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Study Resources (Anthropology)

  1.The Stanford prison study demonstrates how a person’s ________ affect(s) behavior. a.beliefs b.values c.role d.past experience 2.A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent is called: a.cognitive dissonance. b.the fundamental attribution error. c.the validity effect. d.deindividuation. 3.The familiarity effect is the tendency of people to: a.be unable to distinguish between actual experiences.
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31.When we make situational attributions, we are identifying the cause of an action as something: a.in the environment. b.in the person’s disposition. c.that is a biological trait. d.in the unconscious. 32.According to attribution theory, the explanations we give for our behavior and the behavior of others generally fall into two categories: a.dispositional and situational. b.environmental and situational. c.mental.
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41.After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of a rat, Watson and Rayner wanted to see how he would react to a rabbit, cotton wool, and a Santa Claus mask. They were studying whether or not _______________ had occurred. a.extinction b.stimulus generalization c.counterconditioning d.stimulus discrimination 42.A variation of the counterconditioning procedure developed by.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 224   A.Name the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response               in these two situations: 1.Five-year-old Emily is watching a storm from her window. A huge bolt of lightning is followed by                             a tremendous thunderclap, and Emily jumps at the noise. This happens.
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21. Humans are biologically primed to associate sickness with tastes more readily than with sights. 22. Humans are biologically primed to be especially susceptible to certain kinds of acquired fears. 23. Stimulus generalization has occurred if a child learns to fear spiders and then responds to beetles and               caterpillars with.
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81.A(n) ________ stimulus signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence. a.extinguished b.discriminative c.standard d.neutral 82.In operant conditioning, the tendency of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of another similar stimulus that differs from it on some dimension.
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11. Explain the term “deindividuation” and how it affects people. Is the effect on behavior always the same, or can it vary? 12. What is meant by the term ethnocentrism? Give one example to illustrate this term. 13. What important positive role do stereotypes play in human thinking? 14. The philosopher Hannah Arendt,.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. In Chapter 6, we learned that some taste preferences (such as a liking for sweets) are universal—a part of our evolutionary heritage. Others are a matter of culture. When Thurston attends a dinner at a Japanese restaurant, he is fascinated as the chef prepares.
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  11. In variations of Stanley Milgram’s study of obedience, people’s behaviors were not influenced by whether the person giving orders appeared to be “ordinary” or appeared to be a scientist. 12. According to Stanley Milgram, willingness to obey an authority is tied to the personalities of the participants rather than being.
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  21.In the Stanford prison study, male college students agreed to participate in a two-week experiment to discover what would happen when they took on the roles of prisoners and guards. The researchers found that: a.within a short time the prisoners became distressed and felt helpless, developing emotional symptoms and physical ailments. b.about five.
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  41. Most individuals do not show evidence of reflective judgment until their ________, if at all. a.teen years b.middle to late twenties c.early to middle thirties d.late thirties to early forties 42.The ________ involves consulting one’s emotions instead of estimating probabilities objectively. a.availability heuristic b.affect heuristic c.framing effect d.hindsight bias 43.Gertrude voted “yes” on a ballot question about whether convicted.
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  71.Research suggests that you are more likely to: a.feel deindividuated in a small town. b.feel deindividuated when wearing a uniform. c.feel combative rather than kind when feeling deindividuated. d.demonstrate mindlessness when feeling deindividuated. 72.When people are in large crowds and anonymous situations: a.they conform to the situation’s specific norms. b.they become mindless and no longer conform to.
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4. Solomon Asch, in his experiments testing conformity, wanted to know what people would do when a group unanimously contradicted an obvious fact. What was found in Asch’s studies and in the many replications of his work? 5. Dissent and altruism are a matter of personal conviction, but situational factors are.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. Evolutionary psychologists note that humans are primed to be susceptible to certain kinds of acquired fears. Explain why this would be adaptive. 2. Louis is a 3-year-old who is deathly afraid of sitting in cars ever since he was in a mild car accident. He enjoys ice pops.
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  61.________ is an inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from               experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment. a.Intelligence b.Dissonance c.Intelligence quotient d.Mental age 62.________ is defined as a general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and.
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6. What is the distinction between primary and secondary reinforcers? 7. Highlight the differences between positive and negative reinforcement. 8. Harry and Sally want their cat to jump through a hoop 3 feet off the ground. Because the cat would never spontaneously jump through the hoop on its own, what operant.
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  True-False Questions 1. Learning is defined in the textbook as a relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) due to experience. 2. Social-cognitive learning theorists argue that omitting mental processes from explanations of human learning is essential in maintaining a rigorous scientific approach. 3. The social-cognitive learning theory accounts for behavior.
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  1.A ________ is an integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world. a.proposition b.cognitive heuristic c.cognitive schema d.prototype 2.A(n) ________ process occurs outside of conscious awareness, but is accessible to consciousness when necessary. a.unconscious b.subconscious c.nonconscious d.preconscious 3.Which of the following statements is true of formal reasoning? a.In formal reasoning, the information needed.
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61.The members of Ike’s fraternity think spending the entire activity fund for the cultural fest is reasonable. Ike does not think this is a good idea but he decides to keep quiet rather than offend his fraternity brothers and risk being ridiculed. This scenario illustrates a symptom of: a.groupthink. b.deindividuation. c.the diffusion of.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. In the textbook’s first chapter, we read about the critical thinking principles “Don’t Oversimplify” and “Consider Other Interpretations.” How do these guidelines relate to social psychology with regard to attribution, especially when encounters occur with those from other cultures? 2. One common form of oversimplification.
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  51.As part of the indoctrination process used by terrorist groups and cults, as soon as a person is a committed believer, the leader is most likely to: a.  allow them more choices than before. b.  encourage private doubts. c.  encourage contact with family members. d.  denigrate critical thinking. 52.According to your textbook, the need to.
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  101.Being severely physically punished in childhood is a risk factor for which of the following? a.depression and autism b.depression, aggression, and low self-esteem c.ADHD and aggression d.ADHD and depression 102.Tim yells at his daughter Allison for soiling her pants. He also threatens to spank her if she ever does it again. Next week, she soils.
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41. Altruism is the willingness to take selfless or dangerous action on behalf of others. 42. In Asch’s conformity experiment, the presence of one other person who gave the correct answer was enough to overcome agreement with the majority. 43. The belief that one’s own ethnic group, nation, or religion is superior.
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11.A ________ is an integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world. a.proposition b.cognitive heuristic c.cognitive schema d.prototype 12.A mental image is: a.a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents. b.a mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties. c.a unit.
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41.Garret has a tendency to take credit for his good actions, but he attributes his mistakes to factors beyond his control. This is an example of: a.the fundamental attribution error. b.the validity effect. c.the just-world hypothesis. d.the self-serving bias. 42.According to the just-world hypothesis, people tend to believe that: a.a person’s actions are just if they.
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  51.The day after the election, Josephine says that she knew all along who the winner would be. Although it is possible that she had some special insight into the election, it is more likely that Josephine is: a.avoiding loss. b.exhibiting confirmation bias. c.exaggerating the improbable. d.exhibiting hindsight bias. 52.The tendency to look for or pay.
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31. A negative reinforcer makes a response more likely to reoccur. 32. A negative reinforcement is a type of punishment. 33. Quarters spilling from a slot machine would be secondary reinforcers. 34. In operant conditioning, extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus. 35. A.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. Before conducting his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram asked a number of psychiatrists, students, and other adults to predict how many people they thought would deliver shocks at the highest levels. What predictions did they make? 2. What criticisms have been raised regarding Milgram’s comparison of his study.
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  True-False Questions 1.When people observe that a social norm has been violated, they are more likely to violate it themselves. 2. Rules that regulate human life, including explicit laws and implicit cultural conventions, are called situational attributions. 3. A norm is a given social position that is governed by a set of rules.
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  Essay Questions 1. In classical conditioning procedures, it is sometimes possible for higher-order conditioning to occur. Describe the research on higher-order conditioning in which slugs were the research subjects. 2. What is the difference between the traditional Pavlovian approach and the contemporary view on what is actually learned in classical conditioning? 3..
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11. Extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus. 12. Counterconditioning occurs when a learned response reoccurs after its apparent extinction. 13. Operant conditioning occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the 14. Higher-order conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes.
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  31. Informal reasoning involves: a. using algorithms. b. finding a single correct answer. c. nonconscious responding. d. dialectical reasoning. 32.Dialectical reasoning involves: a.comparing and evaluating opposing points of view in order to determine the best solution. b.drawing conclusions from a set of observations or premises. c.generalizing from past experience. d.using an algorithm to solve a problem. 33._____________ is usually the.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1. Based on the powers of thought and intelligence, human beings are called homo sapiens, which translates as: a.rational man. b.creative man. c.anthropomorphic man. d.anthropocentric man. 2. A mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties is called a(n): a.mental set. b.concept. c.algorithm. d.prototype. 3.Which of the following statements defines basic concepts? a.They are.
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71.Elton’s mother has been nagging that he should practice at the piano for the upcoming competition. Elton eventually complies to stop her nagging. This example illustrates _______________. a.positive punishment b.negative punishment c.positive reinforcement d.negative reinforcement 72.Mary arrives home to find her son washing the dirty dishes left from his party the night before. When she.
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  11.Before Stanley Milgram conducted the obedience study, he surveyed several psychiatrists, students, and middle-class adults as to how many people they predicted would go all the way to the highest voltage under the instructions of the authority. Milgram’s survey found that: a.psychiatrists accurately predicted that about 45 percent of the participants.
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  21. ________ refers to mental inflexibility, inertia, and obliviousness to the present context. a.Implicit learning b.Multitasking c.Automatic processing d.Mindlessness 22.Harriet purchases a cupboard for her kitchen. She assembles the cupboard by following a series of steps illustrated in the instruction manual. Which type of problem-solving strategy has Harriet adopted? a.algorithmic b.heuristic c.multitasking d.intuitive 23.Catherine’s grandmother says that if Catherine follows the.
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1. Culture can be defined as a program of shared ________ that govern the behavior of people in a society as well as a set of shared values and beliefs. a.social roles b.rules or norms c.expectations d.cognitions 2.Who conducted the “obedience study” in which an authority figure commanded participants to violate their ethical standards? a.Solomon Asch b.Stanley.
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  81.The Robbers Cave experiment showed that: a.playing athletic games, such as football and baseball, reduces us-them hostility. b.watching movies together, and similar quiet interactions, reduces us-them hostility. c.engaging in mutually exciting activities, such as tug or war, reduces us-them hostility. d.interdependence in reaching mutual goals reduces us-them hostility. 82.One way in which stereotypes can distort.
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51.Which of the following statements reflects the difference between classical and operant conditioning? a.In classical conditioning, the response is reflexive, but in operant conditioning it is typically more complex. b.In classical conditioning, spontaneous recovery can occur, but in operant conditioning it doesn’t. c.In classical conditioning, the consequence of a response is important, but.
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  Essay Questions 1. The obedience study conducted by Stanley Milgram has become world famous. Explain, in detail, the procedures that Milgram used in his study and then evaluate his results. What conclusions did Milgram reach? How have critics reacted to his research? 2. Describe the two general types of attributions people use.
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  31.One of the most powerful weapons that groups have to insure their members’ cooperation and to weed out               disruptive members is rejection or permanent banishment. 32. Solomon Asch designed his famous conformity studies in order to see what people would do when a group unanimously contradicted an obvious fact. 33. In.
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21. The just-world hypothesis leads to a dispositional attribution called “blaming the victim.” 22.Most people are overly pessimistic about their own abilities, competence, and other good qualities. 23. An attitude is a belief about people, groups, ideas, or activities. 24. Cognitive dissonance is a state of tension that occurs when a person’s belief.
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  1.________ are the rules that regulate social life within a culture. a.Norms b.Roles c.Routines d.Stereotypes 2.Explicit laws and implicit cultural conventions are both examples of: a.norms. b.roles. c.routines. d.stereotypes. 3.Donald enters an elevator and stands in it, facing the back instead of turning around to face the elevator door. Donald is violating: a.his gender role. b.a social role. c.a norm. d.a stereotype. 4.Who conducted the.
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61.Which of the following statements is true of reinforcers? a.A primary reinforcer may be ineffective if the person is not in a deprived state. b.A secondary reinforcer is less effective than a primary reinforcer in controlling behavior. c.Money is a powerful primary reinforcer. d.Comfortable air temperature would be an example of an effective.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 262 1. About what proportion of the people in Milgram’s obedience study administered the highest level of shock? a.two-thirds b.one-half c.one-third d.one-tenth 2.Which of the following actions by the “learner” reduced the likelihood of being shocked by the “teacher” in Milgram’s study? a.protesting noisily b.screaming in pain c.complaining of having a heart ailment d.nothing he.
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