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31. Sociobiologists state that males should be choosy in their choice of sexual partners. 32. According to sociobiologists, males seek secure, stable relationships to ensure the fidelity of females. 33. Males should be promiscuous and drawn to sexual novelty, according to sociobiologists. 34.Sociobiologists have found that women, compared to men, are more likely.
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141.The _______________, or “lesser brain,” is involved in remembering simple skills and acquired reflexes. a.pons b.medulla c.reticular activating system d.cerebellum 142.The _______________ was once considered just a motor center, but evidence has accumulated that it also plays a part in cognitive and emotional learning. a.pons b.medulla c.auditory cortex d.cerebellum 143.A ballerina will rely.
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91.Which of the following is a hormone? a.glutamate b.epinephrine c.dopamine d.serotonin 92.Adrenal hormones play an important role in: a.facilitating the ejection of milk during nursing. b.promoting attachment and trust. c.the regulation of daily biological rhythms. d.the regulation of blood sugar. 93.Melatonin is secreted by the: a.gonads. b.adrenal gland. c.pineal gland. d.pituitary gland. 94.Oxytocin is secreted.
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61.Suppose a researcher finds that taste in music tends to be much more similar for identical twins than it is for fraternal twins. This would suggest that the heritability for musical taste: a.is relatively high. b.is relatively low. c.is higher for identical twins than fraternal twins. c.is higher for fraternal twins than.
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8. Rarely does a psychological study have completely straightforward results. Usually there is some possibility that the difference between two groups could be due to chance. Explain how inferential statistics help us determine how statistically meaningful a study’s results are. 9. When the relationship between age and mental abilities is studied.
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  Essay Questions 1. When the textbook authors refer to psychologists as scientists, they do not mean that all psychologists work with complicated gadgets and machines or wear white lab coats. The scientific enterprise has more to do with attitudes and procedures than it does with apparatus and apparel. Describe, in detail,.
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1.Which of the following best describes the position of most psychologists today on the nature-nurture issue? a.Nature and nurture interact to produce both our psychological and physical traits. b.Nature is more important in producing our physical traits, whereas nurture is more important in producing our psychological traits. c.Nature is more important in producing.
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131.Although Joseph Gall’s theory of phrenology has been debunked, modern neuroscience does generally support Gall’s assertion that: a.different brain parts are specialized to perform different functions. b.personality traits are reflected in the development of specific bumps on the skull. c.the left hemisphere and right hemisphere are mirror images of one another..
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121._______________ allows scientists to see the neural activity associated with each of the series of steps associated with a thought in real time. a.ERPs b.TMS c.EEGs d.MRIs 122.Dr. McClelland is studying patterns of electrical activity in the brain, which are being translated into wavy lines on a screen. Which method is she most likely to.
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21.The somatic nervous system is also called the: a.sympathetic nervous system. b.parasympathetic nervous system. c.central nervous system. d.skeletal nervous system. 22.The functioning of blood vessels, glands, and internal organs is regulated by the: a.autonomic nervous system. b.somatic nervous system. c.hippocampus. d.lymphatic system 23.Which of the following statements is true? a.The autonomic nervous system collects.
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71.A major problem with genetic explanations of racial differences in IQ is that: a.although intelligence differs between groups, it does not differ within groups. b.heritability estimates used in supporting genetic explanations of group differences are based mainly on white samples. c.the studies typically use black and white children from highly similar socioeconomic groups. d.the.
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  Quick Quiz — textbook page 37 Can you identify which rule of science was violated in each of the following cases? 1.For nine months after being diagnosed with a treatable form of pancreatic cancer, Steve Jobs refused to have surgery and instead tried to cure himself with carrot juice, fruit, and psychics. 2.Sigmund.
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  61.The distribution of the scores on an IQ test approximates a bell-shaped curve. 62.The distribution of the IQ scores for the general population generally approximates an S-shaped curve. 63.Very high or very low scores are rare in an IQ test. 64.The kind of intelligence that produces high IQ scores is partially heritable. 65.It is.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.Cognitive neuroscientists focus on: a.the biological foundations of consciousness, perception, memory, and language. b.processes such as attachment and attitudes. c.the nervous system’s involvement in emotion, motivation, and stress. d.the anatomical structure of the brain. 2.Affective neuroscientists explore: a.the biological foundations of consciousness, perception, memory, and language. b.processes such as attachment and attitudes. c.the biology.
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  1.According to Professor Sandoval, the development of inheritable traits that helped our biological ancestors survive might help explain commonalities in human behavior today. She is most likely to consider herself: a.an epigenesist. b.an evolutionary psychologist. c.an empiricist. d.a sociocultural psychologist. 2.Genes are located on _______________, rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of the cell. a.ribosomes b.chromosomes.
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  51.Convenience samples have often been used to study the sexual attitudes and behaviors of men and women. Which of the following is a problem with this research that is specifically related to this type of sampling method? a.A participant’s response on a survey may be a poor indication of how.
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  True-False Questions 1.Psychologists who emphasized the role of genes and nature in the creation of human diversity were called empiricists. 2. Nativists emphasized the role of “nature” or heredity in determining behavior. 3. Evolutionary psychologists emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain human commonalities. 4. In general, evolutionary psychologists study human differences and.
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81.Which of the following neurotransmitters functions as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain? a.glutamate b.GABA c.acetylcholine d.norepinephrine 82.Glutamate functions as the: a.neurotransmitter most involved in voluntary movements. b.major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. c.neurotransmitter most responsible for the slowing of intestinal activity during stress. d.major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. 83.GABA.
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31.Over the past 150 years, Darwin’s ideas have been: a.strongly challenged by findings in biology. b.resoundingly supported by findings in anthropology, botany, and molecular genetics. c.reexamined and found to be unscientific. d.slowly replaced by newer theories, making Darwin’s original theories only important from a historical point of view. 32.Which of the following is the hypothesis.
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111.Research has shown that endorphins: a.increase the distress felt when separated from a loved one. b.increase the stress of interpersonal contact. c.strengthen an infant’s bond to its mother in animals. d.are not related to social contact. 112._______________ is an approach used only with animals to study the brain. a.Positron-emission tomography b.Transcranial magnetic.
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21. An example of a human tendency that is either present at birth, or develops rapidly during maturation, is a dislike of unfamiliar stimuli. 22. Some of the basic cognitive abilities in humans are innate. 23. Social scientists agree that the evolutionary history of our species accounts for our engagement in warfare. 24..
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  51.Even highly heritable traits can be modified by the environment. 52.The most effective approach to estimate the heritability of a trait is to compare blood relatives within families. 53.One way of inferring heritability is by studying adopted children. 54.The heritability of a trait can be estimated by comparing groups of same-sex fraternal twins.
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  71.As adopted children grow into adulthood, the correlation between their IQ scores and those of their biologically unrelated family members diminishes to zero. 72.Studies have shown that in children with very high IQs, the cerebral cortex starts out with less gray matter than in children with lower IQs. 73.Studies have shown that.
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41.Which part of the neuron transmits messages to other neurons, muscles, or gland cells? a.the cell body b.dendrites c.the axon d.glial cells 42.Many axons, especially the larger ones, are insulated by a surrounding layer of fatty material called the _______________. a.neuromodulator b.myelin sheath c.dendrite d.glia 43.Constrictions that divide the myelin sheath into segments.
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21.One way scientists can search for genes that are associated with rare disorders is by carrying out: a.experimental studies. b.psychometric studies. c.linkage studies. d.noncoding studies. 22.Linkage studies are used to help determine: a.where a gene for a particular trait is likely to be located. b.where and how genetic mutations take place. c.a map of the human nucleus. d.where.
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41.According to sociobiologists, it is evolutionarily beneficial for males to: a.conserve resources by having only a few children. b.be choosy in their selection of sexual partners. c.seek secure, stable relationships to ensure the fidelity of females. d.be promiscuous and drawn to sexual novelty. 42.According to sociobiologists, it is evolutionarily beneficial for females.
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  1.Which of the following is true of spinal reflexes? a.They are not automatic and require conscious effort. b.Spinal reflexes control such responses as withdrawing from a painful stimulus, sneezing, and blinking. c.They involve sending sensory messages to the spinal cord that immediately trigger a motor response. d.They require sensory information to be sent to.
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  11.Genes are located on _______________, rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of a cell. a.ribosomes b.chromosomes c.genomes d.DNA 12._______________ are rod-shaped and paired structures made of DNA and are located in the nucleus of a cell. a.Chromosomes b.Genomes c.Genes d.Genetic markers 13.Each human chromosome has: a.23 pairs of genes. b.23 genes. c.46 pairs of genes. d.thousands of genes..
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1.A collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain down the center of the back, protected by a column of bones, is called the: a.spinal cord. b.cerebellum. c.somatic nervous system. d.amygdala. 2.Shannon blinks as she steps off the school bus and walks into a gust of wind..
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11. Researchers working on the Human Genome Project identified the sequence of nearly all 3 billion bases. 12. The four basic chemical elements of DNA are identified by the letters A, B, C, and D. 13. Linkage studies can be used to identify genes that are associated with rare disorders. 14. After a.
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6. Evolutionary biologists often start with an observation about some characteristic and then try to account for               it in evolutionary terms. How might they explain the difference in the plumage of male peacocks when               compared to the females? 7. What is meant by the term “mental module”? 8. What.
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  1.In the past, psychologists who emphasized the role of inborn characteristics on human behavior were called: a.empiricists. b.behaviorists. c.nativists. d.psychoanalysts. 2.A nativist would claim that the chief determining factor of behavior and other psychological traits is: a.operant conditioning. b.classical conditioning. c.the parent-child relationship. d.heredity. 3.Empiricists would agree that: a.experience can write virtually any message on the blank slate of.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. What makes psychological research scientific? This chapter points out the importance of precision in the pursuit of knowledge. How does this principle of good science correspond to the critical thinking guideline, “Define Your Terms,” discussed in Chapter 1? 2. In Chapter 2, we read about.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. What is the human genome? What is the current estimate of the number of genes in the human genome? 2. Describe the structure of DNA. Who discovered this structure? 3. What is epigenetics? How are epigenetic changes different than genetic changes? 4. What two processes, during the formation of.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. In Chapter 1, the importance of critical thinking was noted. In particular, a critical thinker looks beyond the obvious and resists easy generalizations. Analyze critically the sex differences in courtship and mating that are common in cultures around the world and among nonhuman mammals..
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  61.A neuron at rest contains: a.only positively charged ions. b.only negatively charged ions. c.a mix of positive and negatively charged ions. d.no charged particles. 62.When a neuron is stimulated, sodium moves into the cell, causing the inside of the neuron to: a.become less negative relative to the outside. b.become more negative relative to the outside. c.remain neutral.
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151.The _______________ in the brain contain(s) the biological clock that controls the body’s daily rhythms. a.parietal lobes b.amygdala c.reticular activating system d.hypothalamus 152.Hanging down from the hypothalamus in the human brain, connected to it by a short stalk, is a cherry-sized endocrine gland called the: a.olfactory bulb. b.pineal gland. c.pituitary gland. d.temporal lobe. 153.The.
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  Quick Quiz — textbook page 83 1.Which of the following would an evolutionary psychologist expect to be more typical of males than of               females? a.promiscuity b.choosiness about sexual partners c.concern with dominance d.interest in young partners e.emphasis on the physical attractiveness of partners 2.What major issue divides evolutionary theorists and their critics in debates over courtship.
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  Quick Quiz — textbook page 48 A.Identify each of the following as a positive or negative correlation. 1.The higher a male monkey’s level of the hormone testosterone, the more aggressive he is likely to be. 2.The older people are, the less frequently they tend to have sexual intercourse. 3.The hotter the weather, the higher.
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41. Our prehistoric ancestors lived in small bands in which there were not a large number of sexual partners from whom to choose. 42. According to evolutionary psychologists, genes hold culture on a short and tight leash that does not allow culture to produce much biological change. 43.According to sociobiologists, genes hold.
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  81.When children move from severely disadvantaged neighborhoods to better areas, their verbal IQs improve dramatically. 82.Environmental factors can lower one’s intelligence level but cannot aid in improving intelligence. 83.In developed countries, IQ scores have been climbing steadily for several generations. 84.Heredity and environment always interact to produce the qualities typical of human beings. 85.Neither.
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  71._______________ are special molecules in the membrane of a receiving neuron’s dendrites with which neurotransmitter molecules bind. a.Synapses b.Glia c.Neuromodulators d.Receptor sites 72.When a neurotransmitter molecule binds briefly with a receptor site, changes occur in the receiving neuron’s charge. If there is a voltage shift in a positive direction, then the effect is: a.a.
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  Quick Quiz — textbook page 74 1.What does it mean to say that the gene-environment interaction works in both directions? 2.The basic unit of heredity is called a: a.gene. b.chromosome. c.genome. d.DNA molecule. e.noncoding DNA sequence. 3.What do the codes within genes encode for? 4.True or false: Most human genetic traits depend on a single gene. 5.Epigenetic changes: a.affect the expression.
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  Essay Questions 1. Where do new genetic variations come from? After a genetic variation exists, what would cause its frequency in the population increase until it was fairly common? 2. Because of the way that humans evolved, many of our characteristics either are present at birth or develop rapidly during maturation..
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11.Reflexes above the neck, such as sneezing and blinking, are controlled by the _______________. a.spinal cord b.sympathetic nervous system c.brain d.parasympathetic nervous system 12.Reflexes below the neck, such as pulling a hand away from a hot stove, are controlled by the _______________. a.spinal cord b.sympathetic nervous system c.brain d.parasympathetic nervous system 13.Shannon blinks as she steps.
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6. A psychologist has the option of gathering information through psychological tests or through self-evaluations by the participants. Which option would be more effective in clarifying the differences and similarities between individuals? Why? 7. Think of a topic in psychology that interests you. Write a hypothesis regarding this topic and explain.
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101.Which of the following sex hormones brings on physical changes in females at puberty, such as breast development and the onset of menstruation? a.estrogens b.progesterone c.testosterone d.androgen 102.Which of the following is a type of androgen? a.estrogen b.progesterone c.testosterone d.oxytocin 103.Research on sex hormones suggests that: a.fluctuating levels of progesterone make women emotional before menstruation. b.the testes are.
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51.The human body has _______________ pairs of cranial nerves in the head, connecting directly to the brain. a.43 b.12 c.31 d.52 52.Research by contemporary neuroscientists has shown that: a.no new central nervous system cells are produced after infancy. b.extended immobility can regrow severed spinal-cord axons in animals. c.it is impossible to regrow spinal-cord.
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31.The name “glial” is derived from the Greek word for “glue.” It is an appropriate name because glial cells: a.keep the axon from detaching from the cell body. b.hold neurons in place. c.fuse neurotransmitters to receptor sites. d.fuse sodium ions to potassium ions. 32.A cell that conducts electrochemical signals and is the.
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