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  21.Gender stratification is also often referred to as the “status of women,” with the implied phrase: a.“detached from men.” b.“separate from men.” c.“unrelated to men.” d.“relative to men.” 22.How many societies have anthropologists found that exhibit clear female domination over men? a.33 b.112 c.5 d.0 23.Matriarchy is: a.the practice of living with the bride’s family. b.the rule by women over men. c.tracing one’s.
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  11.What is nomadism? 12.What do anthropologists mean by the term transhumance? 13.What is the basic organization of communities among hunter-gatherers? 14.What is the division of labor among hunter-gatherers? 15.What is the globalization of production? 16.What is the globalization of production? 17.What is the impact of industrialism on the environment?     .
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The first anthropologist to investigate whether or not the differences between men and women are natural or cultural was: a.Franz Boas. b.Margaret Mead. c.Ruth Benedict. d.Bronislaw Malinowski. 2.Gender: a.has the same meaning as sex. b.refers to a way to biologically distinguish males from females. c.is not fixed by your chromosomes. d.is natural in all humans. 3.The idea that different.
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  SHORT ANSWER 1.How do the concepts of “sex” and “gender” differ? 2.What is the cultural construction of gender? 3.Define “sexual division of labor.” 4.In most horticultural groups, how much of the everyday gardening do women carry out? 5.What is the main type of crop that most agricultural groups grow?     .
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  11.Another name for historical particularism is: a.historicalism. b.particism. c.patricularicism. d.historicism. 12.Historical particularism suggests: a.each culture is unique and therefore must be studied on its own terms. b.all cultures develop along the same evolutionary path. c.the notion of time is relative, so history must be looked at in particular context. d.culture is the same for all groups of people. 13.A major.
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  SHORT ANSWER 1.What is reciprocity? 2.Describe generalized reciprocity. 3.What is balanced reciprocity? 4.What do anthropologists mean by negative reciprocity? 5.Define the term “social distance.”     .
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  21.Technological determinists believed: a.technology can be produced and changed only when it’s necessary. b.the technology available to a people has enormous impacts on of their culture. c.technological changes were determined by environmental changes. d.the technology of a group is the most important aspect of culture. 22.Cultural materialists: a.are skeptical of attempts to generalize about cultures. b.emphasize the.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.People who view themselves as relatives, who cooperate, and who share a common identity are called a: a.nuclear family. b.kin group. c.marriage group. d.descent system. 2.Kin groups are: a.groups of people who culturally consider themselves to be relatives. b.groups of people who share the same last name. c.groups of people who were once related but now are.
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  SHORT ANSWER 1.What did Charles Darwin propose in this 1859 book On the Origins of Species? 2.What is the perspective of unilineal evolution? 3.What is the perspective of historical particularism? 4.What is the major limitation of historical particularism? 5.Describe the perspective of functionalism.     .
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  21.Where did plant domestication first take place? a.Highlands of Peru b.Southeast Asia c.Middle East d.Central America 22.The advantage of agriculture is that: a.it can support a higher population density than foraging. b.it takes much less time and energy than foraging. c.it can be practiced in more difficult terrains than foraging. d.All of these are advantages of agriculture. 23.Unlike intensive agriculturalists,.
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  11.Which of the following tasks would men not predominantly perform? a.Working with shell b.Butchering c.Gathering fuel d.Tapping 12.Among most societies, the kinds of tasks done predominantly or exclusively by males are: a.land clearing and cutting wood. b.gathering shellfish and fuel. c.tending small animals. d.All of these are considered men’s work. 13.Among most societies, the kinds of tasks performed mainly by.
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  SHORT ANSWER 1.What do anthropologists mean by a “division of labor”? 2.What are the four major categories anthropologists use to discuss human environment relationships? 3.What is hunting and gathering? 4.When do paleoanthropologists believe domestication occurred? 5.What is a band?     .
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  31.Capitalism refers to: a.economies where property is collectively owned. b.economies where distinctions based on social status do not exist. c.economies that equally distribute goods among the population. d.economies organized by the market principle since the Industrial Revolution. 32.The cost of corn tortillas in Mexico increased due to the use of corn to produce ethanol for.
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  11.Foragers: a.had no affect on the environments in which they lived. b.did not attempt to control or improve natural resources. c.have different cultures depending on the different habitats in which they live. d.remain in one place for most of the year. 12.The division of labor in foraging societies: a.does not exist; everyone does the same work. b.is.
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  11.The Maring of Papua New Guinea hold pig feasts to solidify relationships with their allies who will support them in periodic warfare. The text uses this as an example of: a.generalized reciprocity. b.balanced reciprocity. c.negative reciprocity. d.market exchange. 12.Negative reciprocity: a.is used as a means of obtaining things a group sometimes produces themselves. b.is usually motivated by.
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  21.A tribute is: a.a person who is sacrificed in a ritual. b.a prayer to the gods. c.special rituals for an important person. d.goods rendered to an authority. 22.The contributions made by commoners in preindustrial societies to the chiefs or nobles are called: a.taxes. b.graft. c.tribute. d.bribes or payoff. 23.Which of the following statements about redistribution is not true? a.Redistribution systems are.
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  5.Balanced and generalized reciprocity are equally likely to be practiced by strangers as by people with close personal ties. 6.Barter may be a form of negative reciprocity. 7.Redistribution always serves the public good. 8.Redistribution is commonly practiced among foraging groups. 9.Any type of money that is used as a medium of exchange must be.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Approximately 3.7 million years ago, two or three hominins left their footprints across the savanna of modern day Tanzania, clear evidence that a.Apes were present in Tanzania b.hominins walked bipedally c.modern day Tanzania continues to be a savanna environment d.hominins traveled in small groups e.Tanzania is 3.7 million years old     2.A group of organisms.
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  6.What did technological determinists such as Leslie White believe? 7.What is the perspective of materialism? 8.How do humanists and materialists feel about the relationship between culture and the environment? 9.What is the perspective of postmodernism? 10.Describe the use of surveys in anthropological fieldwork.     .
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    21.Which of the following includes genetic-alterations within populations? a.macroevolution b.anatomy c.osteology d.paleopathology e.microevolution     22.Which is not true about paleoanthropology? a.It is the study of human evolution. b.It includes the fossils of ancient reptiles and amphibians. c.Its goal is to identify the various human ancestors. d.It attempts to gain insights into human adaptation and behavior. e.It is a valid way to conduct.
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  11.During the sixteenth century, which European power was the dominant player in the African slave trade? 12.What do anthropologists mean by “indigenous peoples”? 13.What specific product of industry truly changed the global balance of power? 14.Where and when did European powers divide up sub-Saharan Africa? 15.What is global trade?   .
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  6.Was intensive agriculture widely practiced in the Old World before European global expansion? 7.In 1500, what were the two largest empires in the Americas? 8.What was the smallest of the world’s regions in the century prior to European expansion? 9.What motivated the Portuguese to chart the Atlantic coast of Africa in the middle.
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  31.When members of Native American tribes engaged in gender crossing, this was considered: a.deviant. b.a third or fourth gender, a different gender role altogether. c.evidence that one was gay or lesbian. d.All of these are true of Native American gender crossing. 32.Which of these is not true regarding those who crossed genders in Native American.
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  21.A marriage in which one man marries women who are sisters is called: a.the levirate. b.fraternal polygamy. c.sororal polygyny. d.fraternal polygyny. 22.Marriage in which one woman has multiple husbands: a.is not permitted anywhere in the world. b.is extremely rare, but does happen. c.is an alternate form of group marriage. d.is actually more common than a man having multiple wives. 23.The.
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  31.In a society in which women control or own important resources, the postmarital residence pattern is likely to be: a.neolocal. b.matrilocal. c.patrilocal. d.bilocal. 32.Neolocal residence rules are found most commonly among: a.foragers and industrialized peoples. b.pastoralists and horticulturalists. c.foragers and pastoralists. d.intensive agriculturalists and industrialized peoples. 33.The type of household in which brothers live with their own nuclear families and.
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  31.A key informant is: a.generally the person with the highest status in the group being studied. b.a local person with expertise in a particular area, with whom the ethnographer spends a lot of time. c.the person or agency from whom the anthropologist receives the money for research. d.someone whom the anthropologist pays to observe.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The physiological and behavioral adjustments living things make to features of their surroundings like temperature, precipitation, food supply, and the presence of other organisms is called: a.mutation. b.evolution. c.modification. d.adaptation. 2.Human adaptation occurs through: a.modification of genes better suited for the environment. b.both cultural and genetic adjustments to the environment. c.trial and error learning. d.accidental factors. 3.The way in.
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  31.European moral opposition to slavery and the slave trade increased during the mid–nineteenth century causing the slave trade to decline and finally end: a.immediately after the Gettysburg address. b.around 1900. c.just before World War I. d.around 1870. 32.The conference in which Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Portugal unilaterally divided up the peoples and.
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  31.Food or other goods produced by a worker in excess of the amount needed for his or her own consumption as well as the needs of his or her dependents is called: a.surplus. b.overflow. c.extra. d.waste. 32.Civilization is: a.the exact opposite of modern society. b.a society that is exclusively reliant on technological innovation. c.a group of people with.
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  11.Marriage rules that require individuals to marry some member of their own social group or category is called: a.endogamy. b.a caste. c.exogamy. d.polyandry. 12.The practice in which each individual is allowed to have only one spouse at a time is called: a.polyandry. b.polygyny. c.group marriage. d.monogamy. 13.Polygamy: a.has been permitted in a majority of the world’s cultures. b.must be endogamous. c.never includes group.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.European scholars in the nineteenth century replaced biblical explanations of cultural differences with the application of scientific thinking. What factors contributed to this new scientific approach? a.Darwinism and new geological evidence of the age of the earth b.The spread of Christianity and the disappearance of superstition c.The emergence of Marxism and cultural.
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  11.What do anthropologists mean by a neolocal residence pattern? 12.What do anthropologists mean by an amibilocal residence pattern? 13.What is patrilineal descent? 14.What is the difference between matrilocal and patrilocal residence patterns? 15.Define bilateral descent.     .
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  5.Polygynous and polyandrous forms of marriage are functional for all involved and have few problems, unlike monogamous marriage. 6.In the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia, the transfer of pigs from a man and his relatives to the relatives of his bride is a form of bridewealth. 7.The payment of dowry requires the.
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  11.In the late 15th Century, the population of Europe was: a.over 1 billion for the first time. b.larger than the population of Asia. c.smaller than the population of Australia. d.about 60 million. 12.Which of the following crops did early European farmers not rely on? a.Corn b.Oats c.Wheat d.Barley 13.Which of the following crops did African farmers not rely on? a.Millet b.Sorghum c.Beans d.Melons 14.The only.
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    11.______ is the practical application of the subfields of anthropology. a.Linguistics b.Archaeology c.Applied anthropology d.Physical anthropology e.Cultural anthropology     12.Cultural anthropology a.was first developed as a discipline in the 17th century b.includes the recovery and analysis of material culture from earlier civilizations c.focuses solely upon the study of traditional societies d.has no practical application in modern society e.is the study of the.
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  6.Research indicates that women who hunt in the same manner as men consistently experience hormonal fluctuations that impede fertility. 7.Biological differences between men and women explain why women are best suited to perform the tasks associated with childcare. 8.Women are more likely to be directly involved in food production in horticultural societies.
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  6.According to Marvin Harris’ process of intensification, new technologies originate when peoples own actions create problems for them to solve. 7.Most humanists are skeptical of scientific explanations of a culture. 8.Many humanists think that materialism overemphasizes the Western emphasis on consumption to explain cultural differences. 9.Surveys are a frequently used field method because.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The one type of economic system found in all human populations is: a.redistribution. b.reciprocity. c.market. d.All of these are found in all populations. 2.Reciprocity is: a.a kind of exchange involving money. b.the collection of goods by a central authority. c.an exchange of goods back and forth, without the use of money. d.the means of allocating goods among social.
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  21.Indigenous peoples are: a.the peoples who were native to the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceania at the start of European expansion. b.the conquering populations of Europe at the start of European expansion. c.the culturally heterogeneous communities at the start of European expansion. d.has little involvement in or influence on culture. 22.Which of the following.
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  6.The Mesoamerican civilizations were based primarily on the cultivation of the potato, while the Andean civilizations were heavily dependent on corn. 7.With 25 million people, the Aztec Empire was far larger than any country in Europe at the time of Columbus. 8.Spain and Portugal were much larger in population than the Aztecs.
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  6.What is gender stratification? 7.What do anthropologists mean by the term “matriarchy”? 8.Define gender crossing. 9.What do anthropologists mean when they say a culture has “multiple gender identities”? 10.What is transvestism?     .
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