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81.Two sets of observations assessing annual income and dental health are compared. Which of the following               is most likely true? a.The two variables will be both positively and negatively correlated. b.The two variables will be uncorrelated. c.The two variables will be negatively correlated. d.The two variables will be positively correlated. 82.Two sets of observations.
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  True-False Questions 1. A hypothesis is an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set               of phenomena. 2. A theory is an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of               phenomena. 3. A hypothesis is a statement that attempts to.
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  Essay Questions 1. Shane is eager to buy an Electro-Neural Stimulator so that he can get both halves of his brain working at peak efficiency by exam time. Based on what you have read about similar products, how should you respond to his plans? 2. In recent decades, the public’s appetite for.
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  71.Learning theorists would view violence as the result of unconscious conflicts involving aggression and               sexuality. 72.The theory that violence can be the result of having violent role models is consistent with the learning perspective. 73.Behaviorists would agree that anxiety is due to forbidden, unconscious desires. 74.Learning theorists would agree that anxious people.
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  51. When Hoshi takes a personality test, she is told that the resulting score is compared to norms; that is, the test: a.measures what it is designed to measure. b.results are compared to established standards of performance. c.produces the same results from one time to the next. d.predicts other criteria of the personality trait.
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11.Critical thinkers realize that all opinions are created equal. 12.Critical thinkers realize that everybody’s beliefs are as good as everybody else’s. 13.Open-mindedness implies that all opinions are created equal. 14.Critical thinkers are willing to accept “received wisdom.” 15.Assumptions are beliefs that are taken for granted. 16.Critical thinkers do not make assumptions about how the world.
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  91.Which of the following correlation coefficient values indicate the strongest relationship between two variables? a.–.74 b.–.42 c.–.35 d.+.05 92.Which of the following correlation coefficient values indicate the strongest relationship between two               variables? a.+.74 b.+.68 c.+.69 d.+.71 93.A researcher finds that there is no correlation between the number of calories a person consumes in a day and his or her.
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  1.A statement that attempts to predict or account for a set of phenomena is called a(n) _______________. a.hypothesis b.axiom c.corollary d.theory 2.The tendency to look for information that supports one’s own belief is called: a.the principle of falsifiability. b.confirmation bias. c.denialism. d.cognitive inertia. 3.Which of the following is an advantage of case studies? a.Case studies produce a more detailed picture of.
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1.An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships is called a(n) _______________. a.hypothesis b.operational definition c.research design d.theory 2.The tendency to look for information that supports one’s own belief is called: a.the principle of falsifiability. b.confirmation bias. c.denialism. d.cognitive inertia. 3.Research methods that depict behavior, but do not necessarily.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 21 Anxiety is a common problem. Which of the four major perspectives in psychology is associated with each of these explanations?                 Anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways.                 Anxiety symptoms often bring hidden rewards, such as being excused from exams.                 Excessive anxiety can.
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11. In order to maintain scientific objectivity, psychologists do not work on research that is sponsored by               private, for-profit businesses. 12. Scientists are expected to submit their study’s results for peer review before any announcements regarding the study are made to the public. 13. A representative sample is a group of participants.
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  51.An experimenter’s friendly smile or cold demeanor can affect people’s responses in an experiment. 52.Single-blind studies are conducted in order to avoid the powerful influence of experimenter effects on the               results of an experiment. 53.When compared to other methods, an advantage of experiments is that the participants are always representative of.
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  Short Answer Questions 1.When people think of psychology, they usually think of mental disorders, emotional disorders, abnormal acts, personal problems, and psychotherapy. Describe two other topics that are of great interest to psychologists. 2. Describe the differences between psychobabble and scientific psychology. 3. Juanita is studying in her dorm room when her roommate.
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  61.Sigmund Freud’s first book, The Interpretation of Dreams, was an overnight sensation. 62.Sigmund Freud’s ideas evolved into a method of psychotherapy that came to be known as psychoanalysis. 63.Freudian concepts were, and still are, rejected by most empirically-oriented psychologists. 64.Freudian concepts are still popular among empirically-oriented psychologists. 65.The biological perspective of psychology emphasizes bodily.
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71.A correlation is a numerical measure of the: a.unintended changes in subjects’ behavior due to cues from the experimenter. b.strength of the relationship between two variables. c.behaviors of subjects of different ages compared at a given time. d.behaviors of subjects followed and periodically assessed over time. 72.A negative correlation means that: a.the high values of one.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. List the five major characteristics of an ideal scientist. 2. Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote “Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.” How would you frame this question in clear and concrete terms so that it could be tested? Specify an operational definition for the major terms. 3. Dr. Benjamin.
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  91.The _______________ is a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory,               language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. a.biological perspective b.learning perspective c.cognitive perspective d.sociocultural perspective 92.Which modern psychological perspective focuses on how people reason, remember, understand language, and               solve problems? a.the learning perspective b.the cognitive perspective c.the sociocultural perspective d.the psychodynamic perspective 93.One of.
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  141.____________ is a technique which allows a researcher to combine data from numerous studies. a.Significance testing b.Meta-analysis c.Cross-sectional research d.Longitudinal research 142.____________ is an objective, standardized way of describing the strength of the independent variable’s               influence on the dependent variable. a.Effect size b.Significance level c.Meta-analysis d.Bayesian statistics 143.____________ involve a formula for calculating the likelihood of a hypothesis being.
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  101._______________ is a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender               relations and on the behavior of the two sexes. a.Applied psychology b.Basic psychology c.Behavioral psychology d.Feminist psychology 102.The feminist movement in psychology was important because it: a.refocused psychology on the study of the mind and mental processes. b.allowed women to become therapists. c.forced.
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31.Phrenologists suggested that specific character and personality traits could be read from bumps on a               person’s head. 32.Hippocrates argued that the brain is the ultimate source of human pleasures and pains. 33.Hippocrates argued that the heart is the ultimate source of human pleasures and pains. 34.Wilhelm Wundt suggested that specific character and.
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21. The professional activities of psychologists fall into three broad categories. Describe and give examples of each of these three types of professional activities. 22. What is the difference between basic research and applied research? 23. Alexandra and Holly both plan to become clinical psychologists, although Alexandra is applying to graduate schools.
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  131.The _______________ tells us how clustered or spread out individual scores are around an arithmetic mean. a.arithmetic mean b.p value c.confidence interval d.standard deviation 132. A researcher is studying the amount of sleep college students get each night. She notices that there is a lot of variability in the data, with some students typically sleeping.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 14 Amelia and Harold are arguing about the death penalty. “Look, I just feel strongly that it’s barbaric, ineffective, and wrong,” says Harold. “You’re nuts,” says Amelia. “I believe in an eye for an eye, and besides, I’m absolutely sure it’s a deterrent to further crime.”.
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111.In a laboratory, smokers are asked to drive using a computerized driving simulator and cover the maximum distance possible, while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some volunteers are given a real cigarette to smoke immediately before the test. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. The number of collisions the two groups.
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41. Ideally, everything in an experiment except the independent variable is held constant. 42. The variable that an experimenter manipulates is called the independent variable. 43.Ideally, everything in an experiment except the dependent variable is held constant. 44. The value of the independent variable depends on the dependent variable. 45.A researcher wants to know.
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  121.The participants for an experiment are randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Although the researchers know which group each participant has been assigned to, the participants do not know if they are in the experimental or control group. Which type of study is this an example of? a.single-blind b.correlational c.field.
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101.Programs leading to a PsyD usually require a student to complete an extensive theoretical paper or literature review instead of a research dissertation. 102.Clinical programs leading to a PhD are usually designed to prepare a person both as a scientist and as a clinical               practitioner. 103.Clinical programs leading to a PsyD.
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  61._______________ gather information by asking people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or               opinions. a.Surveys b.Inventories c.Projective tests d.Naturalistic observations 62.Which descriptive method would be most appropriate for studying a random sample of people’s attitudes toward stem cell research? a.observation b.case study c.survey d.test 63. The magazine Lover’s Delight publishes a survey of its female readers called “The Sex Life.
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6. Describe what it means to be a critical thinker. 7. List eight guidelines for critical thinking. 8. One common form of oversimplification is “argument by anecdote.” Explain the meaning of this statement and provide an example. 9. Hank demands that his psychology professor give him a yes-or-no answer to the question, “Do.
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5. Describe the three schools of psychological thought that became popular when psychology emerged as a discipline, including the major theorists associated with each school as well as the goal of each of these perspectives. 6. The text states that, “We are like fish that are unaware they live in water,.
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  True-False Questions 1.Empirical evidence is the evidence gathered by careful observation and experimentation. 2.Empirical evidence is the evidence gathered by a careful reflection on one’s personal experiences. 3.Real psychology differs from popular psychology in that it is based on the opinions of learned scientists. 4.Psychobabble refers to how infants as young as seven months.
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16. How was Darwin’s theory of evolution inspirational to the functionalists? 17. List and define the four major perspectives in modern psychology. 18. The learning perspective is adhered to by two different types of psychologists: behaviorists and social-cognitive learning theorists. Compare these two types of learning theory advocates. 19. Sociocultural psychologists use an.
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41.Tess agrees to sleep in an artificial setting for three nights so that researchers can obtain information about               her brain and muscle activity during sleep. She is taking part in a research method called               _______________. a.a single-blind study b.a double-blind study c.naturalistic observation d.laboratory observation 42.Psychologists sometimes prefer to make observations in a.
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21.Critical thinkers generate as many reasonable explanations of the topic at hand as possible before settling on the most likely one. 22.Critical thinkers prefer explanations that account for the most evidence while making the fewest assumptions. 23.Critical thinking is a process, not an accomplishment. 24.Psychology has been a science for more than 1,000.
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  51.Functionalism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the purpose of behavior and               consciousness. 52.Functionalism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of an immediate               experience into basic elements. 53.William James, a functionalist, argued that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time. 54.Wilhelm Wundt, an.
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  101.A(n) _______________ allows a researcher to control and manipulate the situation being studied. a.survey b.experiment c.case study d.correlational study 102.Experiments are more valuable than other research methods because: a.they are always double-blind. b.they can determine correlations. c.they require informed consent. d.they allow a determination of cause-effect relationships. 103.Ideally, in an experimental situation, everything is held constant except for the _______________,.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.Psychologists are scientists because: a.they work with complicated computers and laboratory equipment. b.they rely upon sophisticated brain-imaging machines. c.they base their work on scientific attitudes and procedures. d.psychology is related to human biology, which is an important part of science. 2.Which of the following is a key characteristic of an ideal scientist? a.reliance on.
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31.A researcher studies the history of a suicide bomber who attempted to blow up a police station. The researcher’s goal is to understand the events and personality traits that led the person to become a bomber. This type of research is called a(n): a.case study. b.observational study. c.correlational study. d.survey study. 32.An academic researcher would.
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11. Why is Wilhelm Wundt especially revered by psychologists? 12. Describe Wilhelm Wundt’s preferred research method, and give an example of how it might be used to study a psychological topic. 13. During the early decades of psychology’s existence as a formal discipline, three schools of psychological thought became popular. What were.
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  71.Meta-analysis combines data from a number of related studies instead of assessing each study’s results               separately. 72.Bayesian statistics involve a formula that takes prior knowledge into consideration when evaluating any               finding. 73.The American Psychological Association (APA) has a code of ethics that all of its members are supposed to follow. 74.The.
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  61.The arithmetic mean is an average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum               by the total number of quantities in the set. 62.The standard deviation is an average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum              .
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  21.The peer review process: a.verifies the credentials of the researchers who work on a project. b.is part of science’s system of checks and balances. c.ensures that the competition among scientists doing similar research is in check. d.makes sure that the research does not involve animals as subjects. 22.Researchers prefer to select participants who accurately represent.
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41.Credit for the founding of modern psychology is generally given to William James. 42.Credit for founding modern psychology is generally given to Wilhelm Wundt. 43.Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspectors had to make between 10 and 50 practice observations before they               were allowed to participate in an actual study. 44.Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspectors had.
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21. When psychologists say that a test has been standardized, they mean that uniform procedures for giving and               scoring the test have been developed. 22. The ability of a test to measure what it is designed to measure is called its reliability. 23. The ability of a test to measure what.
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  81.Social psychologists focus on how groups affect attitudes and behavior. 82.Cultural psychologists examine how customs and traditions affect people’s development. 83.Theorizing that competition between group members promotes anxiety about failure is consistent with the sociocultural perspective. 84.Feminist psychology is an approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on the behavior of the.
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91.Not all psychologists do clinical work. 92.Academic psychologists specialize in areas of research such as psychometrics and sensation and perception. 93.Educational psychologists primarily study how people change and grow over time. 94.Educational psychologists primarily design and evaluate tests of mental abilities and aptitude. 95.Developmental psychologists study how people change and grow over time. 96.Industrial/organizational psychologists.
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11.Marcy is trying to define “anxiety” in such a way that it specifies how it is to be observed, measured, and empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate: a.hypothesis. b.corollary. c.theoretical definition. d.operational definition. 12.Hannah decides to test whether engineering majors have greater visual-spatial abilities than students with other majors. To measure visual-spatial.
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  111._______________ psychologists are concerned with group decision making, employee morale, work               motivation, productivity, job stress, and many such organizational issues. a.Educational b.Developmental c.Industrial/organizational d.Experimental 112._______________ psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and               personality. a.Educational b.Developmental c.Experimental d.Psychometric 113.Linda is a clinical psychologist. The clinical program she attended to start her professional practice required              .
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. Tara cannot believe what she reads about anger: “…depending on the circumstances, sometimes it is helpful to express your feelings, but sometimes venting your anger makes everything worse.” Tara finds this difficult to accept because she has been told over and over that it.
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31. The word “correlation” is often used as a synonym for “relationship.” 32. A correlation is a numerical measure indicating the cause-and-effect relationship between two variables. 33.An association between increases in one variable and decreases in the other variable is called a negative               correlation. 34. An association between decreases in one variable.
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