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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              All of the following statements about cultural change are correct except: a.all cultures are capable of adapting to changing conditions. b.not all change is positive or adaptive. c.all cultures are equally well equipped for making adjustments in a timely way. d.sometimes the pace of culture change increases dramatically. e.elements of a culture may.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              Natural selection is a series of beneficial adjustments of organisms to their environment. 2.              The cornerstone of natural selection is adaptation. 3.              The fundamental elements of culture came into existence around 4.4 million years ago. 4.              Swedish naturalist Carolus Linneaus worked with garden peas to determine the principles of heredity. 5.              The evolutionary.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              Cultural anthropology is composed of which two scholarly components? a.Ethnography and ethnohistory b.Ethnography and ethnology c.Ethnology and ethnohistory d.Ethnohistory and ethnoarchaeology e.Linguistics and ethnography 2.              The new term for salvage ethnography is a.contemporary ethnography. b.urgent anthropology. c.critical anthropology. d.fieldwork anthropology. e.historical anthropology. 3.              Anthropology has sought directly to do each of the following except: a.document the practice of culture. b.impose a Western.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              Which of the following statements best describes changes during the past five centuries? a.This period has been marked by the reduction of human diversity to a single species. b.During this time, humans have first faced cultural change and diversity. c.This has been a period of radical culture change. d.Humans have migrated from.
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  31.              Based on primatological studies, what does Richard Wrangham conclude about human violence and sexual selection? a.Males are better at diplomacy than females b.Sexual selection has no effect on biological differences c.There are no differences between males and females d.Females’ evolutionary interests cannot be met without cooperation from males e.Females are far more aggressive than.
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  11.              Genetic and biochemical studies confirm that the African apes are our closest living relatives. 12.              Homo habilis begins to show up in the fossil record around 2.5 million years before present. 13.              Human health has declined with the advent of settlements and a sedentary lifestyle. 14.              Homo sapiens was the first human.
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  11.              Applied anthropology began in the 1960s as a way of improving life in developing countries. 12.              Cargo cults occur primarily during moments of high social stress. 13.              In Bolivia, the revitalization movement Qullasuyu promises material riches to indigenous Andean farmers. 14.              A revitalization movement that attempts to overthrow an existing social structure.
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  31.              All of the following were differences between Bronislaw Malinowski’s original field research in the Trobriands and that of Annette Weiner some 60 years later except: a.differences in field methodology. b.differences in theoretical interests. c.differences in researchers’ disciplines. d.changes over time. e.differences in researchers’ genders. 32.              Validation in ethnographic research is difficult because of all of.
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  11.              So great is the power of global corporations that they increasingly hamper the wishes of governments. 12.              Social media is a type of “soft power.” 13.              Almost half (44%) of all people in the world get by on less than $2.00 per day. 14.              President Barack Obama’s mother worked extensively in Kenya.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              All social relations involve power. 2.              “Political organization” refers to the way power has evolved, whether from war, political intrigue, or by ascription. 3.              Bands have formal leadership, although it changes when necessary. 4.              Relationships among members of a chiefdom are egalitarian. 5.              Leadership in a tribe is formal. 6.              An example of tribal.
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  11.              The Ju/’hoansi believe that illness is caused by invisible arrows shot by spirits. 12.              A sick person who is given a medical explanation for his disease (for example, that he has tuberculosis) may still prefer to explain his illness as the result of witchcraft because it explains why he, and.
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  11.              Anthropologist _____ is a leading advocacy anthropologist today and a special rapporteur for the United Nations High Commission on Human Rights. a.Rodolfo Stavenhagen b.Clifford Geertz c.Stephen Lansang d.Gregory Bates e.Jonathan Marks 12.              Laura Nader has called on anthropologists to “study up.” What does she mean by this term? a.Anthropologists should study high-altitude peoples and cultures in.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              Twenty-five percent of the world’s population identifies itself as “non-religious.” 2.              Among food foragers, religion tends to be inseparable from daily life. 3.              Religion and spirituality are the same thing to anthropologists. 4.              The belief in ancestral spirits is associated with a dualistic approach of body/matter versus mind/soul. 5.              All religions anthropomorphize the.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              Art is universal to human societies. 2.              Originally, the objects from the tomb of Tut-ankh-amen were made for public display. 3.              Some form of visual art is a part of every historically known human culture. 4.              An art form that has developed recently is tattooing. It involves the puncturing and coloring of.
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  31.              As modernization occurs, all of the following changes are likely to follow except: a.increase in literacy. b.decrease in the role of religion. c.kinship plays a less significant role. d.movement from commercial farming to subsistence production. e.social mobility increases. 32.              About 5,000 years ago, which of the following began occurring? a.Cargo cults b.Revolutions c.Religion d.Diffusion e.Modernization 33.              The development of a bureaucracy,.
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  11.              If a farmer leaves his land behind and comes to the city to seek work, this is classified as which type of migration? a.External b.Internal c.Interstate d.Civil e.National 12.              What is xenophobia? a.Fear of anything strange or foreign b.Belief that all cultures are of value c.Fear of change d.Reluctance to live a multicultural society e.Inability to learn a foreign language 13.             .
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  11.              According to Stephen Jay Gould, “Wheels, like wings, fins, and brains, are exquisite devices for certain purposes, not signs of intrinsic superiority.” Which of the following statements about the use of the wheel in the Middle East is correct? a.Wheels were never appropriate vehicles in the Middle East and were.
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  31.              Which musical system divides the octave into five nearly equidistant tones? a.Octave b.Pentatonic c.Natural d.Tonal e.Formless 32.              Two people playing different patterns of beats at the same time is called a.syncopation. b.irregular repetition. c.polyrhythm. d.pentatonality. e.tone color. 33.              In Western music, the distance between the basic tone and the first overtone is called a(n) a.tone. b.pentatone. c.octave. d.scale. e.pentatonic scale. 34.              All of the following are functions.
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  21.              What is the adaptation process by which a people resist assimilation by modifying traditional culture in order to preserve their ethnic identity? a.Acculturation b.Syncretism c.Diffusion d.Accommodation e.Modernization 22.              Traditions play an important role in all aspects of cultural change; however, among those listed below, they are most significant in a.diffusion. b.syncretism. c.accommodation. d.assimilation. e.modernization. 23.              In the 1960s, the children of.
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  11.              The tonowi of the Kapauku of New Guinea acquires political power by all of the following except: a.being generous. b.being coercive. c.being a good talker. d.being wealthy. e.being a male. 12.              The source of the Kapauku tonowi’s wealth is a.money. b.cows. c.pigs. d.land. e.shell necklace. 13.              A ranked society in which every member has a position in the hierarchy and an.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              Anthropology examines spirituality and religion in terms of the society’s a.traditions. b.expectations. c.worldview. d.belief systems. e.sacred places. 2.              All of the following constitute a definition of religion except: a.a means by which people deal with things beyond their control. b.a group of associated ceremonial practices. c.a system by which people interpret aspects of the universe. d.a sacred narrative.
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  31.              According to Bronislaw Malinowski, the nature of an institution is determined by its a.structure. b.function. c.culture. d.superstructure. e.infrastructure. 32.              _____ set a new standard for fieldwork in anthropology through his research with the Trobriand people. a.E.E. Evans-Pritchard b.Claude Levi-Strauss c.Bronislaw Malinowski d.Ruth Benedict e.Alfred Wallace 33.              Which of the following statements is correct? a.A society is a union of multiple cultures. b.Human survival.
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  31.              The demand by “developed” countries for such items as coffee, tea, chocolate, bananas, and beef has led to a.pushing subsistence farmers off their land to make way for huge farms and ranches that specialize in cash crops. b.an increase in food supplies in “underdeveloped” nations. c.a return of urban workers to the.
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  31.              During what period did anatomically modern humans begin appearing in Africa and Southwest Asia? a.Middle Archaic b.Early Paleolithic c.Lower Paleolithic d.Middle Paleolithic e.Upper Paleolithic 32.              Which period was marked with tool industries including long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms? a.Lower Archaic b.Contemporary Modern c.Lower Paleolithic d.Middle Paleolithic e.Upper Paleolithic 33.              What is the burin? a.It is a stone.
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  11.              Which of the following statements is incorrect? a.All culture is learned. b.All learned behavior is cultural. c.Culture is humankind’s “social heredity.” d.Culture is not biologically inherited. e.Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next through enculturation. 12.              In the movie Witness, a policeman named John Book was able to hide from his corrupt boss.
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  21.              All of the following statements about pluralistic societies are correct except: a.these are societies in which two or more ethnic groups coexist within the same state. b.together these societies comprise a nation. c.pluralistic societies did not exist before about 5,000 years ago. d.these societies have a more complex order than those states composed.
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  21.              In the myth of Tabaldak and Odziozo, Tabaldak first created the Abenakis from stone, and then from living wood. What does this tell us about the functions of myths? a.Myths function to tell actual history; the Abenakis believe that they were originally made of wood. b.Myths bring humor into the lives.
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  21.              When an individual undergoes rituals to celebrate birth, puberty, and marriage, he or she is practicing a.rites of rebellion. b.rites of passage. c.rites of intensification. d.rites of magic. e.life stage rituals. 22.              The initiation rites for male Australian aborigines include a stage when they are isolated from the rest of society and undergo a cram.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              The ability of individuals or groups to impose their will upon others and make them do things even against their own will is called a.power. b.force. c.coercion. d.legitimacy. e.authority. 2.              Politics is best defined as a.the process of electing officials and making decisions. b.the process determining who gets what, when, and how. c.the structure that determines the.
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  11.              To some extent, in literate societies, the function of legends has been taken over by history. 12.              The significance of tales to anthropologists is partly in their distribution across cultures. 13.              In all cultures, the words of songs constitute a type of poetry. 14.              Ethnomusicology began in the early 20th century. 15.              Zale.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              The gradual process of making beneficial adjustments to the environment is called a.adjustment. b.adaption. c.adaptation. d.acclimatization. e.alteration. 2.              Humans’ major mode of adaptation, which enables them to live effectively in diverse environments, is a.education. b.culture. c.bureaucracy. d.religion. e.biology. 3.              All of the following are long-term challenges associated with high-yield marginal farmlands in the U.S. except: a.loss of topsoil. b.high cost of fossil.
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  21.              The use of wealth to support the tonowi’s power, the belief in the divine right of kings to rule, and the choice of the oldest living male becoming the head of the Dahomey state of West Africa all have in common that they a.have to do with a system of.
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  11.              Among the traditional Igbo of Midwestern Nigeria, women were not allowed positions in the administrative hierarchy. 12.              Cultural control is control through external sanctions against individual misbehavior. 13.              The Azande use a talking circle in order to detect who is accused of wrong-doing. 14.              Punitive justice has been extremely successful in changing.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              Everything that humans do well is adaptive. 2.              Behavior that has been adaptive at one time may become maladaptive later. 3.              Examples of socially learned behavior are particularly evident among other primates. 4.              A group of people without a common culture who are stranded together for a month on a desert island.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              Those who study the course of early human evolutionary history are called a.archaeologists. b.paleoanthropologists. c.paleontologists. d.evolutionary historians. e.primatologists. 2.              All of the following are associated with evolution except: a.it occurs at the level of a population or group. b.it refers to changes that occur over time. c.it involves genes as the basic units of heredity. d.it involves stable.
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  11.              Anthropologists use only qualitative data-gathering techniques. Quantitative data is used by sociologists and psychologists. 12.              Among the Canela, it is improper for a mother, sister, or daughter to cut a man’s hair. 13.              Both Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson were pioneers in the method of field mapping. 14.              It is often an.
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  21.              When researchers use things such as photographs in order to prompt people to speak with them about a particular topic, these are called a.soliciting devices. b.eliciting devices. c.prompting devices. d.circular conversations. e.participant tools. 22.              Why are informal interviews central to ethnographic fieldwork? a.They provide a fixed structure that allows the researcher to quantify the data collection b.They.
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  31.              Mount Kailash is a sacred site for many religious traditions. In all of the following religious traditions it is a taboo to climb Mount Kailash except: a.Jainism. b.Buddhism. c.Hinduism. d.Islam. e.Bönpo. 32.              All of the following statements about pilgrimages are correct except: a.a pilgrimage is a sacred journey involving religious drama. b.a pilgrimage demands personal sacrifices. c.pilgrims usually.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              A system of communication using sounds, gestures, or marks that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of share rules is called a(n) a.signal set. b.language. c.code. d.linguistic system. e.analogue. 2.              Which of the following is not a signal? a.Coughs from cold b.Winking from pleasure c.Screams from fear d.Crying from sadness e.Sneezing from sickness 3.              What are.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              Anthropology emerged as a scientific discipline less than 20 years ago. 2.              Historically, anthropologists have worked with non-Western peoples. 3.              Ruth Benedict was able to develop “culture-at-a-distance” studies without changing anthropology’s methodology. 4.              Hortense Powdermaker was an early pioneer in “national character” studies. 5.              One of the first advocacy projects in anthropology was.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              All cultures are capable of adapting to changing conditions. 2.              Eric Wolf helped expose counterinsurgency use of anthropological research in Southeast Asia. 3.              Progress is a term that is often used by anthropologists who are involved in applied research working to improve the lives of indigenous peoples. 4.              Diffusion can occur without.
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  11.              Cattle herding is the mainstay around which all of Kapauku Papuan society revolves. 12.              A society’s economic base is part of the superstructure. 13.              The most important symbolic aspect of culture is religion. 14.              Bronislaw Malinowski used standard methods of fieldwork for his work among the Trobriand. 15.              Every culture provides its members.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              Whether beneficial or unbeneficial, all art is an expression of a.the innate need to be playful and engage in manual arts. b.a fundamental human capacity for symbolic and religious expression. c.state-level societies that can afford specialists. d.political domination of minorities by elites. e.the symbolic representation of form and the expression of creative imagination. 2.             .
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  11.              The entire formal structure of a language consisting of all observations about its meaningful units of sounds and the rules or principles of making phrases and sentences is called its a.syntax. b.form classes. c.morphology. d.phonology. e.grammar. 12.              The development of different languages from a single ancestral language is called a.descriptive linguistics. b.historical linguistics. c.language subgroups. d.linguistic divergence. e.linguistic nationalism. 13.              Which.
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  11.              All of the following statements about tattoos are correct except: a.tattoos are transformed into fine art through redefinition and framing based on formal and ideological qualities. b.tattoos were first brought to the U.S. by British Captain John Smith from the Pacific. c.tattoos can function as a mark of affiliation and identity for.
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  21.              Why did the community of Mallku Khota protest so vigorously against the South American Silver Association? a.They were concerned that the mining operation would ruin their land b.They were not allowed to have shares in the corporation and so could not benefit from market success c.They felt that the hiring processes of.
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  21.              The Oldowan Tool Tradition was most associated with which human species? a.Homo sapiens b.Homo habilis c.Homo erectus d.Ardipithecus ramidus e.Australopithecus 22.              Evolutionary medicine bases its prescriptions on the idea that a.cultural medicine is much more effective than any type of Western medicine. b.rates of cultural change exceed rates of biological change. c.rates of biological change exceed rates of.
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  11.              Svante Pääbo’s work in evolutionary genetics has led to a better understanding of a.the earliest primates and their transition from an arboreal to a more savanna-like environment. b.the development of the earliest primates from their mammalian origins. c.the emergence of unique sensory apparatus among the primate order. d.genetic evidence of interbreeding between early.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              Historical evidence supports the idea that a global culture will eliminate conflict. 2.              The more divergent cultural traditions are, the more difficult it is for pluralism to be successful. 3.              Multiculturalism is a public policy for managing cultural diversity in a multi-ethnic society. 4.              Almost 7% of the world’s population lives outside.
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  11.              A full-time religious specialist formally recognized for his or her role in guiding the religious practices of others is called a(n) a.shaman. b.priest or priestess. c.pastor. d.spiritual guide. e.preacher. 12.              Which of the following is not a change that affects women who become a Chan monastic? a.They devote themselves to their families unselfishly b.They begin to refer.
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