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Study Resources (Anthropology)

  21.An egalitarian society: a.makes distinctions among members according to sex and age. b.gives the leaders and their families greater access to resources than others. c.makes no distinctions in terms of status among any of its members. d.All of these are true of egalitarian societies. 22.Which of the following is not a possible explanation for the.
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  31.A system of stratification in which membership in a stratum is in theory hereditary, strata are endogamous, and contact or relationships between members of different strata are governed by explicit laws, norms, or prohibitions is called: a.egalitarian. b.class. c.stratified. d.caste. 32.Which of these is not characteristic of caste systems? a.Cultural norms or laws requiring marrying in.
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  11.What is the relationship between countries and ethnic nationalities? a.All countries contain multiple ethnic nationalities. b.All ethnic nationalities have their own country. c.There are more countries than ethnic nationalities. d.Ethnic nationalities and countries do not overlap each other at all. 12.When former colonies gained their independence: a.most were able to unite their populations under a new.
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  21.Which of these is associated with communal religious practices? a.Specialized religious practitioners b.Totemism and ancestor worship c.Direct, personal individual interactions with the supernatural d.All of these are part of communal practices. 22.The belief that kin groups have a mystical relationship with specific animals, plants, or        inanimate objects is known as: a.totemism. b.shamanism. c.individualism. d.nature worship. 23.Shamans and priests contrast with.
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  11.Define ecclesiastical religious practices. 12.What does the intellectual/cognitive function say about religion? 13.What does the psychological function say about religion? 14.Define sorcery. 15.Define witchcraft. 16.What is a revitalization movement?   .
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The earliest form of political organization in human society was: a.tribes. b.polities. c.bands. d.states. 2.Bands: a.are the most complex form of political organization. b.are most often foraging groups. c.are made up of members who are often unrelated. d.All of these are true about bands. 3.Autonomous or independent political units, often consisting of little more than an extended family, with.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.Which of the following is not a key property of language? a.Proper grammar b.Arbitrariness c.Discrete and recombinable units d.Intuitiveness 2.A great deal of the power of language comes from the ability to talk about things that are not immediately present. This feature is termed: a.arbitrariness. b.displacement. c.grammar. d.intuition. 3.The fact that language is able to communicate extremely abstract ideas.
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  31.Emile Durkheim’s theory of religion stresses the idea that: a.the function of religion is to explain the unexplainable. b.religion serves to enhance the power of society’s elites. c.all religious practices derive from a sense of human dependence upon and awe of nature. d.periodic congregation for the performance of religious rituals promotes social solidarity. 32.The performance.
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  6.Contemporary indigenous people are not interested in modernizing their societies or increasing their access to education. 7.The United States came into existence in 1783 with its national boundaries defined and agreed upon by England, France, and Spain. 8.Local knowledge refers to cultural knowledge that is widely disseminated by means of a written.
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  11.What is a symbol?   12.What do anthropologists mean by “cultural constructions”?   13.What is the position of most anthropologists on concept of race in humans?   14.What do anthropologists mean by the term “world view”?   15.How do anthropologists feel about the importance of culture for human life?   .
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.Nationality, as most commonly used, refers to a: a.political identity. b.biological identity. c.sociocultural identity. d.group identity. 2.According to the definition in your text, an ethnic group is: a.a minority within a multicultural state. b.a social category defined by race. c.a group of individuals who identify as a people with shared social experience or ancestry. d.non-existent, just like race. 3.A.
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  21.Knowledge that is disseminated orally and is thus known only by members of a local group is termed: a.local knowledge. b.indigenous knowledge. c.global knowledge. d.cultural knowledge. 22.Local knowledge: a.is never lost or replaced. b.is universally known. c.is disseminated orally. d.is considered truth. 23.Which of the following medicines was used not by indigenous peoples? a.Willow bark for pain relief and fever reduction b.Cinchona.
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  5.The basis for inequality is essentially the same from one society to the next. 6.Most groups and societies in the world fit into one of Fried’s three classifications according to their degree of stratification. 7.Until about 10,000 years ago, all societies were egalitarian societies. 8.An egalitarian society means that females and males receive.
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  11.The San Bushman live in the: a.Amazon rain forest. b.Kalahari Desert. c.Sahara Desert. d.Indus River Valley. 12.In 1963, _____ took control of the neighboring Dutch colonial possession of Irian, now called Papua and Western Papua, on the western half of the island of New Guinea. a.China b.Japan c.Australia d.Indonesia 13.The Dongria Kondh support themselves by growing small crops of : a.rice. b.millet. c.wheat. d.corn. 14.The.
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  31.The adaptive wisdom of indigenous peoples: a.was acquired intentionally in most cases. b.is useful for developing new medicines, but has no agricultural value. c.has no application in an industrial context. d.may help create more environmentally sound agricultural practices. 32.In pre-Columbian South America, _____ was a valuable food grain that was used in religious rituals and.
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  31.Courts of mediation: a.are widespread. b.always impose punishments as sanctions. c.were modified under European colonial rule. d.were a natural outgrowth of state-level polities. 32.The earliest-known set of written laws that was created in Babylon is the: a.Doctrine of Gilgamesh. b.Magna Carta. c.Code of Hammurabi. d.Creed of Hoth. 33.Court systems that use codified laws, with formally prescribed rights, duties, and sanctions.
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  11.Formal institutions that crosscut communities and serve to unite geographically scattered groups, and may be based on kinship groups or on non-kinship groups are called: a.soladilities. b.composite bands. c.associations. d.establishments. 12.A sodality: a.disconnects a tribe. b.distinguishes a tribe from a band. c.is only based on age sets. d.All of these are true of sodalities. 13.Leadership in a tribe depends on: a.being.
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  6.Unlike in band- and tribal-level societies, resources in chiefdoms were collectively owned. 7.The centralized authority in all states is made up of elected officials. 8.All political forms have bureaucracies. 9.Bands are the only type of political organization that does not have some means of social control. 10.Gossip, or fear of gossip, serves as an.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.E.B. Tylor referred to the belief in spiritual beings as: a.animism. b.mana. c.sorcery. d.Tylor used all of these to mean the same thing. 2.All religions have: a.a belief in an all-powerful God. b.organized churches or places for worship. c.teachings or traditions that tell about supernatural powers. d.All of these are part of all religions. 3.Aboriginal peoples in Polynesia refer.
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    11.Which of the following countries was not a former colony of Britain? a.Brazil b.India c.Tanzania d.Kenya   12.A cultural identity within the legal boundaries of a nation-state, based upon various recognized and relevant criteria is called a(n): a.nationality. b.personality. c.temperament. d.subculture.   13.Social learning refers to the process of learning through: a.trial-and-error. b.instinct. c.socialization. d.imitation only.   14.Enculturation is the term for: a.the total knowledge of a culture. b.the process.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.A worldwide-integrated system of buying and selling goods, materials, labor, and services in the global market is called the: a.global system. b.global market. c.global economy. d.global arrangement. 2.Up until the time of WWII, a truly globalized economy was not possible because: a.there was no interconnection between Western powers and other countries. b.much of the world was.
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  SHORT ANSWER   1.What do anthropologists mean by the culture concept?   2.What is a cultural identity?   3.How can we define a subculture?   4.What does the term “enculturation” mean?   5.Explain the relationship between cultural differences and biological difference.     .
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  21.Mechanisms by which behavior is constrained and directed into acceptable channels, thus maintaining conformity is referred to as: a.behavior modification. b.social control. c.hegemony. d.political repression. 22.Which of these is considered the highest form of social control? a.Law b.Gossip and ostracism c.Fear of sorcery or witchcraft d.Withdrawal of economic support 23.Which of the following is not one of Leopold Pospisil’s four.
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  21.The text gives many examples of Native American words that are known as the names of many plants, animals, and locations. These are discussed to illustrate the fact that: a.No languages have adopted foreign words. b.People in a given generation may have little idea which words are foreign in origin. c.“Native” languages are.
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  SHORT ANSWER 1.What do anthropologists mean by “language”? 2.Define the term “grammar.” 3.What is a dialect? 4.What is meant by the “phonological system” of a language? 5.What is the study of phonology?     .
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  6.What are the so-called BRIC nations? 7.Define “indigenous people.” 8.What are indigenous minorities? 9.How were the borders of countries that were formerly European colonies established? 10.Which three countries were involved in defining the original borders of the United States?     .
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.From an anthropological perspective, culture is: a.something most of us consciously consider every day. b.takes the same form all over the world. c.is learned, shared, and important to human development. d.is something we are biologically born with.   2.Which of the following is an example of popular culture? a.Poetry readings b.Symphony orchestras c.Mass-marketed movies d.Operas   3.For some anthropologists, culture is.
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  SHORT ANSWER 1.What is the global economy? 2.What are the three major changes since the end of World War II that have made an integrated global economy possible? 3.What is the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) of 1947? 4.What is the ultimate objective of the World Trade Organization? 5.What is the World Health.
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  11.Naming rites, funeral rites, and puberty rites are all examples of: a.secular rituals. b.rites of reversal. c.rites of passage. d.gender rituals. 12.A religious ceremony that symbolically transforms the individual from a child into an adult is called a(n): a.naming rite. b.initiation rite. c.passage rite. d.transmutation rite. 13.Puberty rites: a.are more important for girls than for boys. b.often include the experience of physical.
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  11.What is the study of applied anthropology?   12.What does the term globalization describe?     13.Describe the holistic perspective.     14.Describe the comparative perspective.     15.What do anthropologists mean by the term cultural relativism?   16.What does the term “ethnocentrism” mean?   .
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    21.Most all human groups have a story that explains their origins. This is an example of a: a.norm. b.world view. c.value. d.role.   22.A social position in a group, with its associated and reciprocal privileges and duties obligations, is called: a.a norm. b.a world view. c.a value. d.a role.   23.Which of the following is not considered a component of cultural knowledge? a.Norms b.Values c.Material.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The first place we find remains of modern humans outside of Africa is in: a.Asia. b.Europe. c.North America. d.Australia. 2.Humans arrived in the Americas by at least: a.1 million B.P. b.100,000 B.P. c.12,000 B.P. d.50,000 B.P. 3.The flow of cultural knowledge, directly or indirectly, between the different peoples of the world is called: a.diffusion. b.gloabalization. c.transnationalism. d.infusion. 4.Globalization is: a.the expansion of the Internet into.
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  11.The smallest units of sound that speakers distinguish in any language are called: a.morphemes. b.lexicon. c.phonemes. d.syllables. 12.Phonemes are: a.the smallest units of sound. b.the largest units of sound. c.sounds that refer to things you can see. d.sounds that exist only in non-Western languages. 13.In English, the difference between /b/ in boy and /p/ in mop is: a.whether our vocal cords.
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  5.Every person may be described as belonging to several subcultural categories simultaneously.   6.Anthropologists do not evaluate cultural knowledge to determine its accuracy.   7.Many cultures establish rights for all members but do not expect any duties to be fulfilled.   8.Norms are not necessarily followed by everyone in the same culture.   9.Cultural values often have a.
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    31.Cultural constructions: a.are the multitude of ways in which people perceive and interpret their world. b.apply to only the natural world. c.are never taken for granted. d.are the same in all human groups.   32.The culturally variable ways people perceive social and natural reality and divide those realities into categories are called: a.social realities. b.cultural constructions. c.physical reactions. d.artificial divisions.   33.Different.
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  5.Shamans are rarely full-time practitioners. 6.Many shamans must endure difficult deprivations, such as prolonged fasting, the consumption of foods culturally considered disgusting, or years of sexual abstinence. 7.There are no full-time religious specialists involved with communal religious practices. 8.Totemism refers to the belief that the souls of the dead interact with their living.
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  5.In some languages, alternate pronunciations of a word, involving different phonemes, may make no difference in the meaning of the word. 6.A morpheme is not the same as a word. 7.Nonverbal communication is often unconscious. 8.In order to communicate effectively, people must take the entire context into consideration. 9.If a person uses different forms.
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  31.Behaviors that are prohibited for religious reasons or because it is culturally regarded as immoral, improper, or offensive are called: a.anathema. b.restrictions. c.prohibitions. d.taboos. 32.Politicians use words like “moral” or “courage” when referring to their own party or        themselves and words like “pathetic” and “corrupt” to refer to their opponents. This is an example of: a.the.
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