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Study Resources (Anthropology)

  TRUE/FALSE 1.              All societies have cultural rules to regulate sexual relations. 2.              The Trobrianders have a rigidly controlled sex life and puritan attitudes toward sexuality. 3.              There are no cultures that prescribe male-to-male sexual acts, for any reason. 4.              The social rules and cultural meanings of all sexual behavior are subject to great variability.
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  11.Egyptian kings sent traders to Lebanon for cedar, wine, and funerary oils. 12.The emergence of a governing elite characterized early civilizations. 13.Governments of the past ensured that cities were safe from enemies by constructing fortifications and raising armies. 14.The Code of Hammurabi was first developed in Egypt. 15.In stratified societies, the elite usually live.
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  11.              Frequent nursing of children over as many as 4 or 5 years acts to stimulate ovulation among food foragers such as Bushman. As a consequence, women give birth to more offspring at shorter intervals. 12.              Among foragers, most groups have home ranges within which all resources are open to any.
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  21.              Which of the following is most likely to require cooperative hunting skills? a.Bow hunting b.Net hunting c.Spear hunting d.Rifle hunting e.Dart hunting 22.              The cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes is a type of farming called a.agriculture. b.slash-and-burn. c.horticulture. d.low-tech farming. e.pastoralism. 23.              The extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut,.
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  11.Which of the following best describes accelerated breathing for a non-native at high altitude? a.Physiological adaptation b.Genetic adaptation c.Physical adaptation d.Hormonal adaptation e.Developmental adaptation 12.Over the course of our evolutionary history, most environmental stressors were climatic and geographic. Now, however, a.humans have little environmental stressors, climatic or geographic. b.nonhuman primates have more stressors than humans. c.humans face a series.
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  1.Anthropology is different from other disciplines that study humans because it is very focused on singular aspects of a culture. 2.Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own culture is superior to another. 3.One way that culture is preserved and shared is by language. 4.Ethnographic fieldwork is never done in Western societies. 5.While ethnography is.
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  11.National character studies have focused on the modal characteristics of emerging Third World countries. 12.Values highly promoted by a particular culture can be considered its core values. 13.About 3% of all humans are intersexed. 14.All cultures practice gender bending (creating more than two gender categories) as a way of dealing with different types.
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  31.A chance creation of a new allele is called a.mutation. b.meiosis. c.genotype. d.genetic drift. e.directional selection. 32.There are four evolutionary forces. Which of the following is not one of these? a.Gene flow b.Genetic drift c.Mutation d.Translation e.Natural selection 33.Which of the following statements about mutation is correct? a.The rate at which mutations occur in populations is constant. b.Mutation does not contribute to the variability.
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  31.              From an economist’s point of view, “market exchange” is defined by a.the purchase of goods in a marketplace. b.the buying and selling of goods and services whose value is determined by supply and demand. c.the role of middlemen who bring buyers and sellers together. d.face-to-face bargaining for goods and/or services. e.the role of large.
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  31.An individual seeking to remove the epicanthic fold in order to Occidentalize is seeking to do all of the following except: a.give their eyes a rounder look. b.remove a phenotypic trait. c.change their genotype. d.change their East Asian phenotype. e.fit into a more universal standard of beauty. 32.Which of the following protects skin against damaging ultraviolet.
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  11.              The concept that states humans are moving forward to a better, more advanced stage in their cultural development is called a.advancement. b.evolution. c.progress. d.success. e.convergence. 12.              The oldest and most universal mode of subsistence is a.food foraging. b.subsistence farming. c.hunting. d.pastoralism. e.fishing. 13.              Today, food-foraging societies a.are found only in the world’s most marginal areas. b.make up the majority of the world’s population. c.have.
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  1.Cities are just like towns except they have more population in their central urban areas. 2.Ancient people incorporated their spiritual beliefs and social order into the cities they built. 3.The ancient city of Tikal was part of the Aztec civilization. 4.In Tikal, extensive excavation provided a sound basis for understanding everyday life and.
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  11.Genes are portions of molecules of long strands of which form chromosomes, or a.codons. b.DNA. c.RNA. d.ribosomes. e.transcriptions. 12.The three base sequence of a gene that specifies production of an amino acid is the a.condom. b.DNA. c.codon. d.alleles. e.ribosome. 13.A particular kind of protein within a DNA molecule that initiates and directs a chemical reaction is known as a(n) a.virus. b.enzyme. c.bacteria. d.platelet. e.antioxidant. 14.What is a karyotype? a.It.
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1.Which of the following scientists divided humans into subspecies based on geographic location? a.Johan Blumenbach b.Carolus Linnaeus c.Charles Darwin d.Franz Boas e.Fatimah Jackson 2.In Blumenbach’s classification of races, light-skinned peoples from Europe and adjacent parts of western Asia and northern Africa were part of which race? a.European b.Guinean c.Dravidian d.American Indian e.Caucasian 3.Human genetic variation generally is distributed in a continuous range,.
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  21.All of the following statements about race and intelligence are correct except: a.they generally involve comparisons among races, a category that is biologically false. b.problems with defining intelligence cross-culturally exist as intelligence involves several different skills and abilities. c.most instruments (tests) used to measure intelligence are biased toward the dominant culture of the.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              If a group is well adapted to its environment, it will never change as long as conditions remain the same. 2.              An anthropologist would probably find it difficult to define what “progress” is. 3.              The process of adaptation establishes a continually changing balance between the needs of the population and the.
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  21.Clark Erickson calls the idea that the landscapes of the Americas were largely undisturbed and unchanged until the arrival of the Europeans a.the Myth of the Noble Savage. b.the Myth of the Pristine Environment. c.the Myth of the Conquest. d.the Myth of the Modified Environment. e.the truth. 22.What does Clark Erickson believe to be the purpose.
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  21.              Marriage by proxy, such as that which might occur with a prisoner, a dead partner for inheritance reasons, or between those separated by deployment, is called a.delayed marriage. b.group marriage. c.primate marriage. d.approximate marriage. e.fictive marriage. 22.              An important source of contacts in trying to arrange an Indian marriage is/are a.social clubs. b.newspaper personals. c.Internet chat rooms. d.match-making businesses. e.the.
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  11.The city of Tikal was governed by a.an egalitarian council of women. b.a hereditary ruling dynasty. c.a council of elders based on kinship. d.elected senators. e.craft guilds. 12.El Pilar is located not far from Tikal a.in Mexico. b.in Cuba. c.in Spain. d.on the border between Belize and Guatemala. e.on the border between Guatemala and Honduras. 13.“A pioneering conservation model that draws on.
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  21.The protection of cultural resources as part of archaeology is called a.ethnographic resource management. b.cultural resource management. c.cultural resource administration. d.cultural area management. e.cultural resource excavation. 22.As part of your job, you may study the frequency of blood types in human populations, or watch the behavior of monkeys and apes, or dig for early hominid bones.
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1.What ethical dilemma was involved in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? a.A group of poor, African-American airmen from WW II was intentionally infected with syphilis in order to study the progress of the disease among minorities b.A group of poor, African-American men received the wrong medication for syphilis and were denied entrance to.
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  11.Molecular anthropology is the study of primates and the closest human relatives. 12.Physical anthropologists are only concerned with the past evolutionary development of the human animal and the biological variations with the species that occurred in the past. 13.Besides providing factual accounts of the fate of victims who had disappeared (desaparecidos) to.
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  11.Disease cannot exist in the absence of illness. 12.A shaman is an indigenous healer. 13.Down syndrome is found only in the U.S. 14.James McKenna’s research on brain-wave patterns of mothers and infants shows that co-sleeping is not the best practice for families. 15.Evolutionary medicine proposes that many of the symptoms of illness are the.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.              Anthropologists focus on culture as a way of explaining economic behavior. 2.              Economic behavior can be analyzed in purely economic terms without ignoring crucial noneconomic considerations. 3.              Raw materials, labor, and technology are the productive resources used by all societies. 4.              Among food foragers, tools may be given or loaned to others.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.The significance of the concept of tabula rasa is that it emphasizes the importance of culture rather than biological inheritance in determining an individual’s characteristics. 2.American children are among the earliest to develop a concept of self because of the high level of social stimulation they receive. 3.Names are a form of.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              All of the following statements about sexual behavior among the Trobrianders is correct except: a.when the couple is ready to be married, they appear outside the woman’s household. b.by their mid-teens, young people begin having longer-term affairs that lead to marriage. c.young people traditionally have a great deal of sexual freedom. d.by.
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  31.Anthropology studies the language of a culture, its philosophy, and its forms of art. In the process of doing research, ethnographers involve themselves intensively in the lives of those they study, trying to experience culture from their informants’ points of view. In this sense, anthropology is a.scientific. b.humanistic. c.radical. d.conservative. e.systematic. 32.Anthropology has been called the.
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  11.              A customary practice such as hosting a birthday party is an example of negative reciprocity. 12.              The Inca Empire featured a highly efficient redistributive system. 13.              Because these events were sponsored alternately by different ethnic groups, the potlatch was a form of balanced reciprocity. 14.              Leveling mechanisms are found in every society,.
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  31.              Food producers who specialize in animal husbandry, and who consider their way of life to be ideal and central to defining their identities, are called a.food foragers. b.horticulturalists. c.agriculturalists. d.pastoralists. e.industrialists. 32.              The Bakhtiari are a a.pastoral group who raise goats and sheep. b.pastoral group who raise pigs and cows. c.foraging group with an extensive home range. d.horticultural group.
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  21.A Western doctor’s “white coat” can be compared to a shaman’s a.poncho. b.drum or rattle. c.moccasins or sandals. d.bed or hammock. e.flute. 22.To effectively compare medical systems and health cross-culturally, medical anthropologists have made a theoretical distinction between a.Western medicine and folk medicine. b.doctors and health practitioners. c.medical systems and folk medicine. d.“diseases of health” and “mental sickness.” e.“disease” and “illness.” 23.A.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              The process organisms undergo to achieve a beneficial adjustment to a particular environment, which not only leads to biological changes in the organisms but also impacts their environment, is called a.accommodation. b.acculturation. c.adaptation. d.assimilation. e.incorporation. 2.              Among the Tsembaga of Papua New Guinea, there is a relationship between the physical and social environments that.
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  21.              Balanced reciprocity a.is part of a long-term process in which nothing is specified about what is expected in return or when it is expected. b.involves the expectation of a specific and immediate exchange. c.usually occurs between members of different communities who may have a hostile, distrustful relationship. d.is exemplified by your stopping to.
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  31.People who cross over or occupy an intermediate position in the binary male-female gender construction are called a.transsexuals. b.intersexuals. c.transgenders. d.eunuchs. e.third genders. 32.All of the following are associated with eunuchs except: a.castration is a widespread cultural practice to transform sexual status. b.there is evidence of castration in the archaeological record in Egypt. c.castration was always carried out as.
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  11.In a study of the differences between populations of humans, Richard Lewontin found that the total amount of genetic variation between groups is a.37%. b.23%. c.14%. d.11%. e.7%. 12.Which field of science has begun commercially providing genomic data based on mitochondrial DNA for ancestry purposes? a.Genetic science b.Human population genetics c.Human growth and development science d.Evolutionary biology e.Forensic anthropology 13.All of the.
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  31.All of the following can provide archaeological evidence of class stratification within burials except: a.rate of organic decay in a particular body. b.amount of grave goods included in the burial. c.position and mode of body. d.nutritional status of the skeleton. e.size of the burial pit or chamber. 32.Objects such as utensils, figurines, and personal possessions placed.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.              What do we call a system in which goods are produced, distributed, and consumed? a.Economic b.Political c.Religious d.Kinship e.Industrial 2.              When a man works hard in his garden in the Trobriand Islands to produce yams, he does this to satisfy which of the following demands? a.To have food for his household to eat b.To gain prestige.
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  31.How many people died of smallpox in the 20th century? a.1 billion b.722 million c.300 million d.105 million e.750,000 32.Which of the following is classified as a “prion” disease? a.Smallpox b.Tuberculosis c.Kuru d.Leishmaniasis e.Susto 33.How does the prion specifically function inside the human body? a.It increases blood flow to the brain and liver and causes encephalitis b.It grows into tumors and cuts off blood.
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1.Societies in which large numbers of people live in cities, socially stratified and governed by centrally organized political systems, are called a.urbanizations. b.civilizations. c.nations. d.city-states. e.centralized governments. 2.The word civilization derives from the Latin word, civis, referring to one who is an inhabitant of a city, and civitas, which refers to the urban community in which.
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1.How do scientific accounts and creation stories differ from each other? a.Evolution is true, and creation stories are not b.Evolution, unlike creation stories, explains how life forms became diverse c.Scientific accounts focus on testable ideas, and creation stories do not d.Creation stories are based on religion, and scientific accounts are based on ideology e.These two.
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  1.Both creation stories and evolution strive to account for the diversity of life on Earth. 2.Evolution explains the diversity of life by using hypotheses. 3.Monkeys are anthropoids, but humans are not. 4.Carolus Linnaeus based his classificatory system on body structure and function. 5.Analogous structures arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages before.
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  11.              Although all societies have some kind of incest taboo, the relationship which is considered incestuous may vary. Concepts of incest seem to be related to a group’s definitions of endogamy and exogamy, thus suggesting that incest taboos may help to promote: a.stability of the family. b.inbreeding genetic errors. c.brother-sister marriages. d.parallel cousin marriages. e.cross-cousin.
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  1.Human genetic variation generally is distributed across the globe in a continuous fashion. 2.Fingerprint patterns of loops, whorls, and arches are environmentally determined. 3.Racist ideology in the United States has played a role in our treatment of Africans, Native Americans, and Asians. 4.You are related to every other human being. 5.The ever-changing racial categories.
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  11.The hallmark of ethnographic fieldwork is a.participant observation. b.formal interviews. c.fieldnotes. d.applied anthropology. e.holism. 12.In-depth descriptive studies of specific cultures are called a.ethnologies. b.ethnobotanies. c.biologies. d.ethnographies. e.anthropologies. 13.Anthropologists doing fieldwork typically involve themselves in many different experiences.They try to investigate not just one aspect of culture (such as the political system) but how all aspects relate to each other (for example, how.
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  11.The social environment contributes enormously to intelligence. 12.Anthropologists have abandoned the idea of using race as a way to study human biological variation. 13.A species cannot be polymorphic. This is a term applied to individual variation. 14.The epicanthic fold is common among Africans. 15.Though the distribution of human variation for a single trait reflects.
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  1.Today, any kind of biological research on human subjects without informed consent is illegal in the U.S. 2.Differential reproductive success cannot affect allele frequencies in the gene pool. 3.Identical twins do not necessarily share the same phenotype. 4.Brain growth in humans is most rapid during the first five years of life. 5.Menopause occurs when.
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  11.              Which of the following situations represents a flexible/integrated pattern of gender division of labor? a.A pastoral nomadic camp in which the men spend most of the time with the herds, and women remain in camp and make butter and clothing b.An intensive agricultural society in which the men are out plowing.
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1.Anthropology is a.the study of Western culture primarily through the analysis of its folklore. b.the study of humankind everywhere, throughout time. c.the study of nonhuman primates through an analysis of their myth and folklore. d.the study of the species Homo sapiens by analyzing its cultural but not its biological dimensions. e.the analysis of humankind from.
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  31.              In Western societies between A.D. 1000 and 1800, divorce was next to impossible, but few marriages lasted more than about 10 or 20 years, owing to a.irreconcilable differences. b.high death rates. c.patrilineal societies. d.matrilineal societies. e.high economic cost of marriage. 32.              Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption are called a(n) a.family. b.conjugal bond. c.endogamous.
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  11.              In India, it is understood that matches (marriages) would be arranged only within the same caste and general social class. 12.              The Western ideal that an individual should be free to marry whomever he or she chooses is not universally embraced. 13.              Your mother’s sister’s child is your parallel cousin. 14.              A.
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  21.The U.S. government found that Africans seeking asylum on the basis of family reunification had committed fraud in 80% of the tested cases. What is the best possible explanation for this high degree of dissonance between what the individual said and what the genetic test showed? a.Africans seeking political asylum rarely.
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