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  True/False Questions 1.John Blumenbach was the first European scientist to classify humans into races.     2.Francis Galton, Darwin’s cousin, originated the eugenics approach to “race improvement”.     3.The term race currently has only biological connotations and is without any social significance.     4.The term ethnicity was originally proposed in order to avoid the emotional baggage associated with.
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  True/False Questions   1.Sea ice minimum is the least amount of ice that is present in the arctic in one year.   2.Sea ice maximum is the greatest amount of ice that is present in Antarctica in one year.     3.Holocene is the most recent epoch of the Cenozoic. Following the Pleistocene, it is estimated to.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.The major point of controversy in deCODE's plan to establish a genetic database of the people of Iceland is A. the large expense and minimal projected benefits. B. the privacy and appropriate use of the information obtained. C. the inadequacy of the database size. D. the genetic isolation of Icelanders. E. all of these.         2.What was deCODE’s stated purpose in.
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  True/False Questions 1.Biological change occurs fast whereas cultural change tends to be slow     2.In the United Stated, the primary determinant of health and nutrition is economic status.     3.In humans, growth begins at conception and ends at weaning.     4.Nutrition has an effect ONLY on the prenatal period of the human life cycle.       5.At birth, the human.
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  11.During the third trimester, calcium in the mother's diet is used for development of the ____________________.       12.Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is the result of  ____________________.       13.In the uterus, the ____________________ is shed during menstruation.       14.In the male reproductive system, the vas deferens is connected to the urethra by a short tube called the ____________________.       15.The.
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    11.In the ABO multiple allele system, there are the following combinations of genotypes and phenotypes: A. 4 genotypes, 4 phenotypes B. 4 genotypes, 6 phenotypes C. 6 genotypes, 6 phenotypes D. 6 genotypes, 4 phenotypes E. 3 genotypes, 4 phenotypes       12.A pea plant with yellow peas is crossed with a pea plant that has green peas. The offspring include both yellow-pea.
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    21.The areas in the DNA that contain repeated segments are a.termed macrosatellites. b.termed SNPs. c.the basis for DNA fingerprinting. d.SCM(self-cloning mechanisms). e.Unoriginal traits.     22.Geographical, ecological, and social factors influence _____________ . a.solipsism b.celibacy c.check mate d.sexogamy e.mate choice         23.The gene pool concept A.refers to the total complement of genes shared by non-reproductive members of a population. B.is no longer used by modern anthropologists. C.refers to.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Modern humans beings are the result of a.biocultural evolution. b.accidental fertility. c.genetic engineering. d.Cartesian philosophy. e.planned parenthood.     2._________ and  _________ have allowed us to adapt beyond our biological limits. a.climatic change, extinction of species b.hunting, agriculture c.pollution, habitat loss d.ozone, methane gas e.culture, technology     3.The overwhelming consensus among climate scientists is that global warming is occurring and a.it is a cyclical.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.The phenotypic, gonadal, and chromosomal sex are always consistent.       2.Barr bodies are found only in normal males.       3.The fusion of male and female gametes usually occurs in the upper third of the vagina.       4.The chorion develops from the trophoblasts and allows for the exchange of nutrients between embryonic and maternal tissues.       5.The embryo is.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.In heterozygous crosses, the phenotypic and genotypic ratios differ for completely dominant traits but are the same for traits showing incomplete dominance.     2.Heterozygotes and dominant homozygotes always have the same phenotype.     3.There are four common alleles of the gene that controls human blood type.     4.Recessive traits are expressed only in the homozygous state.     5.Dominant.
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  11.Huntington’s disease, a severe autosomal dominant neurological disorder, shows a ____________________ in its expression. 12.Genetic diseases transmitted only by a mother to both sons and daughters result from ____________________ genes. 13.When affected males produce all affected daughters and no affected sons, the genetic disease is likely to be ____________________. 14.If Marfan syndrome results.
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  11.Cytosine and thymine are the two types of bases found in DNA known as ______________________.       12.If one side of a small DNA molecule has the nucleotide sequence 5'-AATCGC-3', the opposite side sequence would read (left-to-right) ____________________.       13.The base found in DNA, but not RNA, is ____________________; the base found in RNA, but.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Adaptation A.is seen only in nonhuman animals. B.is the same as acclimatization. C.is always temporary. D.is a genetic adjustment to environmental conditions. E.is birth defect.     2.Biological systems are balanced systems maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for both external and internal changes.  Such a balanced system is in A.hypoxia. B.homeostasis. C.heterostasis. D.acclimatization. E.polystasis.     3.Acclimatization refers to A.long-term adaptations.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.The additive model for polygenic inheritance proposes that the genes controlling a trait are all on one chromosome. 2.For threshold traits the liability for a genetic disorder is distributed among individuals in a normal curve. 3.According to the threshold model, for a family in which a disorder occurs, the risk of the.
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    11.The “new” foods types that came along with agriculture and animal domestication, include all, EXCEPT a.Dairy products. b.wheat. c.fruits. d.barley. e.rice       12.The billions of people almost completely dependent on cereal grains mean millions face all, EXCEPT. a.obesity b.malnutrition c.undernutrition d.starvation e.food inequality     13.The instructions that determine which genes are expressed in cells and how, are called a.Menarche b.menopause c.Senescence d.Pleiotropic e.epigenome     14.The most important organs related to hormone.
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    31.One “marker” of an agricultural lifestyle is the high frequency of___________. A.Small pox B.Country concerts C.Caries D.Cholera E.AIDS     32.Paleopathologists also study trauma, which is found most typically in the form of A.Leukemia . B.Arthritis . C.unhealed fractures. D.healed fractures. E.Tendonitis.     33.Skeletal biologists are very much interested in learning how prehistoric peoples behaved and how numerous behaviors influenced their health. In the last.
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  COMPLETION   1.There are __________ autosomes present in a human egg.       2.The chromosomal structure that anchors the spindle fiber to the chromosome is ____________________.       3.If a cell was to stop dividing, it would stop in the __________ part of the cell cycle.       4.In mitosis, chromatids separate and move to the center of the cell during .
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  5.BCCs and SCCs tend to appear in middle age long after underlying genetic damage that occurred during childhood and adolescence.     6.Bergmann’s rule concerns the shape of the body, especially the appendages.     7.Hypoxia results from reduced barometric pressure.     8.In Colorado, infant deaths are about twice as common above 8,200 feet as at lower elevations.     9.The.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The tall and short phenotypes in pea plants are examples of A.polygenic traits. B.continuous traits. C.multifactorial traits. D.discontinuous traits. E.gene interaction. 2.Which of the following is not a characteristic of continuous variation? A.Traits can be quantified by measurement. B.Only a single gene pair contributes to the phenotype. C.The effect of each additive allele is small. D.Phenotypes show wide variation.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.The basic unit of a DNA molecule is the A. nitrogenous base. B. sugar-phosphate backbone. C. amino acid. D. nucleotide. E. ribose sugar.         2.Hershey and Chase's experiment with radioactively labeled viruses made use of the fact that protein, but not DNA, contains A. phosphorus. B. iron. C. sulfur. D. nitrogen. E. potassium.         3.The results of the experiments of Avery and his colleagues indicate that A. proteins are antigens. B. proteins transfer genetic information. C. capsule formation is.
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  COMPLETION   1._______ describes a chromosome that has a centrally-placed centromere.       2.Monosomy for autosomes is lethal in humans. If an aborted male fetus had monosomy for chromosome 6, how would you designate (write) the karyotype? ____________________       3.Due to a chromosome deletion, Timothy is very retarded, both physically and mentally. He also has a severe.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.A single DNA molecule runs half the length of a human chromosome; the rest of the chromosome consists of protein.       2.In addition to the nucleosome, DNA in a chromosome has several more levels of folding and compaction.       3.Chromatin is an extraction of pure DNA.       4.Chromosome territories do not overlap each other.       5.The 3' end.
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    11.The folate hypothesis A.contradicts the importance of the relationship between UV radiation and skin cancer. B.purports to explain why dark skin is advantageous in high UV environments. C.CANNOT explain why dark skin is advantageous in high UV environments. D.explains why dark-skinned individuals often have rickets. E.Explains why leaves fall in autumn.     12.The vitamin D hypothesis A.helps explain.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.The degree of mental retardation in a Down syndrome fetus is predictable.     2.The pattern of G-bands on each member of a homologous pair of chromosomes is usually different.     3.The banding patterns are different for non-homologous chromosomes.     4.The most common survival trisomy is trisomy 13.     5.The most common sex chromosome abnormality found in spontaneous abortions.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.If a trait is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, which of the following is not true? A.Both sexes are equally affected. B.The trait will not occur in offspring if one of the parents is homozygous dominant. C.About one-fourth of the offspring of two heterozygotes will be affected. D.The trait often appears in.
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    31.Under idealized Hardy-Weinberg conditions, which of the following statements is FALSE? a.No new alleles will be added to a population’s gene pool. b.No alleles will be removed from a population’s gene pool. c.There will be no change in allele frequencies in a population over time. d.There are no molecular changes in the gametes. e.Mutation rates.
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  COMPLETION   1.X inactivation can lead to ____________________ in females.       2.____________________ equalizes the dosage of functional genes carried on the X chromosome in males and females.       3.The duct between a testis and a seminal vesicle is the ____________________.       4.The ____________________ gene is Y-linked and plays a major role in causing the undifferentiated gonad to develop.
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  11.Dystrophin is a protein that normally A.shortens and lengthens to produce muscle contraction. B.carries signals into muscle cells to initiate contraction. C.strengthens the attachment between muscle proteins and the plasma membrane. D.helps provide energy for muscle contraction. E.signals muscle cells to divide. 12.Camptodactyly A.causes bent, immobile little fingers. B.is inherited as a dominant trait. C.shows less than complete penetrance. D.shows.
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  COMPLETION   1.In a trait with multiple alleles, an individual carries ____________________ (how many?) alleles of the gene.       2.In a pedigree, the first affected family member seeking medical attention is the ____________________.       3.In a pedigree, a double line connecting a married couple indicates that the man and woman are ____________________.       4.When members of the gene.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Origin of food production a.began  approximately 5,000ya. b.slowed down the pace of cultural change. c.began approximately 10,000ya. d.has caused biological change to be accelerated. e.has caused technological advances to stop.     2.Which of these does NOT reflect the interaction of environment and genes? a.Intelligence. b.Body shape. c.growth. d.height. e.Albinism     3.After birth, growth rates increase and remain fairly rapid for about ______.
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  MATCHING   Match the following events of the cell cycle with their descriptions. A. Metaphase E. Anaphase B. S phase F. G2 C. G1 G. Cytokinesis D. Telophase H. Prophase     1.Centromeres divide   2.Nuclear envelope disappears   3.Mitochondria divide   4.Chromosomes form sister chromatids   5.Actual cell division   6.Centrioles divide and migrate to opposite poles   7.Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell   8.Chromosomes condense   Match the disease with its underlying metabolic problem. A. Gaucher disease D. MELAS syndrome B. Werner syndrome E. Progeria C. Menkes disease F. Cystic fibrosis     9.DNA repair defects.
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  11.The letters G, Q, R, and C are used to describe bands that appear on chromosomes. The letters refer to A. the position of the bands. B. the staining procedure used to reveal the bands. C. the size of the bands. D. the types of genes found within the bands. E. the relative importance of the bands in karyotyping.       12.Chromosome painting.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.Skin cells typically do not divide.       2.Mitotic divisions reduce the number of chromosomes found in daughter cells.       3.Cytokinesis usually occurs just prior to mitosis.       4.Autosomal chromosome pairs are identical, whereas the sex chromosome pair in males is not.       5."Crossing over" is partially responsible for our genetic diversity.       6.Crossing over occurs between chromatids of homologous chromosome.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.How does polyploidy differ from aneuploidy? A. Polyploidy involves diploid chromosome sets, while aneuploidy involves haploid sets. B. Polyploidy involves changes in entire chromosome sets; aneuploidy involves less than a diploid set of chromosomes. C. Polyploidy involves monosomy; aneuploidy involves trisomy. D. Polyploidy is produced by translocations; aneuploidy by nondisjunction. E. None of these is a difference between polyploidy.
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    21.Infectious diseases A.affect only children and infants. B.are associated with aging. C.are always fatal. D.have had no evolutionary effects on humans. E.are caused by microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria.     22.Fleas and mosquitoes sometimes transmit disease pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from one individual to another.  Such agents (fleas and mosquitoes) are called A.pathogens. B.vectors. C.pandemics. D.endemics. E.adjacents     23.When a disease.
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  COMPLETION 1.Scientists are now using an expanded definition of intelligence, beyond IQ, called ____________________. 2.The hormone leptin is produced in ____________________ cells. 3.The correlation coefficient for totally unrelated people is ____________________. 0 4.DZ twins are no more or less genetically similar to each other than ____________________ are. 5.______________ traits are those that result from the interaction.
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    11.A cell in G0 state is a cell ____. A. that will shortly enter G1 B. that never divides C. that has just finished mitosis but has not yet begun cytokinesis D. in cytokinesis E. just after cytokinesis         12.Centromeres are described by all of the following events except one. Select the exception. A. They divide in anaphase of mitosis. B. They connect sister chromatids. C. They attach.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.Implantation of an embryo normally has occurred by how long after fertilization? A. 3 days B. 6 days C. 12 days D. 20 days E. 1 month         2.The leading preventable cause of birth defects is exposure of the fetus to: A. X-rays. B. cigarette smoke. C. alcohol. D. the herpes virus. E. mercury.         3.The phenotypic sex depends most directly on A. the presence of a Y chromosome. B. the presence of the number of active.
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  COMPLETION   1.Replication in human cells begins at sites called ____________________, present along the chromosome.       2.____________________ proteins function in the packaging of DNA in the chromosome.       3.DNA is made up of a linear array of ____________________.       4.The sugar found in DNA is a ____________________.       5.The unit structure of chromatin is the ____________________, which is made up.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.In his monohybrid crosses, Mendel deduced that one trait was recessive because _____. A. that trait was not present in the F1 and did not reappear in the F2 B. that trait was present in the F1 and in the F2 C. that trait was not present in the F1 and reappeared in the F2 D. that.
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  COMPLETION 1.The basic method of genetic analysis in humans is ____________________ rather than experimental. 2.The basic method of genetic analysis in humans requires a ____________________ of several generations. 3.A color-blind man has a son who is also color blind. The son inherited the condition from his ____________________. 4.If a man and his wife are.
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    21.Why do human females have such a long period during which they can no longer reproduce? a.Women lack libido in comparison to men. b.Women are biologically “programmed” to live 12-15 yrs beyond the birth of their child. c.Women need men to keep their infants fed. d.Women are not attractive after reproductive age. e.Women are more.
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    11.Racial traits aren’t the only phenotypic expressions that contribute to social identity. __________ are also critically important. a.Skin and eyes color. b.Hair and nose. c.ABO blood and sickle cell type. d.Height and weight e.Sex and age     12.The characteristics that have traditionally been used to define races a.are the product of Mendelian inheritance. b.easily draw distinct boundaries between populations. c.do.
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    21.A third major extinction even, is occurring now, and according to some scientists it may have begun in the late Pleistocene or early a.Holocene b.Cambrian c.Ordovician d.Jurassic e.Miocene     22.For at least the past 15,000 years, human activities such as hunting and clearing land for cultivation, have taken their toll on a.human species. b.nonhuman species. c.nonhuman primates. d.mammals. e.alien species.     23.In most cases.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.The process of meiosis results in ____. A. the production of four identical cells B. no change in chromosome number from parental cells C. a doubling of the chromosome number D. a reduction in chromosome number E. two diploid cells         2.In the cell cycle, the G2 phase represents ____. A. the stage of DNA synthesis B. splitting of the chromosomes into chromatids C. a period of.
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  11.The initial reports on Bruce, who became Brenda, confirmed __________in determining sexual identity. A. nature is more important than nurture C. nature and nurture are equally important B. nurture is more important than nature D. nothing of interest         12.Guidelines for the assignment of sex for an individual include A. karyotype results. B. the presence of ovaries or testes. C. the presence of penis or clitoris. D. karyotype.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.All amino acids are characterized by A. an amino group and a peptide bond. B. a carboxyl group and a peptide bond. C. the presence of two R groups. D. an amino group and a carboxyl group. E. none of these.         2.Which one of the following is NOT required for transcription? A. RNA polymerase. B. DNA. C. Uracil nucleotides. D. Ribosomes. E. All of these are needed for transcription.         3.Peptide bonds.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.Mendel's laws apply to all sexually reproducing organisms. Therefore, the basic methods of genetic analysis in humans and other organisms is the same. 2.Human traits are controlled only by the genetic material found in the 46 chromosomes. 3.The phenotypes of a trait controlled by the same gene are not always identical. 4.More than.
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    11.The main purpose of preparing karyotypes is ____. A. to reveal chromosome abnormalities B. to determine gender C. to determine which genes are on which chromosomes D. to isolate and analyze genes E. all of these         12.The branch of genetics concerned with the mechanisms by which genes are transferred from parent to offspring is called ____ . A. transmission genetics D. molecular genetics B. pedigree analysis E. recombinant DNA.
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    11.__________ warmed the earth by trapping heat. a.ultra violet rays b.green house gases c.infrared rays d.solar panels e.polar caskets     12.________ is the most significant contributor to global warming. We currently release 35 billion of this substance into the atmosphere every year. a.O2 b.O3 c.U2 d.H2O e.CO2     13.The study of ______ shows that there is significantly more carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere.
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