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Study Resources (Anthropology)

    Essay Questions   113.Compare the need theories of Maslow, Alderfer, and McClelland.  114.Describe the need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power as discussed in McClelland's Need Theory. Discuss the managerial implications of McClelland's needs.      .
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  77.Pam is attempting to reduce her inequity at work by attending night school for further job training. In other words, she is trying to ____.  A.find a new comparison other B.decrease her inputs C.increase her outcomes D.increase her inputs E.decrease her outcomes 78.According to equity theory, taking longer breaks at work is an example of ____.  A.finding.
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  67.Equity theory is a motivation model that explains how people strive for _____ in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships.  A.equality B.cognitive consistency C.leadership D.fairness E.pleasure 68.Brian has a Master's degree in electrical engineering and brings 10 years of experience to his current job. He is known for putting in long hours of hard work on his.
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  62.Which step in the goal-setting program lets employees participate in setting their own goals, creating their own action plans, and building goal ladders?  A.Setting goals B.Promoting goal commitment C.Providing support D.Assigning goals E.Providing feedback 63.Which step in the goal-setting program involves paying attention to employees' effort→performance expectations?  A.Setting goals B.Promoting goal commitment C.Providing support and feedback D.Assigning goals E.Setting SMART goals 64.The.
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  71.Stewart has been a good and hard-working employee throughout the year. But two days before his performance review, his boss finds him taking a nap during work hours. As a result, he gets a poor job performance rating. Which of the following perceptual errors has Stewart's boss committed?  A.Contrast effect B.Recency effect C.Central.
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True / False Questions 1.Modern managers need a solid understanding of groups and group processes to both avoid their pitfalls and tap their vast potential.  2.A crowd on a street corner watching a man play the tambourine fits the definition of a group.  3.A group is two or more freely interacting individuals who.
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  101.Explain the practical applications of the attribution models in the workplace.  102.Linda received the highest grade on her mid-term in her history class. She attributed her success to studying harder for the history mid-term than she had for any other examination. She contributed her failure to do well in the other.
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    98.The idea underlying _____ is that satisfaction results from the perception that a job allows for fulfillment of an individual's important work values.    A.need fulfillment B.discrepancies C.value attainment D.equity E.dispositional/Genetic component 99.In the ____ model of job satisfaction, satisfaction results from one's perception that work outcomes, relative to inputs, compare favorably with a significant other's outcomes/inputs.  A.need.
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  87._____ refers to the positive or negative value people place on outcomes.  A.Instrumentality B.Valence C.Inequity D.Expectancy E.Cognitive dissonance 88.Which of the following is a managerial implication of expectancy theory?  A.Determine the outcomes that employees value B.Design challenging jobs C.Tie some rewards to group accomplishments D.Accommodate individual differences by building flexibility E.Reward managers for creating and maintaining expectancies 89.Which of the following is.
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    Multiple Choice Questions   47._____ are physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior.  A.Needs B.Role perceptions C.Aptitudes D.Drives E.Achievements 48.In Maslow's need hierarchy, the _____ need is the desire to become the best one can be.  A.esteem B.safety C.physiological D.self-actualization E.love 49.In Maslow's need hierarchy, the _____ need is the desire for reputation, prestige, and recognition from others.  A.esteem B.safety C.physiological D.self-actualization E.love 50.Which of the following is the most.
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    Multiple Choice Questions   51._____ is a cognitive process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings.  A.The self-fulfilling prophecy B.A salient stimulus C.The fundamental attribution error D.Stereotypes E.Perception 52.The study of how people perceive one another is called _____.  A.interpersonal theory B.social cognition C.attribution theory D.the fundamental attribution bias E.perceptual information processing 53._____ is necessary because people do not have the mental.
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  41.Skinner used the term operant behavior to describe unlearned reflexes or stimulus-response connections.  42.Positive reinforcement is the process of strengthening a behavior by contingently withdrawing something displeasing.  43.A student who works hard on a project because of praise and recognition from the instructor is responding to positive reinforcement.  44.A person who takes aspirin.
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    21.Stereotypes are useful because they help us process the large amount of information that we receive daily.  22.A stereotype is a set of beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of a group.  23.The halo effect leads a rater to consistently evaluate other people or objects in an extremely positive fashion.  24.The recency effect.
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    Multiple Choice Questions 52._____ is an organization wide system whereby managers integrate the activities of goal setting, monitoring and evaluating, providing feedback and coaching, and rewarding employees on a continuous basis.  A.Performance management B.Recruitment process C.Staffing D.Selection process E.Annual performance appraisal 53.Which of the following is a situational factor that influences the performance improvement cycle?  A.Learning B.Persistent effort C.Personal.
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  21.A person will experience negative inequity when his or her outcome to input ratio is greater than that of a relevant coworker.  22.A person can alter his/her sense of equity either behaviorally or cognitively.  23.Distributive justice reflects the perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed.  24.Interactional justice refers to the perceived.
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  107.Fiona was telling her friend about the freedom and discretion given to her in scheduling and deciding the procedures used to complete the tasks assigned to her. Which of the following job characteristics was she talking about?  A.Feedback B.Autonomy C.Task significance D.Skill variety E.Task identity 108.Which of the following is a bottom-up approach to job design?  A.Job.
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  41.Job enrichment characteristics are incorporated into a job through horizontal loading.  42.Vertical loading consists of giving workers more responsibility, usually by taking on duties normally performed by their supervisors.  43.According to the job characteristics model, people feel experienced responsibility when they perceive their work as worthwhile or important.  44.A bottom-up approach is driven.
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  81.Jordan's football coach continuously pushes her to train harder. He tells her that he believes she has the potential to be a star player. Even though Jordan started out a mediocre player with little belief in her abilities, her coach's pep talk led her to try harder, until finally she.
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    31.The three general criteria for the distribution of rewards are: performance: results, performance: actions and behaviors, and nonperformance considerations.  32.When an organization uses the performance: results criterion, rewards are distributed based on customary or contractual considerations.  33.When an organization uses nonperformance considerations reward distribution criterion, rewards are distributed based on tenure and.
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  21.The content and delivery of interpersonal feedback among work group or committee members can be used as a gauge of whether the group is developing properly.  22.When group members accurately perceive important deadlines, the pacing of work and timing of interdependent tasks tend to be more efficient.  23.A supportive, democratic, decentralized, and.
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  97.A firm trained its customer service representatives who handled telephone enquiries to handle walk-in customers as well. This implies that the firm was engaging in _____.  A.job design B.job enlargement C.scientific management D.job enrichment E.job rotation 98._____ calls for moving employees from one specialized job to another.  A.Job design B.Job enlargement C.Job rotation D.Scientific management E.Job enrichment 99._____ entails modifying a job.
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  11.In the encoding process, different individuals tend to have the same interpretation and evaluation of the same person or event.  12.Event memory functions as a mental dictionary of concepts.  13.Semantic memory describes the appropriate sequence of events in well-known situations.  14.Person memory contains information about a single individual or groups of people.  15.Culture does.
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  61.Bill provides directions to his house to Mark. Mark listens carefully to make sure that he does not forget the directions and does not get lost on the way. Which stage of the information processing model is Mark currently undergoing?  A.Selective attention/comprehension B.Encoding and simplification C.Storage and retention D.Retrieval and response E.Implicit cognition 62.Sharon observes her.
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    Essay Questions 109.Describe the types of value conflict that are related to an individual's attitudes, job satisfaction, turnover, performance, and counterproductive behavior.  110.What is an attitude? Explain the three components of attitudes. How are attitudes related to cognitive dissonance?  111.Explain the three components of attitude with the help of an example.      .
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True / False Questions 1.Performance management is an organizationwide system whereby managers integrate the activities of goal setting, monitoring and evaluating, providing feedback and coaching, and rewarding employees on a continuous basis.  2.Job knowledge and quality of supervision are desired outcomes of the performance improvement cycle.  3.Persistent effort and job satisfaction are.
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  11.Goals should be impossible, to increase employee motivation.  12.People with a high learning goal orientation make efforts to achieve current tasks and to develop the ability to accomplish future tasks.  13.People with a high performance-avoid goal orientation focus on trying to avoid positive outcomes.  14.Goal commitment may be increased by assigning goals to.
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    Essay Questions   98.Describe the process by which stereotypes are formed and maintained.  99.Explain how managers can reduce the extent to which stereotypes influence decision making and interpersonal processes within the organization.  100.Explain how the self-fulfilling prophecy operates. How can the self-fulfilling prophecy be used to motivate employee performance?      .
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    11.A social networking site is a web site that provides a virtual community for people interested in a particular subject or just to "hang out" together.  12.Candor is imperative in any working relationship, but it's especially necessary when there's a social aspect involved.  13.According to Tuckman's five-stage theory of group development, during.
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    21.Feedback with a negative sign always has a negative impact on motivation.      22.Managers who have proven untrustworthy and not credible have a hard time improving job performance through feedback.  23.The acceptance of feedback should be treated as a given.  24.Recipients of feedback perceive it to be more accurate when they passively receive feedback.  25.Possible.
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  88.Wealthy Healthy Inc. applies an employee stock ownership plan. This is an attempt to:  A.decrease continuance commitment. B.decrease job involvement. C.increase employee turnover. D.increase organizational commitment. E.increase counter-productive behavior. 89.Offering a variety of progressive benefits and human resource programs to employees is a way to foster the _____ component of organizational commitment.  A.affective commitment B.cognitive C.continuance commitment D.normative commitment E.reflective 90.______ is.
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True / False Questions 1.Motivation involves those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed.  2.Content theories of motivation focus on identifying internal factors influencing motivation.  3.Process theories of motivation focus on identifying instincts, needs, and job satisfaction that influence motivation.  4.Content theories explain how motivation.
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  82.Papa Bill's, a local pizza chain, instituted a new compensation policy to increase the on-time delivery of its pizzas. Drivers were paid an extra $1.00 for each on-time delivery, payable on the next pay period. However, a review of the policy showed that traffic tickets for reckless driving among delivery.
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True / False Questions 1.Recognition of objects is one of the major functions of perception.  2.People usually do not pay attention to salient stimuli.  3.Attention is the process of becoming consciously aware of something or someone.  4.A 12 foot tall university student would be a salient stimulus.  5.A person who needs cash and suddenly realizes.
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    11.Achievement-motivated people prefer to work on highly difficult tasks.  12.People with a low need for achievement desire more feedback on their successes and failures than do high achievers.  13.People with a high need for affiliation prefer to spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be loved.  14.People with a.
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    31.An instrumentality of -1.0 indicates attainment of a particular outcome is totally dependent on task performance.  32.Valence refers to the positive or negative value people place on outcomes.  33.Goal-setting directs attention, regulates effort, increases persistence, and fosters strategies and action plans.  34.Persistent people tend to see obstacles as reasons to fail.  35.Feedback enhances the.
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    Essay Questions   101.Distinguish between learning goals and performance outcome goals. Explain how performance outcome goals could distract employees from the discovery of task relevant strategies.  102.Discuss the general steps to follow when implementing a goal-setting program.      .
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  78.According to Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, an individual's _____ is the best predictor of behavior.  A.value B.subjective norm C.attitude D.intention E.ability 79._____ reflects the extent to which an individual identifies with an organization and works to achieve its goals.  A.Organizational commitment B.Organizational psychology C.Onboarding D.Organizational socialization E.Organizational justice 80._____ refers to the employee's emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in.
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  72.Social rewards are a type of _____ reward.  A.intrinsic B.self-granted C.extrinsic D.psychic E.integral 73.Kelly is a successful attorney specializing in corporate law. While it has nothing to do with her field of employment, Kelly has always been interested in the history of religion. Using what little free time she has, she decided to take a course.
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    31.Racial and ethnic stereotypes are automatically triggered and lead to micro aggressions.  32.People with disabilities are more likely to be unemployed than others.  33.The key managerial challenge while addressing the issue of stereotyping in organizations is to reduce the extent to which stereotypes influence decision making and interpersonal processes throughout the organization.  34."Quality".
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  91.According to Kelley's attribution model, distinctiveness involves _____.  A.judging if the individual's performance on a given task is constant over time B.looking at all the available information and weighing each piece according to its importance C.discussing the individual's behavior with others and coming to a group decision D.comparing an individual's behavior with that of.
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  57.The _____ is defined as the desire to master, manipulate, or organize physical objects, human beings, or ideas, and to do this as rapidly and as independently as possible.  A.need for achievement B.safety need C.need for power D.need for affiliation E.self-actualization need 58.A characteristic of high achievers is that they:  A.prefer working on tasks of extreme difficulty. B.prefer.
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    41.There is high consensus when one acts like the rest of the group and low consensus when one acts differently.  42.According to Kelley's model of attribution, distinctiveness a comparison of an individual's behavior with that of his or her peers.  43.High consistency implies that a person performs a certain task better than.
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    31.Norms tend to be enforced by group members when they help individuals avoid embarrassing situations.  32.A group member who says, "The key issue here is performance," is functioning in a maintenance role.  33.A group member who says, "Let's stop wasting time and get down to business. How do we solve this problem?".
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