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Study Resources (Anthropology)

71.Hubel and Wiesel discovered feature detector cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to: a.spots of light in different locations. b.different colors of stimuli. c.faces. d.lines at different orientations. 72.Hubel and Wiesel identified neurons in the visual cortex that responded to lines at a particular orientation. a.feature detectors b.line cells c.pattern-sensitive neurons d.Hubel-Wiesel cells 73.The trichromatic theory states that: a.the.
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121.Tory eats a low-salt potato chip and spits it out and says, “That’s so salty!” She also cannot eat Brussels sprouts, pickles, or anything with a lot of saccharin in it because it tastes “too bitter.” It is likely that Tory is a(n): a.supertaster. b.taster. c.umamitaster. d.ultrataster. 122.Of the smells that humans detect: a.“fruity” and “rotten”.
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  1.Ivan Pavlov studied the reflexive flow of saliva in dogs. He used meat powder or other food to trigger the salivation. In this instance, the meat powder was the ________. a.conditioned stimulus b.unconditioned stimulus c.conditioned response d.unconditioned response 2.In classical conditioning, ________ occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response..
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.The detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects is called _______________. a.perception b.sensation c.specific nerve energy d.functional encoding 2.What is the difference between sensation and perception? a.Sensation is the detection of sensory stimuli and perception is the interpretation of sensory information. b.Sensation is the interpretation of sensory information and perception is the.
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61. The opponent process theory applies to the second stage of color processing, which occurs in ganglion cells in the retina, neurons in the thalamus, and neurons in the visual cortex. 62. According to opponent-process theory, the color code that is passed along to higher visual centers treats blue and yellow.
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  Short Answer Questions 1.Define sensation and perception. Explain what sense receptors are. 2. What did Johannes Müller propose in his doctrine of specific energies? 3. Zoe is a participant in a psychophysical study and is having her absolute threshold for brightness measured. Describe a likely procedure for determining this measurement. 4.Despite the impressive sensory.
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1.What is the difference between sensation and perception? a.Sensation is the detection of sensory stimuli and perception is the interpretation of sensory information. b.Sensation is the interpretation of sensory information and perception is the detection of sensory stimuli. c.Perception refers to what goes on in the sensory organs and sensation is what happens.
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111.Which of the following is true regarding the Gestalt principles and hearing? a.None of them apply to hearing. b.The figure-ground principle is the only one that applies to both vision and hearing. c.All of the principles except for closure apply to both vision and hearing. d.Many of the visual principles also appear to apply.
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11.In the initial salivary reflex studied by Pavlov, the dogs salivated when food was placed in their mouths. This salivation was a(n)________. a.unconditioned response b.unconditioned stimulus c.conditioned response d.conditioned stimulus 12.Ivan Pavlov studied the reflexive flow of saliva in dogs. He used meat powder to trigger the salivation. It was later observed that.
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101.The amplitude of a sound wave is related to our perception of _______________. a.pitch b.timbre c.loudness d.tonal quality 102.Which of the following physical characteristics of the sound wave corresponds to the psychological               dimension of timbre? a.intensity b.pitch c.frequency d.complexity 103.Tom Petty has a nasal voice and Bob Dylan has a gravelly voice. There is a difference in the complexity.
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  11.Sense receptors convert the energy of the stimulus to: a.mechanical signals. b.visual signals. c.electrical impulses. d.vibrations. 12.The doctrine of specific nerve energies states that: a.each type of sensory receptor releases a different type of energy. b.different sensory nerves release different neurotransmitters. c.each sensory neuron can respond to all sensory modalities. d.what a person experiences depends on which nerve was.
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41.The ability to focus on some parts of the environment and block out others is referred to as               _______________. a.sensory deprivation b.selective attention c.sensory overload d.inattentional blindness 42.During a break from his job as a waiter, Bernardo begins to read Hamlet, and is so engrossed in the play that he fails to notice the.
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5. Psychoactive drugs produce their effects primarily by acting on brain neurotransmitters. Explain this process, using cocaine’s effect on the brain as your example.                   Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. What does research reveal about the accuracy of memory under hypnosis? Design your own experiment to investigate this topic..
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  Essay Questions 1. Under normal conditions, the rhythms governed by the SCN are synchronized. But when people travel by air across several time zones, they tend to feel “out of sync.” Explain what psychologists have discovered about “being out of sync.” 2. Research has shown that PMS is relatively uncommon, and.
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  Essay Questions 1. If the sensory nerves all use exactly the same form of communication (a neural impulse), how, then, do we experience so many different kinds of sensations? 2. Explain the concept of sensory crossover. Include a description of the rare condition called synesthesia. 3. In sensory deprivation studies, researchers were interested.
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31.A decline in sensory responsiveness that occurs when a stimulus is unchanging or repetitive is called               _______________. a.the difference threshold b.psychophysics c.sensory adjustment d.sensory adaptation 32.When she goes into her mother’s kitchen, Amelia doesn’t know how long she will be able to stay in the room because of the overpowering smell of onions. But.
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101.Gate-control therapy can teach pain sufferers to use coping strategies such as distraction and imagery to               alleviate their suffering. 102. When adults who have been blind from infancy have their vision restored, they are able to make sense of what they see within days. 103. When we have an interest in.
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31. Saturation is related to the complexity of light—that is, how wide or narrow the range of wavelengths is. 32. Hue, brightness, and saturation are all physical properties of the visual stimulus, light. 33. If a color is completely saturated, then it contains only a single wavelength. 34.Generally speaking, the more light an.
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  1.The doctrine of specific nerve energies states that: a.each type of sensory receptor releases a different type of energy. b.different sensory nerves release different neurotransmitters. c.each sensory neuron can respond to all sensory modalities. d.what a person experiences depends on which nerve was stimulated. 2.Sarah says that certain colors make her experience different smells. For.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.Which of the following schools of thought heavily influenced the study of learning in the twentieth century? a.behaviorism b.psychoanalysis c.Gestalt psychology d.functionalism 2.According to the behaviorists: a.psychological research needs to emphasize the unconscious underpinnings of behavior. b.the predominant area of research should be free will and the mind. c.researchers should focus on the interaction between.
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51.Which of the following physical characteristics of light is related to brightness? a.purity b.complexity c.amount d.intensity 52.The wavelength of a light wave refers to: a.the distance between the crests of a wave. b.the amplitude of a wave. c.the maximum height of a wave. d.the variations in saturation. 53.Which of the following statements is true about white light? a.It is completely saturated.
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91.Grant perceives snow as remaining white on cloudy days as well as on bright ones. He is not fooled, even though the amount of light the snow reflects is different on cloudy days. Grant’s perception is due to _______________. a.convergence b.relative clarity c.texture gradients d.brightness constancy 92.In the Müller-Lyer illusion, most people perceive the line.
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21. In signal detection tasks, naysayers will have more hits than yea-sayers. 22. In signal detection tasks, yea-sayers will have more misses than naysayers. 23. Sensory adaptation spares us from having to respond to unimportant sensory information. 24. Our senses are designed to respond to change and contrast in the environment. 25. The reduction.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 198                   Which psychological dimensions of hearing correspond to the intensity, frequency, and complexity of the sound wave?                 Fred’s voice is nasal and Ted’s is gravelly. Which psychological dimension of hearing describes the difference?                 An extremely loud or sustained noise can permanently damage the _________ of.
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61.The visual receptors are located in the _______________, which is located in the back of the eye. a.pupil b.iris c.cornea d.retina 62.Neural tissue lining the back of the eyeball’s interior is called the _______________. a.pupil b.iris c.cornea d.retina 63.When the lens of the eye focuses light on the retina, the result is a(n): a.sideways image. b.colorless image. c.peripheral image. d.upside-down image. 64.Research on rods and.
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  True-False Questions 1. Perception is defined as the detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects. 2. Perception occurs when energy in the external environment or in the body stimulates receptors in the sense organs. 3. Sensation occurs when energy in the external environment or in the body stimulates receptors in.
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131.Which two senses keep us informed about the movement of our own body? a.homeostasis and balance b.equilibrium and homeostasis c.equilibrium and kinesthesis d.kinesthesis and homeostasis 132.After many ear infections during childhood, Zach developed damage to the semicircular canals in his inner ear. As a result, he periodically has difficulty standing upright and at times feels.
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  21.The difference threshold is: a.the ability of different species to detect varying aspects of electromagnetic waves, from radio waves to                             cosmic waves. b.the smallest difference in stimulation that can be detected by an observer when two stimuli are               compared. c.the difference in absolute thresholds between individuals with normal sensory abilities.
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31.In classical conditioning, ________ occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response. a.stimulus discrimination b.stimulus generalization c.acquisition d.extinction 32.Matt classically conditions his dog, Wally, to salivate when he strums the G chord on his guitar by providing food after the chord is played. After some time, Matt notices that.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1.A camera is a passive recorder of the world, but the visual systems of mammals build up pictures of the world by detecting its meaningful features. Integrate the research on the visual system with information that was presented in Chapter 4 regarding the thalamus and.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 212 1.On the visual cliff, most 6-month-old babies: a.go right across because they cannot detect depth. b.cross even though they are afraid. c.will not cross because they can detect depth. d.cry or get bored. 2.Newborns and infants: a.have few perceptual abilities. b.need visual experiences during a critical period for vision to develop normally. c.see.
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81.As she watches her granddaughter’s dance recital, Patty perceives two separate groups of dancers. Her granddaughter’s group wore bright turquoise costumes with gold accents and the other group wore bright gold costumes with turquoise accents. Patty perception is supported by the Gestalt principle of _______________. a.proximity b.continuity c.similarity d.closure 82.When you look at the drawing.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 182                   Even on the clearest night, some stars cannot be seen by the naked eye because they are below the viewer’s __________ threshold.                 When you jump into a cold lake and the water no longer seems so cold moments later, sensory __________ has occurred.                 If.
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16.Discuss Vilayanur Ramachandran’s work with phantom pain and his success with tricking the brain               of an amputee with a simple mirror. How are his techniques being used today? 17. Normally, kinesthesis and equilibrium work together to give us a sense of our own physical reality. But when they do not,.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 146   The functioning of the biological clock governing circadian rhythms is affected by the hormone __________. 2.Jet lag occurs because of __________. 3.For most women, the days before menstruation are reliably associated with: a. depression. b. irritability. c. elation. d. creativity. e. none of these f. a and b 4.A researcher tells male subjects that.
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