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    11.Evidence of Premodern Homo sapiens crania that show possible evidence of cannibalism in the form of cut marks is represented at a.Broken Hill b.Tabun c.Bodo d.La Chapelle e.Swanscombe     12.Dated to approximately 500,000-400,000 years ago, the site of______________has yielded a sample of 4,000 fossil fragments representing about twenty-eight premodern Homo sapiens individuals, more than 80% of all.
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  True/False Questions 1.The transition between premodern and anatomically modern forms of humans may have occurred as early as 500,000 years ago in Africa.     2.The first modern Homo sapiens evolved from Western Europe.     3.The partial replacement models have been bolstered by the sequencing of Neandertal genome.     4.Recent analyses have shown that the mtDNA from fossil.
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    11.Arms that are longer than the legs, and a short stable lumbar spine are traits associated with a.brachiation b.vertical clinging and leaping c.arboreal quadrupedalism d.terrestrial quadrupedalism e.full-time bipedalism     12._________ is seen in some New World monkeys, but not in any Old World monkeys. a.A grasping hand b.Quadrupedalism c.An arboreal lifestyle d.Color vision e.A prehensile tail     13.The order Primates is traditionally divided into.
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  True/False Questions 1.Scientists who use the behavioral ecology approach believe that primate behaviors have evolved through the operation of natural selection.     2.Large primate groups are advantageous because they increase the likelihood of early predator detection.     3.All primate communication is autonomic in nature.     4.It has been proposed that male Hanuman langurs that commit infanticide are.
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    31.Evolution can be most succinctly defined as a.the appearance of new species b.the change from one species to another in one generation c.the change in allele frequency from one generation to the next d.any type of genetic mutation e.genetic drift     32.What is the only source of new genetic material in any population? a.mutation b.genetic drift c.founder effect d.migration e.natural selection     33.What produces.
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  True/False Questions 1.The contemporary diet typical of industrialized societies is basically unchanged from preagricultural diets.     2.Our ability to store fat was adaptive in the past but is maladaptive in industrialized societies.     3.Both nutritional deficiencies and excesses can cause health problems and interfere with childhood growth.     4.The prenatal life cycle phase begins with conception and.
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    11.What is the one single most important reason that human impact on the planet has been so great? a.increasing population b.the lowered age of menarche and consequent lack of eduction among women c.loss of biodiversity d.the decrease in the maximum life span of humans e.increase in bacterial forms of life     12.Scientists estimate that we add __________.
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    31.Monkeys raised without mothers in captivity a.were able to form lasting affectional ties b.displayed completely normal parenting behaviors as adults c.displayed normal sexual behavior d.did not know how to care for infants e.were socially normal as adults, provided they received adequate nourishment     32.Cultural behavior a.has never been observed in nonhuman primates b.is learned c.is purely genetic d.has only been observed.
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    11.What is the term used to refer to the observable, physical expression of genotypes? a.genotype b.phenotype c.phenotypic ratio d.genotypic ratio e.independent assortment     12.Mendelian traits a.are governed by more than one genetic locus b.occur only in some people c.are always dominant d.are governed by one genetic locus e.are always recessive     13.Gregor Mendel a.published his results and won the Nobel Prize for his discoveries b.was trained.
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    21.Neandertal brain size a.was smaller, on average, than that of modern humans b.was larger, on average, than that of modern humans c.was smaller, on average, than that of Homo erectus d.averaged about 2,500 cm3 e.averaged about 1,100 cm3     22.Neandertal crania are characterized by which of the following? a.small, flat faces b.the absence of brow ridges c.a rounded, smooth occipital.
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    21.Changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns around the world, due to global warming, will not a.lead to flooding in some regions b.lead to the desertification of some regions c.result in the spread of mosquito-borne diseases in some areas d.change the reproductive rates of the microbes that cause infectious disease e.be anything less than catastrophic problems.
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    21.Which of following protects from ultraviolet radiation? a.carotene b.hemoglobin c.vitamin D d.melanin e.melanocytes     22.Melanocytes a.are cells that produce carotene b.are found in the dermis c.only occur in dark-skinned individuals d.produce melanin e.cause cancer     23.Light-skinned people, when compared to dark skinned people a.produce too much melanin b.have rickets c.lack melanin d.have no melanocytes e.are not found in African populations     24.Dark skin is found in populations near the equator. Why? a.It.
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    21.Chimpanzees and gorillas a.lack chromosomes b.have the same number of chromosomes as humans c.have 48 chromosomes d.have 46 chromosomes e.have 42 chromosomes     22.Autosomes a.occur singularly b.carry genetic information that determine the individual’s sex c.carry genetic information influencing all physical characteristics d.carry genetic information influencing all physical characteristics except primary sex determination e.do not carry genetic information     23.How many chromosomes occur in a.
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  True/False Questions 1.The fact that Strepsirhinis evolved before the anthropoids indicates that anthropoids are more evolved.     2.Primates are found primarily in tropical and semitropical habitats of the Old World and North America.     3.The dental formula for an Old World anthropoid is 2.1.2.3.     4.Humans and New World monkeys both have a 2.1.2.3 dental formula.     5.The “dental.
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Multiple Choice Questions   1.If we use the criteria of cell numbers, then _______ are the dominant life form on the planet. a.bacteria b.viruses c.humans d.cockroaches e.reptiles     2.Culture a.has not been an important factor in the evolutionary success of humans b.is a means by which humans adapt beyond biology c.has been a limiting factor in the evolution of humans d.does not have.
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Multiple Choice Questions   1.Facts about sexual dimorphism  in humans include all of the following except a.Slight evidence between boys and girls at birth b.Evidence between boys and girls greatest at puberty c.Refers to differences in body measures between males and females d.Adolescent growth spurts occur two years earlier in girls than in boys e.Rate of growth.
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    21.Biological events that mark the transition to adolescence include all of the following except a.increase in body size b.hormonal changes c.changes in body shape d.decrease in stature e.increased development and enlargement of breasts and penises     22.What is the term for the period following the last menstrual cycle in human women? a.menarche b.menopause c.adrenarche d.egg-pause e.cyclopause     23.In the United States, old age is.
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    21.At a hypothetical locus, a man’s genotype is Aa. What proportion of his gametes would be expected to receive the A allele? a.All b.½ c.¾ d.¼ e.None     22.Two people (both heterozygotes) are able to taste a chemical substance called PTC. The ability to taste PTC is caused by a dominant allele (T). The inability to taste.
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    31.Which is not true about the Teshik-Tash remains? a.They show evidence of hybridization. b.The remains are a child not considered at first to be clearly a Neandertal. c.They include tools of the Mousterian industry. d.They have recently been evaluated using DNA analysis. e.They demonstrate dispersion to central Asia.     32.The Mousterian stone tool tradition a.was developed by Homo.
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    31.In nonhuman primates, the hormonally initiated period of sexual receptivity is a.called sexual dimorphism b.called sexual reciprocity c.typical of males d.called estrus e.is not significant     32.Which of the following are not apes? a.gorillas b.orangutans c.bonobos d.chimpanzees e.macaques     33.Compared to monkeys, hominoids a.generally have larger body sizes and lack a tail b.have a more elongated lower back c.have arms and legs of equal length d.exhibit less complex.
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    21.In Old World monkeys, the swelling and changes in the color of the skin surrounding the female’s genital area a.is a sign of aggression b.indicates a diseased state c.is an indication of estrus d.serves as a visual cue of a female’s readiness to become aggressive e.is also found in New World monkeys.     22.Permanent male-female bonds are a.common.
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    11.When assessing evolutionary relationships, one approach is to focus on derived (modified) characteristics. What is this approach called? a.taxonomy b.phylogeny c.classification d.cladistics e.homoplasy     12.In grouping organisms together in a cladistic classification, the most important characteristics are those that are a.ancestral b.shared derived (modified) c.shared primitive d.analogous e.homologous     13.A hypothesis regarding ancestor-descendant relationships that includes a time scale is called a a.cladogram b.phylogenetic tree c.phylogram tree d.hypogram.
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  True/False Questions 1.All human genetic disorders are inherited as recessive traits.     2.Recessive conditions are usually associated with the lack of production of an enzyme.     3.Dominance and recessiveness are all-or-nothing situations because the recessive allele has no phenotypic effects in heterozygotes.     4.Melanin production is the result of interactions between several different loci.     5.Polygenic traits account for.
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    11.Infectious diseases have their greatest effect on growth and development during which life phase? a.adulthood b.menopause c.the postreproductive years d.childhood e.senescence     12.Infectious diseases can delay growth, particularly when coupled with a.Parasitic infection b.too much protein consumption c.adequate vitamin D d.humidity e.technologies introduced by western culture     13.Life history theory a.does not seek to answer why humans have long periods of infancy and childhood b.does not.
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    11. Adaptive advantages of bipedalism include the following except a. freeing the hands for making and using tools b. early predator detection c. more efficient way of covering long distances d. further refinements to capabilities used for swimming e. freeing the hands for carrying objects     11.Anatomical changes in hominins indicative of habitual bipedal locomotion include a.feet with.
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    21.As discussed in the text, long-term continental drift had significant evolutionary ramifications because a.groups of animals were no longer isolated from each other by oceans. b.the distribution of mammals and other land vertebrates were unaffected. c.geological activities induced volcanic activities which decimated populations of placental mammals. d.groups of animals were isolated from each other.
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    11.Modern human occupation dates to 50,000 in a.Australia b.South America c.North America d.Africa e.Europe     12.Anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils from Africa have been dated to about _____ years ago. a.100,000-70,000 b.200,000-100,000 c.195,000-80,000 d.35,000 e.65,000     13.The Herto remains are a.from South Africa b.from the Middle Awash area of Ethiopia c.considered to be modern Neandertal d.considered to be Ardipithecus e.the earliest European evidence of modern humans     14.Current evidence indicates that.
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  True/False Questions 1.A eukaryotic cell is composed of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins but lacks nucleic acids.     2.Mitochondrial DNA has the same molecular structure and function as nuclear DNA found in the nucleus.     3.The discovery of the structure of DNA dates back to the late 1700s.     4.The structure of DNA can be described as a.
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    21.What is the dating method that uses the principle that undisturbed underlying geologic deposits are older than overlying geologic deposits? a.stratigraphic dating b.paleomagnetism c.carbon-14 dating d.K/Ar dating e.fluorine analysis     22.Thermoluminescence can be used on which of the following? a.Heated materials such as burned flint b.fossilized plants c.bone d.sedimentary layers of dirt e.petrified wood     23.Relative dating techniques a.can provide exact dates of fossil material b.are.
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  True/False Questions 1.Anders Retzius was the first European scientist to classify humans into races.     2.Francis Galton, Darwin’s cousin, originated the eugenics approach to “race improvement.”     3.The term race currently has only biological connotations and is without any social significance.     4.The term ethnicity was originally proposed in order to avoid the emotional baggage associated with.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.According to the most recent evidence, the first modern Homo sapiens evolved in Africa around _______ years ago. a.200,000 b.1,500,000 c.50,000 d.500,000 e.5,000,000     2.According to the compete replacement model, the transition from premodern to modern Homo sapiens a.occurred in several regions of the Old World simultaneously b.occurred first in Europe c.only occurred once, in Africa d.began about 10,000.
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    21.Which of the following are Strepsirhini? a.New World monkeys b.lorises c.Old World monkeys d.humans e.chimpanzees     22.Today, where are lorises not found? a.India b.Africa c.Southeast Asia d.North America e.Sri Lanka     23.Compared to Strepsirhini, anthropoids generally a.have smaller body sizes b.have decreased infant maturation periods c.have smaller brains d.depend less on olfaction and more on vision e.groom less often     24.Monkeys are divided into which two major groups? a.terrestrial and arboreal forms b.New.
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    21._______ is a site in southern France dated to 28,000 years ago. Fossil material from this site became the archetype for Upper Paleolithic Europeans. a.Skh?l b.La Chapelle-aux-Saints c.Cro-Magnon d.Qafzeh e.Zhoukoudian     22.The question of whether modern humans and Neandertals interbred at some point a.was settled about ten years ago b.was never an issue among paleoanthropologists c.is far from settled d.was called.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.What is the term for the ordering of organisms into categories, such as orders or families? a.evolution b.classification c.parallelism d.analogy e.generalization     2.Ideally, taxonomic classification a.reflects evolutionary relationships b.is based on the presence of acquired characteristics c.is always based solely on between-species behavioral similarities d.reflects the current geographic distribution of species e.is only applicable to nonhuman species     3.Animals with a nerve.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Categorizing people on the basis of skin color a.is mostly a twentieth century phenomenon b.has been practiced only by Western Europeans c.is a valid approach to racial taxonomy d.has a long history and has been practiced by many peoples e.began with Christopher Columbus     2.Deterministic (or racist) views concerning human variation were once or presently.
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    11.The DNA base adenine always pairs with which other DNA base? a.Guanine b.Thymine c.Cytosine d.Uracil e.Mitochondria     12.Enzymes a.are specialized proteins b.are major constituents of body tissues c.cannot break the bonds between bases throughout the DNA molecule d.are not responsible for separating two previously joined strands of nucleotides e.do not direct chemical reactions in the body     13.What is the component of red blood.
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    31.During the last glaciation in Eurasia, a.human habitation was impossible b.the entire area was permanently covered with ice-sheets c.a warming trend at about 30,000 ya partially melted the glacial ice d.hunting was impossible because there were no animals in the region e.Neandertals became extinct.     32.What is the benefit of an atlatl? a.It is a unique type of.
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    31.Hypoxia a.is the reduced availability of oxygen b.occurs at higher altitudes because the atmosphere contains less oxygen than at sea level c.exerts no stress on humans d.is a problem for people living at sea level e.is not a concern for humans     32.Developmental acclimatization occurs in those individuals who a.have recently moved to a high altitude environment b.have spent.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Cells a.are the basic units of life b.usually do not have DNA c.only have a nucleus and no cytoplasm d.are only inherited from one parent e.originated on earth approximately 5 million years ago     2.The cell nucleus a.is the same thing as the cytoplasm b.is not distinct from the cytoplasm c.contains only X and Y chromosomes d.is made up.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The fossil evidence indicates that the Eocene primates were a.mostly extinct by the end of the Eocene b.not widely distributed c.likely provide direct evidence of a close connection to humans d.ectothermic e.water animals     2.Where have the fossil remains of the Miocene Hominoids not been found? a.Africa b.Europe c.Asia d.North America e.Turkey     3.Which genus is found in the Fayum and is.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Studies of nonhuman primate behavior a.have no relevance for understanding human behavior b.may provide valuable insights into human behavioral evolution c.has not been shaped by genetic and environmental factors d.offer familiar examples of individual and social behaviors but are not helpful in identifying the interactions between a number of environmental and physiological.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Paleoanthropologists consider__________________ to be the immediate predecessors to modern Homo sapiens. a.premodern Homo sapiens b.anatomically modern Homo sapiens c.late modern Homo erectus d.Homo heidelbergensis from sites in Iraq e.Individuals represented during the Early Pleistocene     2.The Middle Pleistocene began about _____ years ago and ended______years ago. a.125,000, 780,000 b.500,000, 125,000 c.10,000, 7,000 d.780,000, 125,000 e.180,000, 100,000     3.The ________ epoch has been.
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  True/False Questions 1.Physical anthropologists do NOT view culture as a human adaptive strategy.     2.Some human groups began to abandon their nomadic lifestyles and settled down approximately 15,000 years ago.     3.Destruction of natural resources in the past has severe consequences for people living today.     4.Today, the effects of human impact on ecosystems remain a localized.
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  True/False Questions   1.The phyum chordate includes all animals with a never cord, gill slits, and supporting cord along the back.   2.Study of the Hox genes indicates that it takes hundreds of mutations to lead to diversification of the basic vertebrate limb structure.     3.Cladistics is an approach to classification that makes evolutionary interpretations based.
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  True/False Questions 1.The main effect of fluctuating climates in Africa during the Pleistocene was to change rainfall patterns.     2.Homo heidelbergensis refers to finds from China dating to between 850,000 and 200,000 years ago.     3.The Gran Dolina human remains are definitely Homo erectus.     4.Chinese archaeologists point out that Chinese premodern H. sapiens specimens show no.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Gregor Mendel is known for which of the following? a.He developed theories of evolutionary change. b.He discovered the structure of the DNA molecule. c.He studied characteristics that are influenced by several genetic loci. d.He discovered the fundamental principles of how traits are inherited. e.He developed the theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics.     2.How do.
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    11.The ABO system is interesting from an anthropological perspective because it a.illustrates that allele frequencies do NOT vary among populations b.illustrates that some allele frequencies DO vary among populations c.demonstrates that natural selection does not alter allele frequencies d.has never been convincingly demonstrated for any allele e.is no longer present in human populations     12.The frequency of.
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  True/False Questions 1.The 3.7 million year old footprints of two hominids were discovered in a riverbed in Texas.     2.Physical anthropologists are interested only in the study of biological systems.     3.All cultures share the same worldview.     4.The anthropological perspective proposes to broaden our viewpoint though time and space.     5.The focus of anthropology is very narrow and.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Currently, there are approximately _______ species of non-human primates. a.230 b.23 c.30 d.2300 e.2     2.As an order, primates a.have highly specialized traits b.can be easily defined by one or two traits c.lack traits that define the mammals d.have generalized traits e.have very narrow, or specialized, dietary preferences     3.Which one of the traits listed below is not used to define the.
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    11.Which of the following statements is not true? a.Adult primate males tend to be dominant to females. b.Dominant individuals appear to have priority access to desired food items. c.High-ranking females probably have higher reproductive success than subordinate females. d.Dominance hierarchies create aggression and therefore do not impose a degree of order in primate societies. e.In.
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