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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.The major point of controversy in deCODE's plan to establish a genetic database of the people of Iceland is A. the large expense and minimal projected benefits. B. the privacy and appropriate use of the information obtained. C. the inadequacy of the database size. D. the genetic isolation of Icelanders. E. all of these.         2.What was deCODE’s stated purpose in.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.In heterozygous crosses, the phenotypic and genotypic ratios differ for completely dominant traits but are the same for traits showing incomplete dominance.     2.Heterozygotes and dominant homozygotes always have the same phenotype.     3.There are four common alleles of the gene that controls human blood type.     4.Recessive traits are expressed only in the homozygous state.     5.Dominant.
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  11.Dystrophin is a protein that normally A.shortens and lengthens to produce muscle contraction. B.carries signals into muscle cells to initiate contraction. C.strengthens the attachment between muscle proteins and the plasma membrane. D.helps provide energy for muscle contraction. E.signals muscle cells to divide. 12.Camptodactyly A.causes bent, immobile little fingers. B.is inherited as a dominant trait. C.shows less than complete penetrance. D.shows.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.How does polyploidy differ from aneuploidy? A. Polyploidy involves diploid chromosome sets, while aneuploidy involves haploid sets. B. Polyploidy involves changes in entire chromosome sets; aneuploidy involves less than a diploid set of chromosomes. C. Polyploidy involves monosomy; aneuploidy involves trisomy. D. Polyploidy is produced by translocations; aneuploidy by nondisjunction. E. None of these is a difference between polyploidy.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.In his monohybrid crosses, Mendel deduced that one trait was recessive because _____. A. that trait was not present in the F1 and did not reappear in the F2 B. that trait was present in the F1 and in the F2 C. that trait was not present in the F1 and reappeared in the F2 D. that.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.The degree of mental retardation in a Down syndrome fetus is predictable.     2.The pattern of G-bands on each member of a homologous pair of chromosomes is usually different.     3.The banding patterns are different for non-homologous chromosomes.     4.The most common survival trisomy is trisomy 13.     5.The most common sex chromosome abnormality found in spontaneous abortions.
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  11.Huntington’s disease, a severe autosomal dominant neurological disorder, shows a ____________________ in its expression. 12.Genetic diseases transmitted only by a mother to both sons and daughters result from ____________________ genes. 13.When affected males produce all affected daughters and no affected sons, the genetic disease is likely to be ____________________. 14.If Marfan syndrome results.
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  COMPLETION   1.The sequences in mRNA that are not translated are the ____________________.       2.Prions cause disease by changing the way proteins ____________________.       3.Pre-mRNA is ____________________ and ____________________ before it becomes mRNA and moves to the cytoplasm.       4.Amino acids are joined together in a chain by ____________________ bonds.       5.There are altogether ____________________ codons that code for amino.
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  MATCHING   Match the following events of the cell cycle with their descriptions. A. Metaphase E. Anaphase B. S phase F. G2 C. G1 G. Cytokinesis D. Telophase H. Prophase     1.Centromeres divide   2.Nuclear envelope disappears   3.Mitochondria divide   4.Chromosomes form sister chromatids   5.Actual cell division   6.Centrioles divide and migrate to opposite poles   7.Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell   8.Chromosomes condense   Match the disease with its underlying metabolic problem. A. Gaucher disease D. MELAS syndrome B. Werner syndrome E. Progeria C. Menkes disease F. Cystic fibrosis     9.DNA repair defects.
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  True/False Questions 1.Biological change occurs fast whereas cultural change tends to be slow     2.In the United Stated, the primary determinant of health and nutrition is economic status.     3.In humans, growth begins at conception and ends at weaning.     4.Nutrition has an effect ONLY on the prenatal period of the human life cycle.       5.At birth, the human.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.The additive model for polygenic inheritance proposes that the genes controlling a trait are all on one chromosome. 2.For threshold traits the liability for a genetic disorder is distributed among individuals in a normal curve. 3.According to the threshold model, for a family in which a disorder occurs, the risk of the.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.The research of which of the following scientists showed that genetic disorders and abnormal metabolism are related? A. Sir Archibald Garrod B. Francis Crick C. Linus Pauling D. Linda Bartoshuk E. James Neel         2.Which one of the following is NOT a symptom of PKU? A. Unusually light colored hair and skin B. "Musty" body odor C. Jerky arm and leg movements D. Mental retardation E. Vomiting and digestive upset         3.Dietary treatment.
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    21.Why do human females have such a long period during which they can no longer reproduce? a.Women lack libido in comparison to men. b.Women are biologically “programmed” to live 12-15 yrs beyond the birth of their child. c.Women need men to keep their infants fed. d.Women are not attractive after reproductive age. e.Women are more.
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  5.BCCs and SCCs tend to appear in middle age long after underlying genetic damage that occurred during childhood and adolescence.     6.Bergmann’s rule concerns the shape of the body, especially the appendages.     7.Hypoxia results from reduced barometric pressure.     8.In Colorado, infant deaths are about twice as common above 8,200 feet as at lower elevations.     9.The.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.If a trait is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, which of the following is not true? A.Both sexes are equally affected. B.The trait will not occur in offspring if one of the parents is homozygous dominant. C.About one-fourth of the offspring of two heterozygotes will be affected. D.The trait often appears in.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.Implantation of an embryo normally has occurred by how long after fertilization? A. 3 days B. 6 days C. 12 days D. 20 days E. 1 month         2.The leading preventable cause of birth defects is exposure of the fetus to: A. X-rays. B. cigarette smoke. C. alcohol. D. the herpes virus. E. mercury.         3.The phenotypic sex depends most directly on A. the presence of a Y chromosome. B. the presence of the number of active.
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  11.The initial reports on Bruce, who became Brenda, confirmed __________in determining sexual identity. A. nature is more important than nurture C. nature and nurture are equally important B. nurture is more important than nature D. nothing of interest         12.Guidelines for the assignment of sex for an individual include A. karyotype results. B. the presence of ovaries or testes. C. the presence of penis or clitoris. D. karyotype.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.Skin cells typically do not divide.       2.Mitotic divisions reduce the number of chromosomes found in daughter cells.       3.Cytokinesis usually occurs just prior to mitosis.       4.Autosomal chromosome pairs are identical, whereas the sex chromosome pair in males is not.       5."Crossing over" is partially responsible for our genetic diversity.       6.Crossing over occurs between chromatids of homologous chromosome.
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  11.The letters G, Q, R, and C are used to describe bands that appear on chromosomes. The letters refer to A. the position of the bands. B. the staining procedure used to reveal the bands. C. the size of the bands. D. the types of genes found within the bands. E. the relative importance of the bands in karyotyping.       12.Chromosome painting.
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    21.A third major extinction even, is occurring now, and according to some scientists it may have begun in the late Pleistocene or early a.Holocene b.Cambrian c.Ordovician d.Jurassic e.Miocene     22.For at least the past 15,000 years, human activities such as hunting and clearing land for cultivation, have taken their toll on a.human species. b.nonhuman species. c.nonhuman primates. d.mammals. e.alien species.     23.In most cases.
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  11.RNA polymerase attaches to regions just outside genes called ____________________.       12.____________________ have two binding sites for tRNA to allow the formation of peptide bonds.       13.Retroviruses such as HIV are capable of making a DNA strand by reading a complementary RNA strand. Very sensibly, scientists call this process "reverse ____________________."       14.Watson and Crick proposed.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.The basic unit of a DNA molecule is the A. nitrogenous base. B. sugar-phosphate backbone. C. amino acid. D. nucleotide. E. ribose sugar.         2.Hershey and Chase's experiment with radioactively labeled viruses made use of the fact that protein, but not DNA, contains A. phosphorus. B. iron. C. sulfur. D. nitrogen. E. potassium.         3.The results of the experiments of Avery and his colleagues indicate that A. proteins are antigens. B. proteins transfer genetic information. C. capsule formation is.
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  11.Cytosine and thymine are the two types of bases found in DNA known as ______________________.       12.If one side of a small DNA molecule has the nucleotide sequence 5'-AATCGC-3', the opposite side sequence would read (left-to-right) ____________________.       13.The base found in DNA, but not RNA, is ____________________; the base found in RNA, but.
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    11.In the ABO multiple allele system, there are the following combinations of genotypes and phenotypes: A. 4 genotypes, 4 phenotypes B. 4 genotypes, 6 phenotypes C. 6 genotypes, 6 phenotypes D. 6 genotypes, 4 phenotypes E. 3 genotypes, 4 phenotypes       12.A pea plant with yellow peas is crossed with a pea plant that has green peas. The offspring include both yellow-pea.
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  COMPLETION 1.The basic method of genetic analysis in humans is ____________________ rather than experimental. 2.The basic method of genetic analysis in humans requires a ____________________ of several generations. 3.A color-blind man has a son who is also color blind. The son inherited the condition from his ____________________. 4.If a man and his wife are.
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    11.The main purpose of preparing karyotypes is ____. A. to reveal chromosome abnormalities B. to determine gender C. to determine which genes are on which chromosomes D. to isolate and analyze genes E. all of these         12.The branch of genetics concerned with the mechanisms by which genes are transferred from parent to offspring is called ____ . A. transmission genetics D. molecular genetics B. pedigree analysis E. recombinant DNA.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.PKU results from a failure to convert tyrosine to phenylalanine.       2.The uptake of neutral amino acids such as leucine, histidine, and valine is inhibited in brain cells of PKU individuals.       3.Hormone therapy, if administered early, is effective in treating genetic goitrous cretinism.       4.All metabolic disorders result in serious phenotypic consequences.       5.An essential amino acid.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.The phenotypic, gonadal, and chromosomal sex are always consistent.       2.Barr bodies are found only in normal males.       3.The fusion of male and female gametes usually occurs in the upper third of the vagina.       4.The chorion develops from the trophoblasts and allows for the exchange of nutrients between embryonic and maternal tissues.       5.The embryo is.
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  11.What actually happens to the blood cells of people with sickle cell anemia that causes the cells to change their shape ("sickle")? A. Polymerization of hemoglobin molecules into long fibers. B. Destruction of the hemoglobin molecules. C. Loss of hemoglobin through leaky cell membranes. D. Attachment of phosphate groups to the hemoglobin molecules. E. Binding of methyl groups to the.
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  COMPLETION   1.X inactivation can lead to ____________________ in females.       2.____________________ equalizes the dosage of functional genes carried on the X chromosome in males and females.       3.The duct between a testis and a seminal vesicle is the ____________________.       4.The ____________________ gene is Y-linked and plays a major role in causing the undifferentiated gonad to develop.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.In translation, unlike DNA replication, the base-pairing rule is not required.       2.After RNA polymerase binds to the promoter sequence and causes the adjacent double-strand DNA to unwind, only one strand can be used as the template for RNA formation.       3.There are three tRNAs with anticodons complementary to stop codons.       4.All the nucleotide sequences.
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    31.One “marker” of an agricultural lifestyle is the high frequency of___________. A.Small pox B.Country concerts C.Caries D.Cholera E.AIDS     32.Paleopathologists also study trauma, which is found most typically in the form of A.Leukemia . B.Arthritis . C.unhealed fractures. D.healed fractures. E.Tendonitis.     33.Skeletal biologists are very much interested in learning how prehistoric peoples behaved and how numerous behaviors influenced their health. In the last.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.A single DNA molecule runs half the length of a human chromosome; the rest of the chromosome consists of protein.       2.In addition to the nucleosome, DNA in a chromosome has several more levels of folding and compaction.       3.Chromatin is an extraction of pure DNA.       4.Chromosome territories do not overlap each other.       5.The 3' end.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.The process of meiosis results in ____. A. the production of four identical cells B. no change in chromosome number from parental cells C. a doubling of the chromosome number D. a reduction in chromosome number E. two diploid cells         2.In the cell cycle, the G2 phase represents ____. A. the stage of DNA synthesis B. splitting of the chromosomes into chromatids C. a period of.
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  True/False Questions   1.Sea ice minimum is the least amount of ice that is present in the arctic in one year.   2.Sea ice maximum is the greatest amount of ice that is present in Antarctica in one year.     3.Holocene is the most recent epoch of the Cenozoic. Following the Pleistocene, it is estimated to.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.All amino acids are characterized by A. an amino group and a peptide bond. B. a carboxyl group and a peptide bond. C. the presence of two R groups. D. an amino group and a carboxyl group. E. none of these.         2.Which one of the following is NOT required for transcription? A. RNA polymerase. B. DNA. C. Uracil nucleotides. D. Ribosomes. E. All of these are needed for transcription.         3.Peptide bonds.
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  COMPLETION   1.Replication in human cells begins at sites called ____________________, present along the chromosome.       2.____________________ proteins function in the packaging of DNA in the chromosome.       3.DNA is made up of a linear array of ____________________.       4.The sugar found in DNA is a ____________________.       5.The unit structure of chromatin is the ____________________, which is made up.
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  COMPLETION   1._______ describes a chromosome that has a centrally-placed centromere.       2.Monosomy for autosomes is lethal in humans. If an aborted male fetus had monosomy for chromosome 6, how would you designate (write) the karyotype? ____________________       3.Due to a chromosome deletion, Timothy is very retarded, both physically and mentally. He also has a severe.
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  COMPLETION   1.There are __________ autosomes present in a human egg.       2.The chromosomal structure that anchors the spindle fiber to the chromosome is ____________________.       3.If a cell was to stop dividing, it would stop in the __________ part of the cell cycle.       4.In mitosis, chromatids separate and move to the center of the cell during .
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    11.The “new” foods types that came along with agriculture and animal domestication, include all, EXCEPT a.Dairy products. b.wheat. c.fruits. d.barley. e.rice       12.The billions of people almost completely dependent on cereal grains mean millions face all, EXCEPT. a.obesity b.malnutrition c.undernutrition d.starvation e.food inequality     13.The instructions that determine which genes are expressed in cells and how, are called a.Menarche b.menopause c.Senescence d.Pleiotropic e.epigenome     14.The most important organs related to hormone.
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  TRUE/FALSE 1.Mendel's laws apply to all sexually reproducing organisms. Therefore, the basic methods of genetic analysis in humans and other organisms is the same. 2.Human traits are controlled only by the genetic material found in the 46 chromosomes. 3.The phenotypes of a trait controlled by the same gene are not always identical. 4.More than.
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    11.A cell in G0 state is a cell ____. A. that will shortly enter G1 B. that never divides C. that has just finished mitosis but has not yet begun cytokinesis D. in cytokinesis E. just after cytokinesis         12.Centromeres are described by all of the following events except one. Select the exception. A. They divide in anaphase of mitosis. B. They connect sister chromatids. C. They attach.
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  11.Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is caused by a _____________. A. bacterium D. protein B. fungus E. lipid C. virus         12.Alkaptonuria is an example of a(n) ________________. A. dominant disorder D. spongiform encephalopathy B. multifactorial disease E. viral-caused mutation C. inborn error of metabolism         13.How many nucleotides form the code for one amino acid? A. 2 D. 5 B. 3 E. 6 C. 4         14.How many codons do not code for any amino acid? A. 0 D. 3 B. 1 E. 4 C. 2         15.If a hypothetical protein is 25 amino acids long, how many nucleotides.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Modern humans beings are the result of a.biocultural evolution. b.accidental fertility. c.genetic engineering. d.Cartesian philosophy. e.planned parenthood.     2._________ and  _________ have allowed us to adapt beyond our biological limits. a.climatic change, extinction of species b.hunting, agriculture c.pollution, habitat loss d.ozone, methane gas e.culture, technology     3.The overwhelming consensus among climate scientists is that global warming is occurring and a.it is a cyclical.
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    11.__________ warmed the earth by trapping heat. a.ultra violet rays b.green house gases c.infrared rays d.solar panels e.polar caskets     12.________ is the most significant contributor to global warming. We currently release 35 billion of this substance into the atmosphere every year. a.O2 b.O3 c.U2 d.H2O e.CO2     13.The study of ______ shows that there is significantly more carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere.
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  COMPLETION   1.In a trait with multiple alleles, an individual carries ____________________ (how many?) alleles of the gene.       2.In a pedigree, the first affected family member seeking medical attention is the ____________________.       3.In a pedigree, a double line connecting a married couple indicates that the man and woman are ____________________.       4.When members of the gene.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The tall and short phenotypes in pea plants are examples of A.polygenic traits. B.continuous traits. C.multifactorial traits. D.discontinuous traits. E.gene interaction. 2.Which of the following is not a characteristic of continuous variation? A.Traits can be quantified by measurement. B.Only a single gene pair contributes to the phenotype. C.The effect of each additive allele is small. D.Phenotypes show wide variation.
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  COMPLETION 1.Scientists are now using an expanded definition of intelligence, beyond IQ, called ____________________. 2.The hormone leptin is produced in ____________________ cells. 3.The correlation coefficient for totally unrelated people is ____________________. 0 4.DZ twins are no more or less genetically similar to each other than ____________________ are. 5.______________ traits are those that result from the interaction.
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  11.During the third trimester, calcium in the mother's diet is used for development of the ____________________.       12.Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is the result of  ____________________.       13.In the uterus, the ____________________ is shed during menstruation.       14.In the male reproductive system, the vas deferens is connected to the urethra by a short tube called the ____________________.       15.The.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Origin of food production a.began  approximately 5,000ya. b.slowed down the pace of cultural change. c.began approximately 10,000ya. d.has caused biological change to be accelerated. e.has caused technological advances to stop.     2.Which of these does NOT reflect the interaction of environment and genes? a.Intelligence. b.Body shape. c.growth. d.height. e.Albinism     3.After birth, growth rates increase and remain fairly rapid for about ______.
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