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Anthropology Expert Answers & Study Resources : Page 15

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  1.According to Professor Sandoval, the development of inheritable traits that helped our biological ancestors survive might help explain commonalities in human behavior today. She is most likely to consider herself: a.an epigenesist. b.an evolutionary psychologist. c.an empiricist. d.a sociocultural psychologist. 2.Genes are located on _______________, rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of the cell. a.ribosomes b.chromosomes.

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  •   1.According to Professor Sandoval, the development of inheritable traits that
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. What makes psychological research scientific? This chapter points out the importance of precision in the pursuit of knowledge. How does this principle of good science correspond to the critical thinking guideline, “Define Your Terms,” discussed in Chapter 1? 2. In Chapter 2, we read about.

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  •   Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. What makes psychological research
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.Cognitive neuroscientists focus on: a.the biological foundations of consciousness, perception, memory, and language. b.processes such as attachment and attitudes. c.the nervous system’s involvement in emotion, motivation, and stress. d.the anatomical structure of the brain. 2.Affective neuroscientists explore: a.the biological foundations of consciousness, perception, memory, and language. b.processes such as attachment and attitudes. c.the biology.

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  •   Multiple Choice Questions 1.Cognitive neuroscientists focus on: a.the biological foundations of consciousness,
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  71._______________ are special molecules in the membrane of a receiving neuron’s dendrites with which neurotransmitter molecules bind. a.Synapses b.Glia c.Neuromodulators d.Receptor sites 72.When a neurotransmitter molecule binds briefly with a receptor site, changes occur in the receiving neuron’s charge. If there is a voltage shift in a positive direction, then the effect is: a.a.

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  •   71._______________ special molecules in the membrane of a receiving neuron’s
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71.A major problem with genetic explanations of racial differences in IQ is that: a.although intelligence differs between groups, it does not differ within groups. b.heritability estimates used in supporting genetic explanations of group differences are based mainly on white samples. c.the studies typically use black and white children from highly similar socioeconomic groups. d.the.

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  • 71.A major problem with genetic explanations of racial differences in
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  81.When children move from severely disadvantaged neighborhoods to better areas, their verbal IQs improve dramatically. 82.Environmental factors can lower one’s intelligence level but cannot aid in improving intelligence. 83.In developed countries, IQ scores have been climbing steadily for several generations. 84.Heredity and environment always interact to produce the qualities typical of human beings. 85.Neither.

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  •   81.When children move from severely disadvantaged neighborhoods to better areas,
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41.According to sociobiologists, it is evolutionarily beneficial for males to: a.conserve resources by having only a few children. b.be choosy in their selection of sexual partners. c.seek secure, stable relationships to ensure the fidelity of females. d.be promiscuous and drawn to sexual novelty. 42.According to sociobiologists, it is evolutionarily beneficial for females.

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  • 41.According to sociobiologists, it evolutionarily beneficial for males to: a.conserve resources
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  51.An experimenter’s friendly smile or cold demeanor can affect people’s responses in an experiment. 52.Single-blind studies are conducted in order to avoid the powerful influence of experimenter effects on the               results of an experiment. 53.When compared to other methods, an advantage of experiments is that the participants are always representative of.

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  •   51.An experimenter’s friendly smile or cold demeanor can affect people’s
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  11.Genes are located on _______________, rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of a cell. a.ribosomes b.chromosomes c.genomes d.DNA 12._______________ are rod-shaped and paired structures made of DNA and are located in the nucleus of a cell. a.Chromosomes b.Genomes c.Genes d.Genetic markers 13.Each human chromosome has: a.23 pairs of genes. b.23 genes. c.46 pairs of genes. d.thousands of genes..

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  •   11.Genes located _______________, rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of
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11.Reflexes above the neck, such as sneezing and blinking, are controlled by the _______________. a.spinal cord b.sympathetic nervous system c.brain d.parasympathetic nervous system 12.Reflexes below the neck, such as pulling a hand away from a hot stove, are controlled by the _______________. a.spinal cord b.sympathetic nervous system c.brain d.parasympathetic nervous system 13.Shannon blinks as she steps.

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  • 11.Reflexes above the neck, such as sneezing and blinking, controlled
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  True-False Questions 1.Psychologists who emphasized the role of genes and nature in the creation of human diversity were called empiricists. 2. Nativists emphasized the role of “nature” or heredity in determining behavior. 3. Evolutionary psychologists emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain human commonalities. 4. In general, evolutionary psychologists study human differences and.

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  •   True-False Questions 1.Psychologists who emphasized the role of genes and nature
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41. Ideally, everything in an experiment except the independent variable is held constant. 42. The variable that an experimenter manipulates is called the independent variable. 43.Ideally, everything in an experiment except the dependent variable is held constant. 44. The value of the independent variable depends on the dependent variable. 45.A researcher wants to know.

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  • 41. Ideally, everything in an experiment except the independent variable
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51.The human body has _______________ pairs of cranial nerves in the head, connecting directly to the brain. a.43 b.12 c.31 d.52 52.Research by contemporary neuroscientists has shown that: a.no new central nervous system cells are produced after infancy. b.extended immobility can regrow severed spinal-cord axons in animals. c.it is impossible to regrow spinal-cord.

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  • 51.The human body has _______________ pairs of cranial nerves in
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81.Which of the following neurotransmitters functions as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain? a.glutamate b.GABA c.acetylcholine d.norepinephrine 82.Glutamate functions as the: a.neurotransmitter most involved in voluntary movements. b.major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. c.neurotransmitter most responsible for the slowing of intestinal activity during stress. d.major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. 83.GABA.

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  • 81.Which of the following neurotransmitters functions as the major inhibitory
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31.Over the past 150 years, Darwin’s ideas have been: a.strongly challenged by findings in biology. b.resoundingly supported by findings in anthropology, botany, and molecular genetics. c.reexamined and found to be unscientific. d.slowly replaced by newer theories, making Darwin’s original theories only important from a historical point of view. 32.Which of the following is the hypothesis.

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  • 31.Over the past 150 years, Darwin’s ideas have been: a.strongly challenged
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  51.Even highly heritable traits can be modified by the environment. 52.The most effective approach to estimate the heritability of a trait is to compare blood relatives within families. 53.One way of inferring heritability is by studying adopted children. 54.The heritability of a trait can be estimated by comparing groups of same-sex fraternal twins.

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  •   51.Even highly heritable traits can be modified by the environment. 52.The
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41.Which part of the neuron transmits messages to other neurons, muscles, or gland cells? a.the cell body b.dendrites c.the axon d.glial cells 42.Many axons, especially the larger ones, are insulated by a surrounding layer of fatty material called the _______________. a.neuromodulator b.myelin sheath c.dendrite d.glia 43.Constrictions that divide the myelin sheath into segments.

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  • 41.Which part of the neuron transmits messages to other neurons,
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  1.Which of the following is true of spinal reflexes? a.They are not automatic and require conscious effort. b.Spinal reflexes control such responses as withdrawing from a painful stimulus, sneezing, and blinking. c.They involve sending sensory messages to the spinal cord that immediately trigger a motor response. d.They require sensory information to be sent to.

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  •   1.Which of the following true of spinal reflexes? a.They not automatic
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21.One way scientists can search for genes that are associated with rare disorders is by carrying out: a.experimental studies. b.psychometric studies. c.linkage studies. d.noncoding studies. 22.Linkage studies are used to help determine: a.where a gene for a particular trait is likely to be located. b.where and how genetic mutations take place. c.a map of the human nucleus. d.where.

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  • 21.One way scientists can search for genes that associated with
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31. The word “correlation” is often used as a synonym for “relationship.” 32. A correlation is a numerical measure indicating the cause-and-effect relationship between two variables. 33.An association between increases in one variable and decreases in the other variable is called a negative               correlation. 34. An association between decreases in one variable.

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  • 31. The word “correlation” often used as a synonym for
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  Quick Quiz — textbook page 74 1.What does it mean to say that the gene-environment interaction works in both directions? 2.The basic unit of heredity is called a: a.gene. b.chromosome. c.genome. d.DNA molecule. e.noncoding DNA sequence. 3.What do the codes within genes encode for? 4.True or false: Most human genetic traits depend on a single gene. 5.Epigenetic changes: a.affect the expression.

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  •   Quick Quiz — textbook page 74 1.What does it mean to
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21.The somatic nervous system is also called the: a.sympathetic nervous system. b.parasympathetic nervous system. c.central nervous system. d.skeletal nervous system. 22.The functioning of blood vessels, glands, and internal organs is regulated by the: a.autonomic nervous system. b.somatic nervous system. c.hippocampus. d.lymphatic system 23.Which of the following statements is true? a.The autonomic nervous system collects.

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  • 21.The somatic nervous system also called the: a.sympathetic nervous system. b.parasympathetic
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  61.A neuron at rest contains: a.only positively charged ions. b.only negatively charged ions. c.a mix of positive and negatively charged ions. d.no charged particles. 62.When a neuron is stimulated, sodium moves into the cell, causing the inside of the neuron to: a.become less negative relative to the outside. b.become more negative relative to the outside. c.remain neutral.

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  •   61.A neuron at rest contains: a.only positively charged ions. b.only negatively
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  1.In the past, psychologists who emphasized the role of inborn characteristics on human behavior were called: a.empiricists. b.behaviorists. c.nativists. d.psychoanalysts. 2.A nativist would claim that the chief determining factor of behavior and other psychological traits is: a.operant conditioning. b.classical conditioning. c.the parent-child relationship. d.heredity. 3.Empiricists would agree that: a.experience can write virtually any message on the blank slate of.

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  •   1.In the past, psychologists who emphasized the role of inborn
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  Quick Quiz — textbook page 83 1.Which of the following would an evolutionary psychologist expect to be more typical of males than of               females? a.promiscuity b.choosiness about sexual partners c.concern with dominance d.interest in young partners e.emphasis on the physical attractiveness of partners 2.What major issue divides evolutionary theorists and their critics in debates over courtship.

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  •   Quick Quiz — textbook page 83 1.Which of the following would
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  71.Meta-analysis combines data from a number of related studies instead of assessing each study’s results               separately. 72.Bayesian statistics involve a formula that takes prior knowledge into consideration when evaluating any               finding. 73.The American Psychological Association (APA) has a code of ethics that all of its members are supposed to follow. 74.The.

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  •   71.Meta-analysis combines data from a number of related studies instead
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