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  Essay Questions 1. It was over a century ago that Sigmund Freud published his theory. How has his work stood the test of time? How is psychoanalytic theory regarded by psychologists and other scholars of the twenty-first century? 2. Researchers measure genetic contributions to personality in three ways: by studying personality traits in other.
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31. Heritability is an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of behavior and 32. Heritability is a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to 33. Social-cognitive learning theory emphasizes the continual interaction between persons and a given 34. The process of.
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  1.Which method of disciplining a child who is hitting his younger brother is most likely to teach empathy? a.induction b.indulgence c.power assertion d.spanking 2.What early ability predicts the development of conscience later on? 1.True or false: All intersexed people are transsexual. 2.A biological psychologist would say that a 3-year-old boy’s love of going “vroom, vroom” with his.
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51.According to your textbook, girls are more dissatisfied than boys with their social behavior at school and with friends. 52. Boys who are lonely and depressed are more likely than depressed girls to become withdrawn and 53. Girls who are lonely and depressed are more likely than depressed boys to become withdrawn.
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  1._______________ is a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling. a.A personality b.A trait c.An archetype d.A temperament 2.In psychoanalysis, the part of the personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control is a.the libido. b.the ego. c.the superego. d.the id. 3._______________ occurs when people refuse to admit to an event, feeling, or memory that               causes them a.Projectionb.Sublimation c.Displacement d.Denial 4.According to.
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11. In Jungian theory, the collective unconscious is the universal memory and experience of humankind represented in the symbols, stories, and images that occur across all cultures. 12. Carl Jung’s theory of personality emphasizes the methods of empirical psychology in generating 13. Although Carl Jung was fascinated with the darker aspect of.
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  True-False Questions 1. Personality refers to a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, mannerisms, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual. 2. In Freud’s theory of personality, there are five major systems that influence a person’s actions. 3. Freud believed that the ego was the first of the personality components to.
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31. According to Jean Piaget, a major accomplishment during the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development is grasping the concept of object permanence. 32. Piaget believed that very young infants lack object permanence. 33. Babies begin to love the game of “peekaboo” after they have attained object permanence. 34.Recent research has shown that preschoolers.
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91.In Kaiti’s culture, the wishes of the individual take precedence over group harmony. It is most likely that Kaiti defines her “self”: a.in the context of her community. b.in regard to her personality traits. c.in regard to her birth order position. d.in the context of her relationships. 92._______________ cultures are those in which the self.
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6. Define heritability. Describe an example of a highly heritable trait and an example of a trait that would have low heritability. 7. In behavioral-genetic research, what is the “nonshared environment”? 8. In behavioral-genetic research, what is “shared environment”? 9. What did psychologists discover when, in a study discussed in your textbook, they surveyed.
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21.In psychoanalytic theory, the inner voice that says you did something morally wrong is called the: a.libido. b.id. c.ego. d.superego. 22.During a grade school field trip, Ryan and his friends were running down a hill when he stepped on a snake. He was unharmed but shaken by the experience. When one of his friends mentioned.
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61.Today, a developmental psychologist studying moral development is likely to emphasize: a.how children learn to regulate their own emotions and behavior. b.the distinct stages of moral development. c.the development of the universal human rights orientation. d.how young children lack a moral sense. 62.The concept of a moral sense can be described as: a.the ability to detect.
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41.A patient confides his homosexual orientation to his psychoanalyst. If the psychoanalyst shares the opinions of Sigmund Freud, he will view this sexual orientation as: a.a sin. b.a variation of sexual function. c.a perversion. d.something shameful. 42._______________ said that there is a collective unconscious shared by all human beings, containing universal memories, symbols, and images.
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31.According to Freud, the psychosexual stage that occurs during the grade school years until puberty is called the: a.latency stage. b.oral stage. c.anal stage. d.phallic stage. 32._______________ occurs when people refuse to admit to an event, feeling, or memory that causes them anxiety or distress. a.Projection b.Sublimation c.Displacement d.Denial 33.Which defense mechanism involves reversion to an earlier phase of psychological development? a.repression b.regression c.displacement d.projection 34.Diego.
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  41.________ refers to a child’s first word combinations, which omit unnecessary words. a.Telegraphic speech b.Parentese c.Universal grammar d.Symbolic gesture 42.Janis sees a bat flying over the lake and says, “Birdie”! Her mother says, “That flies like a bird, Janis, but that is a bat.” Janis begins pointing saying, “Bat! Bat! Bat!” Piaget would say that.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 509 Which Freudian concepts do the following events suggest? 1.A 4-year-old girl wants to snuggle on Daddy’s lap but refuses to kiss her mother. 2.A celibate priest writes poetry about sexual passion. 3.A man who is angry with his boss shouts at his kids for making noise. 4.A woman tells.
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71.Innate physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways that are present in infancy are called: a.personalities. b.aptitudes. c.temperaments. d.traits. 72.In the study of dogs and their owners, Samuel Gosling and his colleagues found that: a.dogs do not have personalities. b.the owners and neutral observers could not agree on the dogs’ personalities. c.all of the dogs.
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31.Anatolie was raised in a substandard orphanage where he was given little attention. He wasn’t adopted until he was 6 years old. Anatolie is ________________ to become insecurely attached to his adoptive parents as compared to a child that did not experience the same level of abandonment and deprivation. a.no more.
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41. When parents value academic achievement but the child’s peers do not, the child usually follows the 42. In collectivist cultures, the self is often defined as a collection of personality traits. 43. In collectivist cultures, group harmony takes precedence over the wishes of the individual. 44. In individualist cultures, the self is.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. What are the three systems that comprise personality according to Sigmund Freud? Briefly describe them. 2. Describe Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious. 3.Describe the ways in which the object-relations school departs from Freudian theory in regard to the nature 4. Critics of psychodynamic theories argue that these theories are.
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71.Intersexuality is: a.the process by which children learn the abilities, interests, and behaviors associated with being                                           masculine or feminine in their culture. b.a condition in which chromosomal or hormonal anomalies cause a child to be born with                                           ambiguous genitals, or genitals that conflict with the infant’s.
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  1.After implantation of the zygote in the uterine wall is complete, the ________ stage of prenatal development begins. a.germinal b.fetal c.embryonic d.uterine 2.According to your textbook, which of the following outcomes is associated with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy? a.defects in the eyes, ears, and heart b.smaller brain, facial deformities, lack of coordination c.increased likelihood of miscarriage, prematurity,.
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21. Gordon Allport was one of the most influential psychologists in personality theory. 22. Central traits are changeable aspects of personality, such as musical preferences, habits, and casual opinions. 23. Secondary traits are changeable aspects of personality, such as musical preferences, habits, and casual 24. Raymond B. Cattell advanced the study of personality.
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  Short Answer Questions 1Julia is planning to have a baby. She finds out from her physician that she needs a vaccination for rubella. Why is it important for her to be vaccinated before she plans to become pregnant? 2. Given the information on alcohol and its effects on the developing baby, what.
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51.According to Jean Piaget, at what developmental stage would a child come to understand conservation and cause and effect? a.sensorimotor b.preoperational c.concrete operations d.formal operations 52.According to Piaget, children develop abstract reasoning at the ________ stage of cognitive development. a.preoperational b.sensorimotor c.concrete operations d.formal operations 53.According to Jean Piaget, the last stage of a child’s cognitive development is the ________.
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91.Adolescent boys who are lonely, depressed, worried, or angry are more likely than girls to: a.externalize their emotional problems in acts of aggression and other antisocial behavior. b.develop eating disorders. c.blame themselves for whatever goes wrong. d.internalize their feelings and become withdrawn. 92.Adolescent girls who are lonely, depressed, worried, or angry are more likely than.
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11.In psychoanalysis, which component of personality is present at birth and is the reservoir of unconscious psychological energies and the motives to avoid pain and obtain pleasure? a.the id b.the ego c.the libido d.the superego 12.In psychoanalysis, which component of personality is a “referee” between the needs of instinct and the demands of society? a.the id b.the.
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51. The humanist who described the importance of having peak experiences was Rollo May. 52. Abraham Maslow suggested that personality theorists study healthy, strong, creative individuals. 53. Abraham Maslow suggested that the most important personality traits were the “Big Five.” 54. Carl Rogers maintained that to become fully functioning, a person needs to.
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1._______________ is defined as a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual throughout life. a.A trait b.Personality c.Temperament d.The ego 2.In psychoanalysis, which component of personality is present at birth and is the reservoir of unconscious psychological energy and the motives to avoid pain and obtain pleasure? a.the id b.the.
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61.Which of the following is one of the Big Five personality traits? a.boringness b.openness to experience c.cleanliness d.psychopathy 62._______________ is a fundamental personality dimension that describes the extent to which people are anxious and impulsive. a.Agreeableness versus antagonism b.Extroversion versus introversion c.Neuroticism versus emotional stability d.Openness to experience versus resistance to new experience 63._______________ is a fundamental personality dimension that.
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101.Emerging adulthood, the years between the ages of 18 and 25, is considered to be a new phase of life in which: a.people feel that they are no longer adolescents but are not yet fully adult. b.rates of emotional distress increase greatly as people assume adult responsibilities. c.people living in nonindustrialized cultures develop feelings.
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11.Which of the following outcomes may occur when the mother has German measles (rubella) early in pregnancy? a.defects in the eye, ear, and heart b.attention problems and lower IQ c.increased likelihood of prematurity and low birth weight d.intellectual disabilities, blindness, and other physical disorders 12.Dr. McKenzie decides to perform a Cesarean section in order to.
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11. Newborn infants do not have motor reflexes. 12. Emotional attachment is a universal capacity of all primates. 13. Margaret and Harry Harlow’s work suggests that babies become attached to their mothers because their mothers provide them with food and warmth. 14. Child-rearing practices influence the strength of separation anxiety and how long.
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101.Male aggression is likely high in a culture: a.in which resources are abundant and there are no serious hazards. b.primarily based on agriculture. c.in which competition for limited resources is fierce and survival is difficult. d.with a history of slavery. 102.Hika comes from a small island culture where resources are abundant and there are no.
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81.The two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits is called: a.classical conditioning. b.congruence. c.reciprocal determinism. d.displacement. 82.In behavioral genetic research, _______________ includes personal experiences, such as winning the lead in the school play. a.the individualist culture b.the nonshared environment c.the shared environment d.the collectivist culture 83.In behavioral genetic research,.
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51.Which of the following is the scientific failing in which a researcher concludes from a few cases that something is true for all? a.violating the principle of falsifiability b.generalizing from small sample sizes c.relying on emotional reactions rather than sound reasoning d.basing theories on retrospective accounts 52.Some psychologists critique psychodynamic theories because they are largely.
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  True-False Questions 1. Developmental psychologists study physiological and cognitive changes across the life span and how these               changes are affected by a person’s genetic predispositions, culture, circumstances and experiences. 2. Socialization is the process by which children learn the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations required of 3. Maturation is the process by which.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1._______________ is a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling. a.A personality b.A trait c.An archetype d.A temperament 2._______________, one of the oldest theories of personality, was very influential and still appeals to some               psychologists today. a.Humanist theory b.Genetic theory c.Psychoanalytic theory d.Cognitive theory 3._______________ is defined as a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts,.
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11. How is the brain influenced by physical exercise and mental stimulation during old age? 12. What characteristics tend to promote resilience in a child? 1. Describe, in detail, the process of language acquisition beginning in the first months of life and extending to the age of 2 years. 2. Dr. Swanson asks.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. Most developmental psychology studies use either longitudinal or cross-sectional research designs. Describe how a developmental psychologist could use a longitudinal design to study changes in fluid and crystallized intelligence as adults age. Then describe a similar cross-sectional study. Based on what you read about.
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21.How did infant rhesus monkeys that were raised with both an artificial “wire mother” and an artificial “cloth mother” respond to these objects? a.They became attached to the artificial mother that supplied milk. b.They avoided both mothers except when they were hungry. c.They would not eat or drink, and soon died. d.They would cling.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 469 1.Melanie is playing happily on a jungle gym at her daycare center when she falls off and badly scrapes her               knee. She runs to her caregiver for a consoling hug. Melanie seeks ______. 2.True or false: To develop normally, infants must sleep in their own.
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  81.Comparisons of hormone production in boys and girls show that: a.before puberty, boys have higher levels of estrogen than do girls. b.from puberty on, boys and girls produce the same amounts of androgens and estrogens. c.before puberty, girls have higher levels of estrogen than do boys. d.from puberty on, boys produce more androgens and.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.Psychologists who study physiological and cognitive changes across the life span and how these are affected by a person’s genetic predispositions, culture, circumstances, and experiences are called: a.developmental psychologists. b.humanistic psychologists. c.maturational psychologists. d.individualist psychologists. 2.________ is the sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behavior and physical characteristics. a.Socialization b.Maturation c.Induction d.Acculturation 3.________ is the process by which children.
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21. The process of acquiring language begins in the womb. 22. Until the age of 12 months, babies have difficulty responding to the pitch, intensity, and sound of language. 23. Parentese is defined as the parental use of symbolic gestures as a tool of communication with an infant. 24.Babies who were given infant.
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