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11.Melatonin is a hormone that: a.fluctuates on about a 90-minute cycle. b.is secreted largely during hours of darkness. c.is secreted largely during hours of daylight. d.increases alertness and wakefulness. 12._______________, a hormone involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, is secreted by the pineal gland. a.Norepinephrine b.Testosterone c.Estrogen d.Melatonin 13.Melatonin treatments have been useful in the treatment of: a.adolescents.
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26. Explain the experimental procedure used when split-brain patients were shown composite photographs.               Why did the patients claim to notice nothing unusual about the original photographs? 27. Describe three activities that are more closely associated with the left hemisphere and three activities that               are more closely associated with the.
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31. The activation-synthesis theory of dreaming states that there is no purpose to dreaming; dreams occur because of random brainstem signals. 32. Hypnosis is a procedure in which a practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behaviors of the subject. 33. Hypnosis increases the overall accuracy of memory. 34. When.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. Abnormally low levels of serotonin and dopamine have been associated with harmful effects. Explain these effects and describe what psychologists know about this relationship using your knowledge of correlational studies. What might be an easy assumption to make that may not necessarily be accurate?.
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  61.Which approach to explaining dreams is best supported by the fact that students who are worried about getting a good grade in a class often have recurring dreams of running out of time on exams, oversleeping and missing class, or suddenly realizing that a paper deadline was just missed? a.psychoanalytic b.problem-focused c.memory consolidation d.activation.
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  51.People are aware that they are dreaming and feel as though they are conscious during _______________. a.REM sleep b.slow-wave sleep c.lucid dreams d.latent dreams 52.According to Sigmund Freud: a.dreams are “the royal road into the unconscious.” b.dreams are “children of an idle brain.” c.getting through a crisis or a rough period in life takes “time, good friends, good.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.Which of the following provides the best definition of consciousness? a.a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes b.awareness of ourselves and the environment c.memory of personally experienced events d.the intentional recollection of an item of information 2.When scientists use the term “biological rhythm,” they are referring to: a.a periodic, more or less.
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  91.The cerebral cortex in humans is less crumbled than in other mammals. 92.The occipital lobes contain the visual cortex, where visual signals are processed. 93.The parietal lobes contain the auditory cortex, which processes sounds. 94.The areas of the somatosensory cortex that receive signals from the hands and the face are disproportionately large. 95.The parietal.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. A brain without a peripheral nervous system would be like a radio without a receiver. Explain what is               meant by this analogy. 2. Why do you immediately pull your hand away from something hot? 3. Why is the sympathetic nervous system compared to the accelerator of a car? 4..
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11. Research on premenstrual syndrome indicates that fewer than 5 percent of women have emotional PMS symptoms predictably over their cycles. 12. Research on premenstrual syndrome indicates that about 50 percent of women have emotional PMS symptoms predictably over their cycles. 13. One of the proposed functions of sleep is.
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  Short-Answer Questions 1. What biological rhythms are controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)? Where is the SCN located? 2. How common is premenstrual syndrome, or “PMS”? What are the major findings from research on hormones and mood? 3.Describe the changes the human body undergoes as it shifts from deep sleep to REM sleep. 4..
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6. What is the purpose of dreaming, according to Sigmund Freud? 7. What is one of the weaknesses of the psychoanalytic theory of dreaming? 8. What is the purpose of dreaming, according to the problem-focused theory of dreaming? 9. What is the purpose of dreaming, according to the cognitive theory of dreaming? 10. What.
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21. Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder involving sudden and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepiness or lapses into REM paralysis. 22. Insomnia is a disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep, causing the person to choke and gasp and momentarily awaken. 23.Chronic sleep deprivation increases levels of the stress.
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  111.In most people, the left cerebral hemisphere of the brain is specialized for reading. 112.The left hemisphere is specialized for processing the tone of voice in which the words are spoken. 113.During infancy, synapses proliferate at a slower rate than they do in adulthood. 114.The brain’s ability to change and adapt in response.
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31.Judith is startled when her six-year-old daughter, Laura, sleepwalks into the family room. It is most likely that Laura is experiencing the _______________ stage of the sleep cycle. a.REM b.first c.third d.fourth 32.James has been sleeping for about 90 minutes when his brain shows rapid, irregular waves. His blood pressure rises, his heart rate increases,.
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  51.Adrenal hormones are produced by the pineal gland. 52.Melatonin facilitates the ejection of milk during nursing. 53.Androgens are feminizing hormones that bring about physical change in females at puberty. 54.Progesterone contributes to the growth and maintenance of the uterine lining in preparation for a fertilized               egg. 55.The fluctuating levels of estrogens and progesterone.
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  21.Your cousin Brenda says she is suffering several symptoms and claims they are due to premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Which of the following symptoms that she cites is the most questionably linked to the menstrual cycle? a.breast tenderness b.cramps c.irritability and depression d.water retention 22.Traditionally, there are _______________ stages of NREM sleep. a.two b.four c.five d.six 23.During the night, which two.
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  Quick Quiz — textbook page 103   Mentally fill in the missing parts of the nervous system “house.” Be sure, once more, that you can describe what each part of the system does. Quick Quiz — textbook page 111   A.Which word in parentheses better fits each of the following definitions? 1.Basic building blocks of the.
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21. An adult brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells. 22. Many axons are insulated by a surrounding layer of fatty material called the myelin sheath. 23. Axons commonly divide at the end into branches called axon terminals. 24. One purpose of the myelin sheath is to prevent signals in adjacent cells from.
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11. Researchers are now studying the possible involvement of sex hormones in behavior not directly related to               sex and reproduction. Cite one example of this research. 12. A soldier whose best friend has been seriously injured in battle carries the wounded man to safety. After he reaches the medics, he.
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  1.An example of a biological event that follows a circadian rhythm is: a.the migration of birds. b.the female menstrual cycle. c.body temperature. d.daydreaming. 2._______________, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, helps to keep the biological clock in phase with the light-dark cycle. a.Cortisol b.Progesterone c.Serotonin d.Melatonin 3.Your cousin Brenda says she is suffering several symptoms and claims they are.
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41.Sleep apnea is a disorder in which: a.a person suddenly falls asleep without warning during the day. b.a person has difficulty waking from sleep in the morning. c.a person periodically stops breathing during sleep. d.a person experiences bursts of aggressive behavior during sleep. 42.Jennifer has been studying day and night for so many weeks that.
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41. Acetylcholine affects neurons involved in arousal, and is also involved in muscle action. 42. Glutamate functions as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. 43.Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. 44. People with Alzheimer’s disease lose brain cells responsible for producing acetylcholine. 45.A loss of cells that produce norepinephrine is.
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81.The sociocognitive approach to hypnosis suggests that: a.the hypnotized person is unconsciously playing a role. b.the hypnotized person is consciously faking or playing a role. c.past-life regression may be a real phenomenon. d.hypnosis is an interaction between the executive and imaginative functions of an individual’s mind. 82.Shateesh takes a moderate dose of a tranquilizer. She.
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31. Neurogenesis is the process by which dopamine molecules cross the blood-brain barrier. 32. Given encouraging environments, stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type. 33. Synaptic vesicles are tiny sacs in the tip of the axon terminals. 34.A neuron at rest is neutral in charge. 35. In myelinated axons, the.
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  Quick Quiz — textbook page 127 1.Bearing in mind that both sides of the brain are involved in most activities, identify which of the following               is (are) more closely associated with the left hemisphere: a.enjoying a musical recording b.wiggling the left big toe c.giving a speech in class d.balancing a checkbook e.recognizing a long-lost.
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181.Parts of the _______________ are involved in social judgment, rational decision making, and the ability to set goals and to make and carry through plans. a.temporal lobes b.parietal lobes c.occipital lobes d.frontal lobes 182.Famously, Phineas Gage is believed to have experienced a dramatic personality change after his accident. Which area of his.
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91.Psychedelic drugs: a.speed up activity in the central nervous system. b.disrupt normal thought processes. c.slow down activity in the central nervous system. d.are derived from the opium poppy, which relieves pain and produces euphoria. 92._______________ drugs can cause convulsions, heart failure, and death when taken in large doses. a.Depressant b.Stimulant c.Opiate d.Psychedelic 93. _______________ are drugs that slow down the.
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6. List the three main parts of the neuron and explain the role each plays in the transmission of neural               communication. 7. When a neurotransmitter binds briefly with a receptor site, the ultimate effect is either excitatory or               inhibitory. Explain the effects of each. 8. Name any four neurotransmitters discussed.
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11. What is one of the weaknesses of the problem-focused theory of dreaming? 12. What is one of the weaknesses of the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming? 13. Explain why your textbook authors state that “Hypnotic responsiveness depends more on the efforts and qualities of the person being hypnotized than on the skill.
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16. What are the three structures of the brain stem described in your textbook? What function is associated with each structure? 17. Which structure of the brain is about the size of a small fist and looks like a “little brain”? What function is               associated with this “lesser brain”? 18. Which.
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  101.The prefrontal cortex accounts for approximately one-third of the entire cortex in human beings. 102.Activity in the prefrontal lobes affect personality. 103.The frontal lobes govern the ability to do a series of tasks in the proper sequence. 104.The temporal lobes govern the ability to stop doing certain tasks at the proper time. 105.People with.
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171.Which of the following regions in the brain contains the somatosensory cortex, which receives information about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature from all over the body? a.temporal lobes b.parietal lobes c.frontal lobes d.occipital lobes 172.Which of the following regions in the brain contains the auditory cortex? a.temporal lobes b.parietal lobes c.frontal lobes.
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  81.The pituitary gland is often called the body’s “master gland.” 82.The amygdala is involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion. 83.The hippocampus is an important memory structure in the brain. 84.The largest part of the brain is the cauliflower-like cerebrum. 85.The left cerebral hemisphere is in charge of the left side of the.
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  True-False Questions 1. Consciousness is defined as an awareness of oneself and the environment. 2. Biological rhythm is defined as a periodic, more or less regular, fluctuation in a biological system. 3. A circadian rhythm is a biological fluctuation that occurs more than once a day. 4.Circadian rhythms exist in plants. 5. Circadian rhythms are.
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71.One of the weaknesses of the problem-focused theory of dreaming is that: a.there is no reliable way to determine latent meanings. b.some theorists are skeptical about the ability to resolve ongoing concerns during sleep. c.the theory doesn’t explain non-REM dreams. d.the theory says more about REM sleep than about dreaming. 72.During his lecture on dream.
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  True-False Questions 1. One of the functions of a nervous system is to gather and process information. 2. The spinal cord acts as a bridge between the brain and the parts of the body below the neck. 3. All reflexes are produced by the spinal cord. 4. The peripheral nervous system is a collection.
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1. When scientists use the term “biological rhythm,” they are referring to: a.a periodic, more or less regular, fluctuation in the physiological functioning of a living organism. b.an awareness of oneself and the environment. c.a biological fluctuation that occurs less frequently than once a day. d. a biological fluctuation that is about 24 hours.
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  Quick Quiz — textbook page 116 1.What are the two general approaches to mapping the brain? 2.Why is transcranial magnetic stimulation essentially a virtual lesion method? 3.What does fMRI tell us that structural MRI does not? 4.A researcher scans the brains of gum-chewing volunteers, finds out which part of their brains is most active,.
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  161.The cerebrum is divided into two separate halves that are connected by a large band of fibers called the: a.thalamus. b.hypothalamus. c.hippocampus. d.corpus callosum. 162.The shape of the cerebrum in the human brain is likened to that of a: a.cauliflower. b.sea horse. c.almond. d.cherry. 163.Generally speaking, the _______________ hemisphere in the brain is.
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  101.Which of the following is an effect of depressants? a.reduced anxiety, guilt, and tension b.increased energy c.increased inhibitions d.increased heart rate and respiratory rate 102.Which of the following is a depressant? a.nicotine b.barbiturates c.heroin d.mescaline 103.According to your textbook, moderate alcohol consumption can: a.reduce risk of heart attack and stroke. b.cause diabetes. c.alleviate the retinal swelling caused by glaucoma. d.improve mathematical ability. 104.Which of the.
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61.The lesion method of studying the brain is often used with human participants. 62.Transcranial magnetic stimulation uses a powerful magnetic field in order to temporarily inactivate neural               circuits in the brain. 63.A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes is called an electroencephalogram. 64.Using ERP, scientists can know where in the brain.
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