resources 31.The term "hunter and gatherer" evokes for anthropologists a society: A.whose economic, social, and political unit is the band B.that exists as a large, sedentary community C.that is organized as a tribe with a powerful chief D.that subsists.

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  • 30.A foraging society depends                     for food. A.the cultivation of
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  46.Through the control of resources and surplus goods, chiefs were able to ensure loyalty and deference from the general population. This status and authority enabled the chiefs to do all of the following EXCEPT: A.recruit armies B.distribute land and water rights to certain families C.sentence someone to death for violating social norms D.maintain absolute power.

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  • 46.Through the control of resources and surplus goods, chiefs were
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  19.Anthropologists are interested in understanding how biological, environmental, demographic, economic, social, political, and other cultural variables influence warfare and feuds. 20.Through enculturation people learn the specific norms regarding the expectations of society, and this, in turn, brings about perfect social control since these internalized norms are always followed. 21.Religion appears to be.

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  • 19.Anthropologists interested in understanding how biological, environmental, demographic, economic, social,
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  11.Kinship in industrial societies becomes less important as new structures and organizations take over the primary functions of kinship groupings. 12.Anthropologists have found that it is not possible to study industrial societies using techniques such as participant observation and key informants that worked well in preindustrial societies. 13.A major factor leading to.

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  • 11.Kinship in industrial societies becomes less important as new structures
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  26.A primary feature that separates an industrial society from a preindustrial society is: A.All kinship networks, such as kindreds, extended families, lineages, and clans, have been replaced with corporations, businesses, and schools. B.Most productive labor in industrial societies involves factory and office work rather than agricultural or foraging activities. C.Social stratification decreases, causing.

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  • 26.A primary feature that separates an industrial society from a
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  35.During your lifetime you will probably be a member of two families, the family of orientation (the family into which you were born and enculturated) and the family of __________ (the family in which you will have or adopt children). A.acculturation B.deculturation C.procreation D.life E.socialization 36.Which of the following is not a function of the family? A.nurture.

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  • 35.During your lifetime you will probably be a member of
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  42.Noam Chomsky suggests humans are born with a brain prewired to enable us to acquire languages easily.  This “prewiring” is referred to as __________. A.syntax B.universal grammar C.infinite model D.functional template 43.If someone came up to you and said, "Oh, you see everything through rose-colored glasses," this might suggest to you that the person speaking.

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  • 42.Noam Chomsky suggests humans born with a brain prewired to
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  11.Reciprocity occurs only in egalitarian, non-stratified societies. 12.The attempt to get something for nothing is called negative reciprocity. 13.All forager groups have a concept of private land ownership similar to that found in Western societies. 14.Band organization among foragers is very rigid and unchanging since individuals must remain band members for life. 15.A cross.

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  • 11.Reciprocity occurs only in egalitarian, non-stratified societies. 12.The attempt to get
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  51.Throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Bedouin communities are becoming: A.absorbed into existing nation-states B.economically self-sufficient C.autonomous nations with their own governments D.wealthy through oil revenues 52.As a result of policies of industrialization and modernization under the Shah of Iran, the Qashqa'i nomads began to: A.demand more autonomy B.manufacture cigars C.adapt an agricultural way of life D.live in cities like Tehran 53.Through.

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  • 51.Throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Bedouin communities becoming: A.absorbed into existing nation-states B.economically
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