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  True/False Questions 1.The transition between pre-modern and anatomically modern forms of humans may have occurred as early as 500,000 years ago in Africa.     2.The two replacement models are the partial Replacement and Regional Continuity models.         3.The earliest anatomically modern human specimen comes from Omo Kibish (Ethiopia) dating approximately 195,000ya.     4.Most researchers agree that the.
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    11.Racial traits aren’t the only phenotypic expressions that contribute to social identity. __________ are also critically important. a.Skin and eyes color. b.Hair and nose. c.ABO blood and sickle cell type. d.Height and weight e.Sex and age     12.The characteristics that have traditionally been used to define races a.are the product of Mendelian inheritance. b.easily draw distinct boundaries between populations. c.do.
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    21.The skeletal remains from _______ are from Inner Mongolia and date to about 50,000 years ago. a.Upper Cave b.Zhoukoudian c.Lake Mungo d.Border Cave e.Ordos     22.Fossils from a Kow Swamp suggest that people lived there around 14,000 to 9,000y.a. a.Lake Mungo b.Border Cave c.Ordos. d.Kow Cave e.Khoukoudian     23.Archaeological sites in Australia have been dated as early as __________ years ago. a.25,000 b.30,000 c.75,000 d.55,000 e.100,000         24.Lake Mungo remains have.
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    41.The first evidence of deliberate burial of the dead is associated with a.Homo erectus. b.Homo habilis. c.Neandertals. d.early pre-modern Homo sapiens from Africa. e.anatomically modern Homo sapiens.     42.Sixteen of twenty of the best documented Neandertal burials a.contain include “Venus” figurines. b.include stone tools. c.include atlatl, bows and arrows. d.include individuals placed in a flexed position. e.include many sacrificed family members.       43.Neandertals DNA.
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    41.Chimpanzee attacks on members of other groups a.are definitely motivated by territoriality. b.never result in injury. c.always occur in the form of displays and nothing more. d.can be extremely brutal and result in severe injury or death. e.are so rare that only one or two have been observed.     42.Encounters between male chimpanzees from different groups a.are always.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. During which of the following epochs did the first archaic primates (65 to 55.5 m.y.a.) appear? a.Pleistocene b.Holocene c.Miocene d.Paleocene e.Pliocene     2. During which of the following epochs did the first euprimates, early strepsirhines and haplorines (55.8 m.y.a.) appear? a.Holocene b.Eocene c.Miocene d.Paleocene e.Pliocene     3. During which of the following epochs did the first monkeys, apes, and human-like creatures.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.All the early hominins were restricted to ______________ a.Africa b.Asia c.Europe d.Antarctica e.America     2.Sometime close to 2 mya something decisive occurred in human evolution; for the first time______________ a.Hominins expanded widely out of Europe. b.Hominins expanded widely out of America. c.Hominins expanded widely out of Africa. d.Hominins expanded widely out of Asia. e.Hominins expanded widely out of Atlantis.     3.There is.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The earliest evidence of hominins that has been found dates to the end of the a.Miocene b.Pleistocene c.Oligocene d.Pliocene e.Paleocene     2.What is mosaic evolution? a.Evolution occurring in various regions. b.Physiological and behavioral systems evolving at different rates. c.Physiological and behavioral systems evolving at the same rate. d.Intellectual and internal systems e.Evolution of different species leading to the same outcome.     3.The.
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    21.Identify which of the following is not a New World monkey characteristic: a.Sideways facing nostrils. b.Dental formula of 2.1.3.3. c.Tube-like ear hole. d.Grasping tail.     22.Identify which of the following is not a Old World monkey characteristic: a.Downward facing nostrils. b.Dental formula of 2.1.3.3. c.Tube-like ear hole. d.Ischial callosities. e.Distribution: Africa, southern Asia & Japan.     23.___________ is an extinct family that represents.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Adaptation A.is seen only in nonhuman animals. B.is the same as acclimatization. C.is always temporary. D.is a genetic adjustment to environmental conditions. E.is birth defect.     2.Biological systems are balanced systems maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for both external and internal changes.  Such a balanced system is in A.hypoxia. B.homeostasis. C.heterostasis. D.acclimatization. E.polystasis.     3.Acclimatization refers to A.long-term adaptations.
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    11.Which of the following are NOT anthropoids? a.New World monkeys b.lorises c.Old World monkeys d.humans e.gorillas     12.Tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans are placed together in the suborder a.Homo. b.Lorisoidea. c.Hominoidea. d.Haplorhini. e.Strepsirhini.     13.The tarsier a.is unquestionably related to lorises and lemurs. b.is more closely related to anthropoids than to lemurs and lorises. c.is a hominid. d.is a New World monkey. e.is unquestionably an anthropoid.     14.Which of the following.
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    11.The folate hypothesis A.contradicts the importance of the relationship between UV radiation and skin cancer. B.purports to explain why dark skin is advantageous in high UV environments. C.CANNOT explain why dark skin is advantageous in high UV environments. D.explains why dark-skinned individuals often have rickets. E.Explains why leaves fall in autumn.     12.The vitamin D hypothesis A.helps explain.
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  6.All primate communication is autonomic in nature.     7.Social relationships are not important to nonhuman primates and bonds between individuals usually do not last very long.     8.Sexual selection does not seem to be an important factor in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.     9.It has been proposed that male Hanuman langurs that commit infanticide are.
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    31.Which species did Beatrice and Allen Gardner teach to use American Sign Language? a.baboons b.chimpanzees c.macaques d.lemurs e.tarsiers     32.The language experiments with chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas indicate that they a.lack the ability to communicate symbolically. b.can learn to use up to 100 spoken words. c.have some ability to use signs to communicate. d.have human-like vocal tract anatomies. e.think symbolically in the.
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  True/False Questions 1.Homo erectus is the first hominin for which we have evidence of wide geographical dispersion.     2.The discovery of fossils now referred to as Homo erectus began in the nineteenth century.     3.Given the newest dates for the Ngandong Homo erectus material on Java, it is possible that Homo erectus could have existed contemporaneously.
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    11.In Europe, premodern Homo sapiens fossil sites include all of the following, EXCEPT a.Swanscombe. b.Steinheim. c.Laetoli. d.Gran Dolina e.Arago     12.Which of the following sites, dated to approximately 500,000-400,000 years ago, has yielded a sample representing about 28 pre-modern Homo sapiens individuals? a.Ehringsdorf b.Atapuerca c.Steinheim d.Swanscombe e.Petralona       13.In Asia, premodern human fossils sites include a.Bodo b.Atapuerca c.Jinniushan d.Arago e.Swanscombe     14.Which is true about the Spanish site Sima de los.
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    21.One of the more important regions outside of the Zhoukoudian, regarding paleoanthropological sites is______________ a.Yunxian county b.Linxian county c.Xindian county d.Gandu county e.Xigu county     22.Dated to ______________ Lantian is older than Zhoukoudian a.115 bya b.115 mya. c..115 mya d.1.15 mya e.1.15 kya     23.The Asian crania from java and China share many similar features, which could be explained by____________ migration from Java to.
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    31.The Neandertal site in Croatia which has one of the oldest intentional burials is a.La Chapelle-aux-Saints. b.Krapina. c.Shanidar. d.Arago Cave. e.Broken Hill.     32.Neandertal remains from southern Siberia a.date between 44,000-37,000ya. b.showed evidence of cannibalism. c.contained a patrilocal family lifestyle. d.contained a very sick and old male. e.had extensive tools made of bone.     33.Shanidar cave is located in a.Israel. b.France. c.Germany. d.Croatia. e.Iraq.     34.In Israel important discoveries at Tabun.
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    31.Under idealized Hardy-Weinberg conditions, which of the following statements is FALSE? a.No new alleles will be added to a population’s gene pool. b.No alleles will be removed from a population’s gene pool. c.There will be no change in allele frequencies in a population over time. d.There are no molecular changes in the gametes. e.Mutation rates.
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    11.What is the study of how bones and other materials came to be buried and preserved as fossils called? a.context b.paleoecology c.artifacts d.geology e.taphonomy     12.Which of the following sites has the most complete and best-studied paleoarchaeological record of any early hominin site in the world? a.Hadar b.Olduvai Gorge c.the Potwar Plateau d.Omo e.Lake Turkana     13.Olduvai Gorge a.was discovered in 1992. b.is located in Ethiopia. c.is.
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    41.Mountain gorilla social groups are usually composed of a.one adult male and one adult female, plus their immature offspring. b.solitary individuals, except for females with dependent young. c.one or two adult males, a few adult females and their immature offspring, plus one or two adult non-breeding, males. d.several adults of both sexes and offspring.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Categorizing people on the basis of skin color a.is mostly a twentieth century phenomenon. b.has been practiced only by Western Europeans. c.is a valid approach to racial taxonomy. d.has a long history and has been practiced by many peoples. e.began with Christopher Columbus.     2.The first scientific attempt to classify humans based on biological variation.
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  6.An interesting fact regarding the site called the Sima de los Huesos is that it contains more than 80% of all Middle Pleistocene hominin remains in the world.     7.The premodern human fossils from Africa and Europe are more similar to each other than they are to the hominins from Asia.     8.Over 80%.
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    a.flakes. b.knappers. c.lithics. d.cores. e.blanks.     32.People who make stone tools are called: a.flakes. b.knappers. c.lithics. d.cores. e.blanks.     33.A stone reduced by flake removal is called: a.flakes. b.knappers. c.lithics. d.cores. e.blanks.     34.Experimental archaeologists have attempted to learn more about stone tools by doing all the following, EXCEPT: a.replicating stone tool manufacturing methods. b.using stone tools to butcher an elephant. c.cutting down trees with stone axes. d.Observing ecological factors. e.traveling back in time.     35.Stable carbon.
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  4.The presence of nails in Carpolestes is likely due to homoplasy rather than a shared derived characteristics.     5.The term “euprimate” refers to the primate-like primitive species that preceded plesiadapids.     6.At the beginning of the Eocene epoch, North America and Europe were connected and they shared many species in common.     7.The term “subfossil” refers.
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  True/False Questions 1.Mosaic evolution is a pattern of evolution in which the rate of evolution in one functional system is the same as that in other systems.     2.The earliest members of the hominin lineage, dating back to 7-5 m.y.a. regularly manufactures stone tools.     3.One of the constrains of paleoanthropology is that mounting a.
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    31.During the Upper Paleolithic, humans in Eurasia relied heavily on a.deep sea fishing. b.hunting. c.small-scale farming. d.large-scale agriculture. e.domesticated animals.     32.The atlatl a.is a type of projectile point. b.is used for starting fires. c.is used to increase the distance of a spear throw. d.is a drill. e.is used for fishing.     33.Technological changes typical of the Upper Paleolithic include a.the use of sling shots.
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    21.The areas in the DNA that contain repeated segments are a.termed macrosatellites. b.termed SNPs. c.the basis for DNA fingerprinting. d.SCM(self-cloning mechanisms). e.Unoriginal traits.     22.Geographical, ecological, and social factors influence _____________ . a.solipsism b.celibacy c.check mate d.sexogamy e.mate choice         23.The gene pool concept A.refers to the total complement of genes shared by non-reproductive members of a population. B.is no longer used by modern anthropologists. C.refers to.
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    21.The evolutionary roots of Neandertals reach as far back as ________ years ago. a.100,000 b.400,000 c.65,000 d.10,000 e.130,000     22.Neandertal brain size a.was smaller, on average, than that of modern humans. b.was larger, on average, than that of modern humans. c.was smaller, on average, than that of Homo erectus. d.averaged about 2,500 cm3. e.averaged about 1,100 cm3.       23.The average Neandertal was a.more robust than.
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    31.Regarding the fossil material termed “early Homo”, Leakey guessed was our ancestor: a.some scholars think there may actually be more than one species present. b.there is definitely only one species. c.it is certain that one species, Homo habilis, evolved directly into Homo sapiens. d.all the individuals appear to be about the same size. e.there is.
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    11.The other sites from Ethiopia have yielded Homo erectus fossils, the most noteworthy coming from_____ and ______. a.Gona and Daka. b.East Turkana and West Turkana. c.Nakuru and Nairobi. d.Shambe and Rumbek. e.Kona and Hilo.     12.The Gona pelvis is very different from the Nariokotome pelvis and is unusual for its considerable a.Weight b.Height c.Depth d.Tightness e.Width     13.Which type of tools are characterized by.
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    11.Chest slapping by gorillas and arm waving by chimpanzees are examples of a.reassurance gestures. b.submission. c.displays. d.involuntary behavior. e.affiliative behavior.     12.Physiological responses not under voluntary control are called a.instinctual. b.symbolic. c.autonomic. d.ritualized. e.genetically determined.     13.Amicable behaviors that promote group cohesion are called _______ behaviors. a.cultural b.philopatric c.ritualized d.affiliative e.autonomic     14.For primates, most intragroup aggression takes the form of a.fighting. b.signals and displays. c.throwing of objects. d.killing other individuals. e.slapping and biting.       15.In many primate.
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    31.Which of the following is NOT true about Cercopithecines? a.are one subfamily of Old World monkeys. b.are more generalized than colobines. c.include baboons, guenons, and macaques. d.are more omnivorous. e.are classified as hominidae family.     32.Colobines a.are found Africa ONLY. b.eat only fruit. c.eat mostly insects. d.are found in Asia ONLY. e.are found in Africa and parts of India and Asia.     33.Sexual dimorphism a.refers.
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    21.Infectious diseases A.affect only children and infants. B.are associated with aging. C.are always fatal. D.have had no evolutionary effects on humans. E.are caused by microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria.     22.Fleas and mosquitoes sometimes transmit disease pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from one individual to another.  Such agents (fleas and mosquitoes) are called A.pathogens. B.vectors. C.pandemics. D.endemics. E.adjacents     23.When a disease.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The Middle Pleistocene dated between a.125,000-10,000y.a. b.10,000y.a.- present times c.780,000-125,000y.a. d.900,000-750,000y.a. e.25,000-10,000y.a.     2.The earliest member of our own species are frequently referred to as a.premodern Homo sapiens. b.anatomically modern Homo sapiens. c.late Homo erectus. d.Homo habilis. e.Ardipithecus         3.Which is NOT true about the Pleistocene? a.It is also known as the ice age. b.It is marked by massive advances and retreats of glaciations. c.It.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.___________ is the study of the evolution of behavior, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection. a.Sociobiology b.Biological-ecology c.Socioecology d.Evolutionary ecology e.Behavioral ecology     2.Behavioral genetics a.is the study of how social systems influence disease patterns. b.was a theory first proposed by Charles Darwin. c.is the study of how genes affect behavior. d.is no longer.
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    11.The fossil skeleton known as “Lucy” belongs to the species a.africanus. b.aethiopicus. c.habilis. d.boisei. e.afarensis.     12.Australopithecus afarensis a.includes the Taung child and Ardi. b.is the oldest hominin discovered to date. c.is the smallest least-studied collection of early hominins. d.is only found in South Africa. e.includes Lucy and a 3y.o. hominin from Dikika     13.Which of the following hominins has the most primitive (ancestral).
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    21.Which of the following are NOT capable of brachiation? a.gibbons b.humans c.chimpanzees d.lorises e.bonobos     22.Comparisons of 100 human and chimpanzee genes indicate that humans and chimpanzees are genetically ______  different. a.10-13% b.60-63% c.25-28% d.18-21% e.3-6%     23.Comparisons of 100 primate genes indicate that humans and chimpanzees last shared a common ancestor about ______ years ago. a.6-7 million b.50-60 million c.4.6 billion d.2-3 million e.20-30 thousand     24.The genus and species.
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    21._________ was contemporaneous with Paranthropus but had a significantly larger brain. a.A. afarensis b.Aegyptopithecus c.Homo habilis d.A. africanus e.Ardipithecus     22.The earliest hominin discovery from Africa and the world was done in a.East Africa. b.the 1920s. c.the 1800s. d.Egypt. e.the 1960s.     23.The first person to describe and classify an australopithicus fossil was a.Robert Broom. b.Donald Johanson. c.Raymond Dart. d.Mary Leakey. e.Louis Leakey.     24.The “Taung baby” and other Australopithecus africanus a.were.
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    31.The Dmanisi site is located in a.Olduvai. b.West Turkana. c.Java. d.Republic of Georgia. e.West Texarcana     32.The fossil remains from Dmanisi a.are essentially indistinguishable from modern Homo sapiens. b.bear some similarities to early Homo specimens from Africa. c.bear some similarities to Homo neanderthalensis specimens. d.have cranial capacities that exceed 1,500 cubic centimeters. e.bear some similarities to Homo heidelbergensis specimens.     33.The fossil remains from.
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    11.The Herto remains are a.from South Africa. b.include the most complete adult cranium. c.considered to be Neanderthals. d.considered to be Ardipithecus. e.also called Cro-Magnon.     12.The analysis of the Herto remains indicate they are a.most similar to Australopithecus. b.indistinguishable from modern Homo sapiens. c.most similar to late Homo erectus from China. d.Near-modern and titled Homo sapiens idaltu. e.Hybrid Neanderthal and Sapiens     13.Early modern.
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  True/False Questions 1.John Blumenbach was the first European scientist to classify humans into races.     2.Francis Galton, Darwin’s cousin, originated the eugenics approach to “race improvement”.     3.The term race currently has only biological connotations and is without any social significance.     4.The term ethnicity was originally proposed in order to avoid the emotional baggage associated with.
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  True/False Questions   1.Except for the footprints at Laetoli, there is no evidence of early hominin foot structure.     2.Most early hominin fossils were restricted to central, South and East Africa.     3.Habitual locomotion is seen only in hominins.     4.The honing complex is typical of hominins.     5.The fossil assigned to the genus and species Sahelanthropus tchadensis is universally.
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    21.Which is NOT true about female primates? a.spend most of their adult life either pregnant and/or lactating. b.assume most of the responsibility for infant care. c.have the same nutritional requirements as males. d.have enormous metabolic demands. e.are usually not in estrus when lactating.     22.Infanticide by adult males a.is rare in primates. b.appears to serve no function. c.is performed as.
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    11.The best known of the giant lemurs a.was named Megaladapis and weighed 170 pounds. b.probably became extinct due to Malaria. c.was built more like a lizard than a lemur. d.thrived with the presence of homo sapiens in Madagascar. e.had very high reproductive rates.     12.Which of the following is true about the tarsier-like omomyoids? a.They have a tarsier-like.
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    21._______ is a radiometric dating method popular with archaeologists that can be used to date materials up to 75,000 years old. a.Carbon-14 b.Paleomagnetism c.Dendrochronology d.K/Ar e.Biostratigraphy     22.If an isotope has a half-life of 4 billion years, then in 4 billion years a.all of the original amount will have decayed. b.¼ of the original amount will still remain. c.½ of.
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    31.Pliopithecoidea, like the proconsuloids, are also generally known from the: a.Early Archean. b.Early Proterozoic. c.Cambrian. d.Early Ordovicians. e.Early Miocene.     32.Which of the following is not a general characteristic of Old World Monkeys? a.Broad nose and palate. b.Smaller brain (in absolute terms and relative to body weight). c.Shorter arms. d.Longer torso. e.Tail.     33.Which of the following is not a characteristic of Great Apes? a.narrow.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The earliest fossils identifiable as hominins were all from: a.North America b.Australia c.Africa d.Asia e.Europe     2.Anatomical changes in hominins that are indicative of habitual bipedal locomotion include A.feet with opposable big toes for grasping. B.shortening and broadening of the pelvis. C.increased length of arms relative to legs. D.increased length of the spine. E.pronounced sagittal crest     3.Which of the following is.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.At some time, probably close to ______________ the first Homo sapiens evolved in Africa. a.200,000 b.1,500,000 c.50,000 d.500,000 e.5,000,000     2.African populations of _______________ are the most likely ancestors of the earliest modern Homo sapiens. a.H. heidelbergensis b.H. erectus c.H. ergaster d.H. habilis e.H. neanderthalensis     3.According to the Complete Replacement Model, anatomically modern Homo sapiens first appeared in Africa a.and dispersed to.
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  6.Colobine monkeys specialize in eating mature leaves, and are referred to as “leaf-eating monkeys”.     7.Many researchers argue that New World monkeys may have originated when they “rafted” over from Africa.     8.Orangutan adults have a very active locomotion pattern and they frequently brachiate.     9.In September 2000, scientists announced that a subspecies of red colobus,.
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