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Study Resources (Anthropology)

MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.In which of the following does fertilization take place within a woman's body? A. GIFT B. ICSI C. PGD D. IVF E. ZIFT         2.Which one of the following risks is increased by ART? A. Ectopic pregnancies B. Low birth weight C. Multiple births D. Passing on male infertility to sons E. All of these         3.Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is used by couples in which A. the female has blocked oviducts. B. the female has very irregular.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.The number of genes in the human genome is estimated to be between A. 20,000 and 25,000. B. 50,000 and 75,000. C. 150,000 and 200,000. D. 5,000 and 10,000. E. 80,000 and 100,000.         2.The bands on chromosomes correspond to A. gene-poor regions. B. gene-rich regions C. regions where specific proteins attach to the chromosomes. D. regions actively transcribing RNA. E. regions where genes are not transcribing RNA.         3.Which one of the.
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  11.The major obstacle to the use of xenotransplants is overcome by ________________. A. series of injections that depress the immune systems of recipients B. changing genetic markers in humans to make them more receptive C. changing genetic markers in donor animals to make them more compatible with human recipients D. introducing a complement of immune system genes to.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.All chromosomally normal individuals have an equal number of autosomes from each parent.       2.Fragile-X syndrome is an example of a disorder caused by trinucleotide repeats.       3.Some genes with a number of trinucleotide repeats significantly above normal produce a mutant phenotype.       4.Queen Victoria had an allele for alkaptonuria that originated by mutation in one.
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  11.Linus Pauling is credited with work that established ____________________ as the first "molecular disease."       12.The chemical compound that acts as a reactant in an enzyme mediated reaction is called a ____________.       13.In people who have PKU, phenylalanine cannot be converted into the amino acid ____________.       14.The inability to break down galactose is the.
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  11.Which of the following is an incorrect assumption of the Hardy-Weinberg law? A. The population is very small. D. No mutations. B. No selection. E. No migration. C. Random mating.         12.Albinism is a recessive trait controlled by a single gene. If the frequency of albinos in a population is 0.25, what is the expected frequency of heterozygotes for this trait? (Hint:.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.Huntington disease is A. a model of a multifactorial trait, controlled by several genes. B. inherited as an X-linked dominant trait. C. a disease with onset in early childhood. D. one that produces no significant changes in brain cells. E. a model of a single gene defect affecting behavior.         2.Most single gene defects that affect human behavior do so A. as a.
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    TRUE/FALSE   1.The sum total of all the genes in an interbreeding population is the gene pool.       2.For codominant alleles, the frequency of the different phenotypes cannot be used to determine the allele frequencies.       3.Allele frequencies can be used to determine phenotype frequencies.       4.Hardy and Weinberg showed that the allele frequencies in a non-evolving population.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.When a woman is artificially inseminated and surrenders the child to the father and his mate, the woman is both the gestational and the genetic mother.       2.Genetic counseling provides information to allow informed decisions about reproductive choices.       3.No birth control method other than complete abstinence is 100 percent successful.       4.Blocked oviducts can be.
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  COMPLETION   1.Garrod called enzyme defects ____________________.       2.Phenylketonuria is a result of a deficiency of the enzyme ____________________.       3.The molecular defect in sickle cell anemia is known to reside at the position ____________________ of the ____________________ globin       4.Some success has been achieved in efforts to treat sickle cell disease by the process of ____________________.       5.The symptoms.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.The huge diversity of antibody molecules is generated by the shuffling of gene segments in T cells.       2.The MAC system is a group of proteins that supplements the inflammatory response.       3.Lymphocytes are involved in the immune response.       4.Redness, swelling, heat, and pain of an infection are a result of the adaptive immune response.       5.Liver.
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  COMPLETION   1.The ____________________ provides a means of measuring allele frequencies in the population.       2.When applying the Hardy-Weinberg law to a gene with dominant and recessive alleles, calculation of the allele frequencies always begins by writing the frequency of the ____________________ phenotype, then taking the ____________________ of that to obtain the frequency of.
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  11.John and all his brothers have no antibodies caused by non-functional B cells, thus they are highly susceptible to bacterial infections. John and his brothers most likely have a condition called __________________.       12.The ABO blood type that can receive transfusions of any other ABO blood type is ______________.       13.Complement proteins can form.
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  11.What condition has been the target of over half the gene therapy trials performed so far? A. SCIDS B. Cancer C. Cardiovascular disease D. Osteogenesis imperfect E. Diabetes         12.The major cause of male infertility is ________________. A. varicocele D. semen disorders B. undescended testicles E. obstructions C. testicular failure         13.In a woman’s monthly cycle, the hormone _____________ is released when estrogen reaches a peak. A. lutenizing hormone D. testosterone B. oxytocin E. human chorionic gonadotrophin C. progesterone         14.The ART that is employed exclusively.
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  11.For which of the following diseases would animal models likely yield the most information? A. Alcoholism D. Huntington disease B. Schizophrenia E. PKU C. Bipolar disorder         12.What is the underlying molecular cause of Huntington disease? A. The binding of a normal protein to a mutant protein making it cytotoxic. B. Two mutant proteins in combination produce a toxic precipitate. C. Normal proteins fold the wrong way, creating.
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  COMPLETION   1.Gene therapy done to sperm or egg cells, or the cells that produce them, is called ____________________ gene therapy.       2.The most common reason for infertility in women that can be overcome by IVF is ____________________.       3.Most of the problems with gene therapy have been traced to ____________________.       4.In estimating risks for genetic counseling,.
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  COMPLETION   1.The primary risk factor for cancer is ____________________.       2.____________________ genes normally suppress cell divisions.       3.Retinoblastoma occurs only in one eye in patients at a low risk of developing other cancers when the ____________________ form is present.       4.Mutations of the tumor-suppressor gene ____________________ are pivotal in formation of many cancers.       5.Burkitt's lymphoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia,.
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  COMPLETION   1.Transgenic mice carrying a mutant human SOD1 gene are used as models to study ____________________.       2.The FOXP2 gene encodes a transcription factor and has been shown to be important for ______________ development.       3.Amyloid plaques are routinely found in many brains but are much more common in the brains of people who have.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.Which of the following statements about retinoblastoma offers support for the idea that multiple mutations are needed in cancer? A. Noninherited cases involve both eyes and occur later in life. B. Noninherited cases involve both eyes and occur early in life. C. Inherited cases involve one eye and occur early in life. D. Inherited cases involve one.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.DNA tests on remains thought to be those of Czar Nicholas Romanov II of Russia proved the remains were his.       2.Before insulin from recombinant DNA became available, diabetics used insulin dervived from cadavers.       3.Human insulin is produced in transgenic hamster cells.       4.Transgenic hamsters have been created as models of human Huntington’s disease.       5.Bt crops.
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  COMPLETION   1.In genetically altered mice, genes are transferred by injection into ____________________ that are ____________________ into a foster mother.       2.A ____________________ organism is one that carries a gene that has been transferred to it from another species.       3.The first commercial product made with recombinant DNA techniques was ____________________.       4.Hundreds of thousands of vitamin A.
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  COMPLETION   1.The chemical defense system that complements the immune system and supplements the inflammatory response is the ____________________ system.       2.____________________ result from immunological hypersensitivity to what should be harmless substances.       3.The success of organ transplantation depends on matching ____________________ antigens.       4.In treating hemolytic disease of the newborn, attempts are made to destroy ____________________ fetal.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.Since sons adopted by alcoholic men show a rate of alcoholism more like that of their biological father, there is an argument for the role of genetic factors in this disease.       2.All behavioral traits have an early onset.       3.Genome screening with molecular markers is a useful model for studying the genetics of.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.All breast cancers result from a recessively inherited gene that suppresses cell division.       2.Specific aneuploidies are associated with various cancers.       3.Myelogenous leukemia is caused by a mutant tumor-suppressing gene.       4.Products of tumor-suppressor genes act at control points in the cell cycle.       5.The ras gene is an example of a tumor-suppressing gene.       6.While oncogenes are responsible.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.In pedigree analysis, it is easiest to identify the individual most likely to be the source of the mutation if the mutation is A. mitochondrial. B. recessive. C. autosomal dominant. D. sex-linked recessive. E. pseudoautosomal.         2.Which of the following does NOT affect the mutation rate of a gene? A. The size of the gene. B. The number of GC pairs versus AT pairs. C. Whether the.
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  11.If a mutant allele appears in a family with no history of that disorder and is fully expressed by everyone carrying that allele, it most like is a ______________ allele. A. autosomal dominant D. Y-linked B. autosomal recessive E. mitochondrial C. X-linked recessive         12.Julie has pigmented spots and tumors on her skin and nervous system. It is determined the disease Julie.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.Overall, genes are unevenly distributed along their chromosomes.       2.The goal of pharmacogenetics is to identify genes related to human diseases.       3.The number of proteins produced by the human genome is significantly less than the number of genes it contains.       4.Genes in other species are useful for finding genes in the human genome.       5.The Human.
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  11.The anticancer drug Gleevec works by blocking the ____________________-binding site of a protein, which would otherwise activate a signal protein to induce cell division.       12.A cellular molecular pathway by which an external signal is converted into a functional response is called ________________.       13.BRCA1 and BRCA2 are inherited in a ______________ fashion.       14.An autosomal.
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  11.A branch of genomics that generates three-dimensional structures from their amino acid sequences is _____________. A. bioinformatics D. pharmacogenomics B. comparative genomics E. proteomics C. structural genomics         12.Which of the following methods uses gene cloning and genomic libraries? A. Whole genome sequencing D. More than one of these B. Map-based sequencing E. None of these C. DNA base sequencing         13.Which of the following sequences indicates the promoter region of a gene? A. CAAT D. ACAT B. UAAG E. TAAC C. CTTT         14.Approximately what.
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`MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.Typically, to grow transgenic plants, the vector with the inserted gene is A. an egg cell. B. a pollen cell. C. a pollen cell that is then fused with an egg cell. D. plant cell that is then cultured to produce a whole plant. E. all of these techniques are widely used.         2.In DNA profiles A. the bands are derived from variation.
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  COMPLETION   1.____________________ are mutations involving the increase of the number of repeat sequences in genes.       2.The appearance of symptoms of a genetic disorder at earlier ages in succeeding generations is ____________________.       3.Addition or deletion of a nucleotide in a gene causes a type of mutation called a ____________________.       4.Chemicals that resemble base pairs and.
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  TRUE/FALSE   1.Southern blotting is a technique for analyzing DNA.       2.Plasmids are short sequences of DNA used as primers in PCR.       3.Plasmids are self-replicating single stranded fragments of eukaryotic DNA.       4.Restriction enzymes recognize and cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences.       5.DNA polymerase is used in the polymerase chain reaction.       6.Recombinant vectors are often propagated in bacterial cells.       7.The.
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  11.A method used to link genetic markers with specific genes on chromosomes is called _____________.       12.The scientific field of ______________ uses computers to store, analyze, visualize, and access genomic sequence data.       13.The scientific field of study that analyzes genes and proteins to identify targets for therapeutic drugs is ___________________.       14.Distances on genetic maps.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.Why is it easy to measure allele frequencies in a codominant allele system? A. Such systems are rare. B. Phenotypes are equivalent to genotypes. C. Most alleles are present in homozygous condition. D. They are present in a 1:2:1 ratio in all populations. E. None of these is true.         2.Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg mathematically proved that as time goes.
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  MATCHING   Match the chromosome identified by postional cloning with the disorder it is associated with. A. 4 E. 16 B. 5 F. 17 C. 7 G. 19 D. 11 H. X     1.Neurofibromatosis   2.Cystic fibrosis   3.Huntington disease   4.Myotonic dystrophy   5.Wilms tumor   6.Polycystic kidney disease   7.Familial polyposis   8.Duchenne muscular dystrophy       .
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  COMPLETION   1.Within the Human Genome Project, the program named ____________________ considers how the project affects individuals and society.       2.The Human Genome Project was responsible for discovery of a new class of mutation, the ____________________.       3.The first evidence of linkage between human genes was for two genes found to be located on ____________________.       4.The techniques.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.Restriction enzymes A. cut only single-stranded DNA molecules. B. can cut randomly along a double-stranded DNA molecule. C. cut DNA molecules at specific sites. D. cut only single-stranded RNA molecules. E. function in DNA replication.         2.Cloning by embryo splitting A. uses an unfertilized egg as the starting point. B. does not require the use of a host uterus. C. cannot be used for cloning human embryos. D. is.
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  11.Embryonic stem cells derived from blastocysts are called pluripotent because they ________. A. are viable under a wide range of laboratory conditions B. can form most cells, tissues, and organs of the human body C. can form all cells, tissues, and organs of the human body D. are viable under a wide range of laboratory conditions and can.
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  11.The idea that H. erectus populations in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia all collectively interbred and evolved into H. sapiens is called the ____________________ hypothesis.       12.The out-of-Africa model states that Homo sapiens arose from a single population in Africa about ____________________ years ago.       13.Hemophilia is an X-linked trait caused by the.
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  COMPLETION   1.In recombinant DNA technology, _________ are used to cut DNA at specific sites.       2.In DNA sequencing, the different sized fragments created are separated from each other by ____________________.       3.Linked DNA segments from humans and vectors, such as plasmids, are called ____________________ molecules.       4.In Southern blotting, DNA fragments on filters must be ____________________ so.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.Which one of the following is typically attacked by the antibody-mediated response, not the cell-mediated response? A. Bacterial cells B. Protozoan cells C. Cancer cells D. Fungal cells E. Virus-infected cells         2.Circulating antibodies are produced by A. all cells in the immune system. B. phagocytes alone. C. B cells. D. T cells alone. E. macrophages.         3.According to the current theory of antibody formation A. gene clusters are identical in all antibody-forming cells. B. antibody gene.
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  11.Which of the following is a characteristic of all cancers? A. Uncontrolled cell division B. Metastasis C. Rapid proliferation D. Uncontrolled cell division and metastasis only E. All of these are characterisitic of all cancers         12.The more cells divide, the more chances for a cancer to develop. Which of the following cells is most likely to give rise to a cancer? A. Egg.
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  11.Compared to the average cow’s milk production, how many times greater was Blackrose II’s milk production? A. 2 times D. 5 times B. 3 times E. 10 times C. 4 times         12.Nuclear transfer is a preferred method of cloning over embryo splitting because it ________. A. is less technical B. is more natural C. results in more clones D. is possible to produce male and female offspring from the.
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