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  41.  It is likely that every individual carries a mutation in some gene. a.True b.False 42.  The __________ chromosome is larger. a.Y b.X 43. Because X-linked disorders are essentially __________, they will only appear in the __________ sex. a.autonomic recessive disorders/ homogametic b.autonomic dominant disorders/ homogametic c.autonomic recessive disorders/ heterogametic d.autonomic dominant disorders/ heterogametic 44.  Females are usually only carriers of.

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  31.  The __________ contains organelles. a.prokaryote b.nucleus c.cytoplasm d.all of these 32.  Fossil prokaryotes appeared before eukaryotes. a.True b.False 33.  The first eukaryotes appear in the fossil record around __________years ago. a.3.4 billion b.1.5 billion c.850 million d.600 million 34.  Multicellular organisms have dominated most of the history of life on earth. a.True b.False 35.  Somatic cells __________. a.are the sex cells b.have the same function as gametes c.are.

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  21.  Sixteenth century scholars who argued for polygenism were __________. a.rewarded by the Church b.ignored c.imprisoned or burned d.celebrated 22.  The idea that there is a single, divine origin of humanity is called __________. a.monogenism b.polygenism c.evolution d.fixity of species 23.  Which is more aligned with the view of nature common to the Middle Ages? a.polygenism b.monogenism 24.  Archbishop James Ussher calculated the.

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  41.  James Hutton is associated with __________. a.Lysenkoism b.catastrophism c.uniformitarianism d.adaptive radiation 42.   Which of the following statements best defines the idea of uniformitarianism? a.All species are fixed and unchanging. b.The world is periodically destroyed by divine catastrophes. c.The geologic processes that drive the world today have always done so. d.Creatures transform and their offspring inherit those transformations. 43.  While.

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  45.The term maquiladoras is used to refer to: A.illegal Mexican aliens working in the U.S. B.armed guerrillas operating in the Mexican countryside C.factories in Mexico owned and run by multinational corporations D.underage Mexican prostitutes 46.As a result of problems with debt repayment, the International Monetary fund required the Mexican government to cut back on: A.social services B.manufacturing C.military.

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  71.  Transcription occurs in the __________. a.cytoplasm b.ribosome c.messenger RNA d.nucleus 72.  mRNA  __________. a.carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm b.splits a DNA molecule during transcription c.is completed replicated d.carries amino acids to a ribosome to be attached to other amino acids 73.  tRNA __________. a.carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm b.splits a DNA molecule during.

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  38.In order to tolerate practices such as racism, child abuse, spouse abuse, homicide, torture, human sacrifice, and the mass murder (genocide) of Jews, Gypsies, and homosexuals by the Nazis, one would have to abide strictly by the principle of: A.lost causes B.misplaced perceptions C.ethical relativism D.moral turpitude E.immoral tolerance 39.Which of the following is a way.

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1.Anthropologists have helped dismiss the notion of clearly bounded, racially-distinct populations of humans. 2.Multiculturalism means that a person can easily switch between two or more cultures without getting confused and frustrated. 3.African Americans had the largest demographic increase compared to other ethnic groups, according to the 2000 census. 4.Ethnic boundary markers include religion,.

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  51.  The basic unit of DNA is a molecule called a __________. a.nucleotide b.base c.thymine d.prokaryotic cell 52.  Nucleotides come together to form __________. a.proteins b.cells c.bases d.amino acids 53.  A nucleotide consists of three parts __________. a.a phosphate, a sugar, and a ribosome b.a sugar, a phosphate, and a base c.a phosphate, a base, and a nucleus d.a sugar, a base, and a.

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  21.  Which of the following is an example of a multicellular organism? a.bacteria b.protozoa c.worms d.archaea 22.  The Marine sea slug is commonly studied because it possesses    cells. a.larger b.colored c.more d.fewer 23.  Which of the following is true of prokaryotes? a.they are single-celled organisms b.they lack intercellular compartments c.they include bacteria d.all of these 24.  A single-celled organism with a nucleus is an.

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  31.  Who is most associated with the taxonomy used by scientists today? a.Carolus Linnaeus b.Georges Cuvier c.Comte de Buffon d.Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 32.  A taxonomy is made up of discrete units called __________. a.species b.nomenclatures c.particles d.taxons 33.  The use of the two-level genus-species labels is known as “binomial nomenclature.” a.True b.False 34.  Comte de Buffon __________. a.invented binomial nomenclature b.accepted the notion of biological change c.offered.

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  21.The “one-drop rule” of racial categorization was never used to classify Native Americans because: A.They received legal entitlements. B.They inhabited North America first. C.There were too many different tribes. D.There was never prejudice against them. 22.The majority of legal immigrants admitted to the United States in the early 1980s came from: A.Asia B.Latin America C.Africa D.Europe 23.Since the 19th century,.

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  39.Anthropologist Marvin Harris has suggested that the entire fabric of society in the former Soviet Union was undermined by: A.Marxist theories of social organization B.influence from the cultures of the U.S. and Europe C.widespread racial prejudice and ethnic conflict D.deficiencies in economic infrastructure 40.Perestroika and glasnost are terms that refer to: A.the power of the masses.

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  31.  Because sickle cell anemia is an autosomal recessive disease, there is a __________ % chance that the child of two carriers will have the disease. a.50 b.25 c.100 d.0 32.  Trinucleotide repeat diseases are caused by __________. a.insertion mutations b.autosomal recessive mutations c.deletion mutations d.point mutations 33.  Which of the following is caused by an insertion mutation? a.sickle cell disease b.Down’s.

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  21.Many scientists argue that the increased levels of carbon dioxide that are produced by the burning of fossil fuels and the tropical rainforest will create a(n)                   , in which the carbon dioxide will trap the heat from the sun and prevent it from radiating back into space. A.ultraviolet leach B.greenhouse effect C.biotechnological.

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  61.  An organism?s fitness can be best measured by observing its __________. a.strength b.size c.number of offspring d.color 62.  In order for evolution by natural selection to occur, __________. a.the trait in question must be inherited b.the trait in question must vary between individuals c.there must be environmental pressure d.all of these 63.  Whereas evolution happens at the level of.

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  91.  The reduction division is another term for the __________. a.first meiotic division b.second meiotic division c.meiotic prophase d.none of these 92.  During the first meiotic prophase, the genes are shuffled between chromosomes in a process called __________. a.crossing over b.recombination c.interphase d.meiotic division 93.  Which of the following best describes the results of the second meiotic division? a.two daughter cells.

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  1.  A basic understanding of heredity __________. a.is a relatively new phenomena b.did not happen until we fully understood DNA c.can be found in almost all human societies d.requires a thorough understanding of genetics and reproduction 2.  The term “gene” was coined by __________. a.Jean Lamarck b.Wilhelm Johannsen c.Charles Lyell d.Gregor Mendel 3.  The term “gene” was coined after DNA.

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  49.Norman Chance, the first anthropologist to do fieldwork in China in the 1970s after a long period during which ethnography was prohibited, concentrated on the economic life of: A.a bicycle factory in Shanghai B.a mining cooperative in southern China C.nomadic herdsmen near the border with Nepal D.an agricultural commune near Beijing 50.Studies of everyday life.

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  61.  Permanent changes in the DNA of a cell are called mutations. a.True b.False 62.  Hormones, antibodies, and hemoglobin are all __________. a.enzymes b.amino acids c.catalysts d.proteins 63.  Proteins are comprised of long chains of __________. a.hormones b.amino acids c.hemoglobin d.enzymes 64.  Some of the amino acids essential to creating proteins cannot be synthesized by the body. a.True b.False 65.  The base-pair sequence of DNA is.

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  11.The United States continues to only allow white European immigrants across its borders. 12.Assimilation between ethnic groups is not dependent on similarities of physical or cultural characteristics. 13.Intermarriage is one example of biological assimilation. 14.“Jim Crow” laws are credited with beginning the process of school desegregation. 15.Cases of ethnic cleansing and genocide have been.

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  41.  In most eukaryotic cells, the most prominent structure is the __________. a.nucleus b.mitochondria c.ribosomes d.DNA 42.  Deoxyribonucleic acid has one main function – protein synthesis. a.True b.False 43.  RNA is essential for carrying out the                   function of DNA. a.cell replication b.energy production c.cytoplasmic d.protein synthesis 44.  The two main functions of DNA are __________. a.protein synthesis and cell reproduction b.protein.

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  21.  Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment indicates that __________. a.dominant alleles suppress recessive alleles b.inheritance is governed by discrete particles c.segregating pairs of unit factors assort independently d.chromosomes randomly segregate into sex cells 22.  Linkage refers to __________. a.genes that are on the same chromosome b.alleles that appear on different chromosomes but are linked to the same.

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  31.Which of the following countries is likely to have the lowest per capita energy consumption? A.Sudan B.Japan C.Mexico D.Canada 32.Because of human activities and growth, it is estimated that at least one species becomes extinct every day. In fact, biologist E.O. Wilson thinks, with the expansion of industrialism, mechanized agriculture, and deforestation, as many as.

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  31.The principal religious text of Islam is called the: A.Torah B.Qur'an C.Bible D.Upanishad 32.The first doctrine of Hinduism is samsara, which refers to: A.animal sacrifice B.personal salvation C.the authority of the priesthood D.reincarnation 33.The ultimate aim and spiritual goal for all Hindus is: A.freedom from the cycle of reincarnation through spiritual enlightenment B.following the code of law given to humans by God C.emulating.

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  11.  Environmental factors play little to no role in determining obesity. a.True b.False 12.  Mendel’s work proved the blended nature of inheritance. a.True b.False 13.  The pea plants Mendel studied were ideal because they display __________ for several independent traits. a.blended inheritance b.no variation c.dominant alleles d.dichotomous variation 14.  In Mendel’s experiments, the F1 generation __________. a.was a mating of two lines.

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  11.Applied anthropologists often act as consultants for farmers in underdeveloped areas such as rural India. 12.Applied studies in medical anthropology can often help health providers design more effective means of delivering health care to a group of people. 13.Some applied medical anthropologists study the relationship and interactions between western medical practices and.

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  11.  Early natural philosophers like Aristotle and Plato considered themselves the first real scientists. a.True b.False 12.  Which of the following is inconsistent with Aristotle?s ideas about nature? a.life-forms are always changing b.humans are at the top of a “Great Chain of Being” c.all life is arranged in an orderly and hierarchical fashion d.all of these 13.  During.

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  21.Arabic is the exclusive language of the Middle East region. 22.Historically, Afghanistan was a buffer zone between the Russian and British empires. 23.The Suez Canal, built in 1869, resulted in: A.greater independence for Middle Eastern countries B.the economic isolation of Egypt from European commerce C.greater contact between the Middle East and Europe D.the Napoleonic Wars 24."Zionism" refers.

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  51.  In the years following his journey on the Beagle, Darwin pursued his ideas of evolution by studying __________. a.artificial selection b.animals he found on subsequent journeys c.the works of Alfred Russel Wallace d.all of these 52.  In what ways did Wallace differ from Darwin? a.Wallace was from a working class family b.Wallace collected specimens for wealthy.

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  37.Among the many racist events in U.S. history, little-known legislation in several states made which kind of intermarriage illegal? A.Filipino-white B.Korean-white C.Jewish-Christian D.Native American-white 38.During the period 1901-1920, most legal immigrants into the United States were from: A.Latin America B.Southern and Eastern Europe C.Northern and Western Europe D.Asia 39.When minority ethnic groups want to resist cultural hegemony by the dominant.

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  11.  Population geneticists only study traits at the molecular level. a.True b.False 12.  The genetic field of phylogenetics is concerned with __________. a.determining evolutionary relationships between species b.studying varying groups within the same species c.constructing pedigrees d.none of these 13.  A geneticist constructing tree-like diagrams that visually indicate relationships  between species is engaged in __________. a.behavioral genetics b.molecular genetics c.phylogenetics d.population genetics 14. .

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  31.The study of disease patterns in different societies is called: A.ethnodisease B.medical mapping C.epidemiology D.lepidopterology E.xenophobia 32.When patients in Thailand used a combination of ritual, magic, and modern scientific medicine to treat an illness, Louis Golomb referred to this behavior as: A.the multi-mix cure B.being maladaptive and potentially dangerous C.therapeutic pluralism D.the multiple treatment scenario 33.The anthropologist who studied heroin addicts.

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  1.  Early researchers such as Mendel and Bateson learned about inheritance __________. a.by looking at the genes themselves b.by replicating small sequences of DNA c.by studying human d.none of these 2.  A gene that contains information important to initiating transcription is a          gene. a.structural b.regulatory c.coding d.phenotype 3.  Structural genes __________. a.contain information to make proteins b.are surrounded be.

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  51.  Pleiotropy is best defined as __________. a.one gene, one effect b.one gene having multiple phenotypic effects c.heritability d.the effect of the environment on gene action 52.  __________ is a measure of the proportion of the total variation observed in a population that can be attributed to genetics, rather than the environment. a.Eugenics b.Pleiotropy c.Heritability d.Qualitative variation 53.  The twin.

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  51.The compadrazgo system in Latin America is based on the establishment of kinship ties by becoming someone's: A.in-law B.spouse C.godparent D.fictive sibling 52.African women in urban regions are                     rural women to receive a formal education. A.more likely than B.less likely than C.as likely as D.paid by 53.Ethnologist Oscar Lewis undertook a cross-cultural study of poverty by studying slum.

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  81.  An individual who is homozygous for a gene has __________. a.different alleles for the gene b.no alleles for that gene c.two of the same alleles for that gene d.only one locus for that particular gene 82.  Two identical daughter cells result from which process? a.mitosis b.translation c.mutation d.meiosis 83.  Messenger RNA brings the amino acids to the ribosome to.

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  31.An example of cultural assimilation is: A.the popularity of Chinese restaurants B.interracial dating C.English as a second language D. minority quotas for college enrollments 32.An example of biological assimilation is: A.school segregation B.interethnic marriage C.ethnic cleansing D.immigration quotas 33.The systematic attempt to kill and totally eliminate a particular ethnic group is: A.apartheid B.fratricide C.ethnocide D.genocide 34.Which of the following is not a pattern of.

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  25.Native American civilizations of Mexico and Central and South America were eventually conquered by: A.English and French B.Chinese and Japanese C.Dutch and Germans D.Spanish and Portuguese 26.The principal motivation for the conquest of the New World by Europeans was: A.economic B.religious C.strategic D.scientific 27.The Spanish were able to achieve political domination of Mexico by: A.capturing Tenochtitlán B.establishing a trade route to the.

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  19.Agricultural land is more likely to be individually owned by peasants in open peasant communities. 20.Ethnographic studies indicate that the behavior of individuals in peasant communities usually conforms to the ideals of machismo. 21.The typical Yoruba household consists of a man, his wife, and their unmarried children. 22.Urban West African women tend to.

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  101. One of the most common forms of direct DNA analysis is __________. a.DNA sequencing b.protein sequencing c.cytogenetics d.PCR 102.  Which of the following best defines polymerase chain reaction? a.the process of replicating or amplifying small segments of DNA b.studying immune system proteins to learn the relationship between species c.the process of mapping an organism?s entire DNA sequence d.studying.

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  41.Polygynous marriage in Muslim countries is most likely to be practiced by: A.wealthy individuals B.poor individuals C.Christians D.urban residents 42.The term purdah refers to: A.the idea of physical attractiveness and sensuality B.the wearing of the veil and forced seclusion of Muslim women C.the concept of the traditional extended family D. bridewealth paid in traditional Islamic families 43.The collapse of.

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  35.Haciendas in the Spanish colonies and fazendas in Brazil were: A.large-scale plantations B.prison camps C.mining towns D.military bases 36.The principal effect of the hacienda system in Latin America was the institution of: A.military authority B.capitalistic authority C.feudalistic authority D.religious authority 37.As a general rule, the haciendas were: A.beneficial to Indian health and well-being B.an efficient form of social welfare C.highly productive economic units D.responsible.

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  11.In spite of industrialization, farming communities in Egypt like Kafr el-Elow have rejected Western clothing, housing styles, and manufactured goods. 12.In Arab societies, the traditional family structure is matrilineal and matriarchal. 13.Unless financially or physically impaired, every Muslim is required to marry. 14.Polygyny is the most common form of marriage in Islamic societies. 15.Traditionally,.

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