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Anthropology Expert Answers & Study Resources : Page 16

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  31.The forerunners of psychology developed the theory of phrenology, which in Greek means: a.a map of thoughts. b.a map of behavior. c.study of the mind. d.study of mental diseases. 32.Phrenology: a.is a modern perspective in psychology. b.is the study of the thought processes and behaviors of criminals. c.is a theory arguing that the mind works by associating ideas.

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  81.Social psychologists focus on how groups affect attitudes and behavior. 82.Cultural psychologists examine how customs and traditions affect people’s development. 83.Theorizing that competition between group members promotes anxiety about failure is consistent with the sociocultural perspective. 84.Feminist psychology is an approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on the behavior of the.

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  •   81.Social psychologists focus how groups affect attitudes and behavior. 82.Cultural psychologists
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  141.____________ is a technique which allows a researcher to combine data from numerous studies. a.Significance testing b.Meta-analysis c.Cross-sectional research d.Longitudinal research 142.____________ is an objective, standardized way of describing the strength of the independent variable’s               influence on the dependent variable. a.Effect size b.Significance level c.Meta-analysis d.Bayesian statistics 143.____________ involve a formula for calculating the likelihood of a hypothesis being.

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  •   141.____________ a technique which allows a researcher to combine data
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11.Marcy is trying to define “anxiety” in such a way that it specifies how it is to be observed, measured, and empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate: a.hypothesis. b.corollary. c.theoretical definition. d.operational definition. 12.Hannah decides to test whether engineering majors have greater visual-spatial abilities than students with other majors. To measure visual-spatial.

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71.The _______________ was the forerunner of modern cognitive therapies and made efforts to correct the               false ideas that were said to make people anxious, depressed, and unhappy. a.learning revolution b.sociocultural revolution c.Mind Cure movement d.functional movement 72._______________ concluded that his patients’ distress was due to conflicts and emotional traumas that had               occurred in.

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  • 71.The _______________ was the forerunner of modern cognitive therapies and
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11. In order to maintain scientific objectivity, psychologists do not work on research that is sponsored by               private, for-profit businesses. 12. Scientists are expected to submit their study’s results for peer review before any announcements regarding the study are made to the public. 13. A representative sample is a group of participants.

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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.Psychologists are scientists because: a.they work with complicated computers and laboratory equipment. b.they rely upon sophisticated brain-imaging machines. c.they base their work on scientific attitudes and procedures. d.psychology is related to human biology, which is an important part of science. 2.Which of the following is a key characteristic of an ideal scientist? a.reliance on.

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  •   Multiple Choice Questions 1.Psychologists scientists because: a.they work with complicated computers and
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  71.Learning theorists would view violence as the result of unconscious conflicts involving aggression and               sexuality. 72.The theory that violence can be the result of having violent role models is consistent with the learning perspective. 73.Behaviorists would agree that anxiety is due to forbidden, unconscious desires. 74.Learning theorists would agree that anxious people.

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  41._______________ is revered by psychologists because his laboratory was the first to have its results               published in a scholarly journal. a.René Descartes b.Aristotle c.Sigmund Freud d.Wilhelm Wundt 42.Researchers in Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory studied: a.phrenology. b.psychology. c.sociology. d.chemistry. 43.Your textbook discusses a famous laboratory set up in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. The goal of this laboratory was the study of: a.psychology. b.phrenology. c.sociology. d.chemistry. 44.The.

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  1.A statement that attempts to predict or account for a set of phenomena is called a(n) _______________. a.hypothesis b.axiom c.corollary d.theory 2.The tendency to look for information that supports one’s own belief is called: a.the principle of falsifiability. b.confirmation bias. c.denialism. d.cognitive inertia. 3.Which of the following is an advantage of case studies? a.Case studies produce a more detailed picture of.

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  •   1.A statement that attempts to predict or account for a
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  21.The peer review process: a.verifies the credentials of the researchers who work on a project. b.is part of science’s system of checks and balances. c.ensures that the competition among scientists doing similar research is in check. d.makes sure that the research does not involve animals as subjects. 22.Researchers prefer to select participants who accurately represent.

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81.Two sets of observations assessing annual income and dental health are compared. Which of the following               is most likely true? a.The two variables will be both positively and negatively correlated. b.The two variables will be uncorrelated. c.The two variables will be negatively correlated. d.The two variables will be positively correlated. 82.Two sets of observations.

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  81.A(n) __________ psychologist studies how genetically-influenced behavior that was functional or adaptive during our species’ past may be reflected in the present behaviors, mental processes, and traits of modern humans. a.cognitive b.behavioral c.sociocultural d.evolutionary 82.Tom is a psychologist investigating the contributions of genes in the development of abilities and personality               traits in human beings..

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  •   81.A(n) __________ psychologist studies how genetically-influenced behavior that was functional
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16. How was Darwin’s theory of evolution inspirational to the functionalists? 17. List and define the four major perspectives in modern psychology. 18. The learning perspective is adhered to by two different types of psychologists: behaviorists and social-cognitive learning theorists. Compare these two types of learning theory advocates. 19. Sociocultural psychologists use an.

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  • 16. How was Darwin’s theory of evolution inspirational to the
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  51.Functionalism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the purpose of behavior and               consciousness. 52.Functionalism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of an immediate               experience into basic elements. 53.William James, a functionalist, argued that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time. 54.Wilhelm Wundt, an.

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  •   51.Functionalism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the purpose
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31.Phrenologists suggested that specific character and personality traits could be read from bumps on a               person’s head. 32.Hippocrates argued that the brain is the ultimate source of human pleasures and pains. 33.Hippocrates argued that the heart is the ultimate source of human pleasures and pains. 34.Wilhelm Wundt suggested that specific character and.

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  • 31.Phrenologists suggested that specific character and personality traits could be
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 21 Anxiety is a common problem. Which of the four major perspectives in psychology is associated with each of these explanations?                 Anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways.                 Anxiety symptoms often bring hidden rewards, such as being excused from exams.                 Excessive anxiety can.

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  •   Quick Quiz – textbook page 21 Anxiety a common problem. Which
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  101.A(n) _______________ allows a researcher to control and manipulate the situation being studied. a.survey b.experiment c.case study d.correlational study 102.Experiments are more valuable than other research methods because: a.they are always double-blind. b.they can determine correlations. c.they require informed consent. d.they allow a determination of cause-effect relationships. 103.Ideally, in an experimental situation, everything is held constant except for the _______________,.

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  •   101.A(n) _______________ allows a researcher to control and manipulate the
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21.“My memory of getting knocked down by a wave at Newport Beach could be based on what my parents               told me later, not on my own recollection.” Which of the following critical thinking guidelines does this               example illustrate? a.define your terms b.avoid emotional reasoning c.consider other interpretations d.don’t oversimplify 22.Randy meets a Californian.

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51.Which school of thought in psychology used the method of trained introspection in research studies? a.phrenology b.structuralism c.functionalism d.psychoanalysis 52.Which school of thought in psychology hoped to analyze sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements? a.phrenology b.structuralism c.functionalism d.psychoanalysis 53.A person is asked to break down all the different components of taste when biting into an orange. Which of              .

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  • 51.Which school of thought in psychology used the method of
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  Short Answer Questions 1.When people think of psychology, they usually think of mental disorders, emotional disorders, abnormal acts, personal problems, and psychotherapy. Describe two other topics that are of great interest to psychologists. 2. Describe the differences between psychobabble and scientific psychology. 3. Juanita is studying in her dorm room when her roommate.

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  •   Short Answer Questions 1.When people think of psychology, they usually think
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  61.Sigmund Freud’s first book, The Interpretation of Dreams, was an overnight sensation. 62.Sigmund Freud’s ideas evolved into a method of psychotherapy that came to be known as psychoanalysis. 63.Freudian concepts were, and still are, rejected by most empirically-oriented psychologists. 64.Freudian concepts are still popular among empirically-oriented psychologists. 65.The biological perspective of psychology emphasizes bodily.

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  •   61.Sigmund Freud’s first book, The Interpretation of Dreams, was an
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71.A correlation is a numerical measure of the: a.unintended changes in subjects’ behavior due to cues from the experimenter. b.strength of the relationship between two variables. c.behaviors of subjects of different ages compared at a given time. d.behaviors of subjects followed and periodically assessed over time. 72.A negative correlation means that: a.the high values of one.

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  • 71.A correlation a numerical measure of the: a.unintended changes in subjects’
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21.Critical thinkers generate as many reasonable explanations of the topic at hand as possible before settling on the most likely one. 22.Critical thinkers prefer explanations that account for the most evidence while making the fewest assumptions. 23.Critical thinking is a process, not an accomplishment. 24.Psychology has been a science for more than 1,000.

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  • 21.Critical thinkers generate as many reasonable explanations of the topic
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91.Not all psychologists do clinical work. 92.Academic psychologists specialize in areas of research such as psychometrics and sensation and perception. 93.Educational psychologists primarily study how people change and grow over time. 94.Educational psychologists primarily design and evaluate tests of mental abilities and aptitude. 95.Developmental psychologists study how people change and grow over time. 96.Industrial/organizational psychologists.

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  • 91.Not all psychologists do clinical work. 92.Academic psychologists specialize in areas
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1.An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships is called a(n) _______________. a.hypothesis b.operational definition c.research design d.theory 2.The tendency to look for information that supports one’s own belief is called: a.the principle of falsifiability. b.confirmation bias. c.denialism. d.cognitive inertia. 3.Research methods that depict behavior, but do not necessarily.

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  111._______________ psychologists are concerned with group decision making, employee morale, work               motivation, productivity, job stress, and many such organizational issues. a.Educational b.Developmental c.Industrial/organizational d.Experimental 112._______________ psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and               personality. a.Educational b.Developmental c.Experimental d.Psychometric 113.Linda is a clinical psychologist. The clinical program she attended to start her professional practice required              .

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  •   111._______________ psychologists concerned with group decision making, employee morale, work
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  True-False Questions 1. A hypothesis is an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set               of phenomena. 2. A theory is an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of               phenomena. 3. A hypothesis is a statement that attempts to.

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  •   True-False Questions 1. A hypothesis an organized system of assumptions and
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  61._______________ gather information by asking people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or               opinions. a.Surveys b.Inventories c.Projective tests d.Naturalistic observations 62.Which descriptive method would be most appropriate for studying a random sample of people’s attitudes toward stem cell research? a.observation b.case study c.survey d.test 63. The magazine Lover’s Delight publishes a survey of its female readers called “The Sex Life.

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  •   61._______________ gather information by asking people directly about their experiences,
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  91.The _______________ is a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory,               language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. a.biological perspective b.learning perspective c.cognitive perspective d.sociocultural perspective 92.Which modern psychological perspective focuses on how people reason, remember, understand language, and               solve problems? a.the learning perspective b.the cognitive perspective c.the sociocultural perspective d.the psychodynamic perspective 93.One of.

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  •   91.The _______________ a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in
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11.Critical thinkers realize that all opinions are created equal. 12.Critical thinkers realize that everybody’s beliefs are as good as everybody else’s. 13.Open-mindedness implies that all opinions are created equal. 14.Critical thinkers are willing to accept “received wisdom.” 15.Assumptions are beliefs that are taken for granted. 16.Critical thinkers do not make assumptions about how the world.

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  91.Which of the following correlation coefficient values indicate the strongest relationship between two variables? a.–.74 b.–.42 c.–.35 d.+.05 92.Which of the following correlation coefficient values indicate the strongest relationship between two               variables? a.+.74 b.+.68 c.+.69 d.+.71 93.A researcher finds that there is no correlation between the number of calories a person consumes in a day and his or her.

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  •   91.Which of the following correlation coefficient values indicate the strongest
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  True-False Questions 1.Empirical evidence is the evidence gathered by careful observation and experimentation. 2.Empirical evidence is the evidence gathered by a careful reflection on one’s personal experiences. 3.Real psychology differs from popular psychology in that it is based on the opinions of learned scientists. 4.Psychobabble refers to how infants as young as seven months.

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  •   True-False Questions 1.Empirical evidence the evidence gathered by careful observation and
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41.Tess agrees to sleep in an artificial setting for three nights so that researchers can obtain information about               her brain and muscle activity during sleep. She is taking part in a research method called               _______________. a.a single-blind study b.a double-blind study c.naturalistic observation d.laboratory observation 42.Psychologists sometimes prefer to make observations in a.

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41.Credit for the founding of modern psychology is generally given to William James. 42.Credit for founding modern psychology is generally given to Wilhelm Wundt. 43.Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspectors had to make between 10 and 50 practice observations before they               were allowed to participate in an actual study. 44.Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspectors had.

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  • 41.Credit for the founding of modern psychology generally given to
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  61._______________ had the opinion that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time               because the brain and the mind are constantly changing. a.William James b.Wilhelm Wundt c.Sigmund Freud d.E. B. Titchener 62._______________ argued that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time because the               brain and the.

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  101._______________ is a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender               relations and on the behavior of the two sexes. a.Applied psychology b.Basic psychology c.Behavioral psychology d.Feminist psychology 102.The feminist movement in psychology was important because it: a.refocused psychology on the study of the mind and mental processes. b.allowed women to become therapists. c.forced.

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  •   101._______________ a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social
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  131.The _______________ tells us how clustered or spread out individual scores are around an arithmetic mean. a.arithmetic mean b.p value c.confidence interval d.standard deviation 132. A researcher is studying the amount of sleep college students get each night. She notices that there is a lot of variability in the data, with some students typically sleeping.

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  •   131.The _______________ tells us how clustered or spread out individual
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