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    11.Which of the following is an example of a highly gender-inflected society in Amazonia?   A)Tukano B)Santo Domingo C)Tule D)New Caledonia     12.Studies among the Yanömamo suggest all of the following except:   A)intense male competition B)high status attached to polyandry C)importance of women for solidifying trading alliances D)presence of a marked sex imbalance     13.The Cashinahua of Peru exhibit:   A)male-female cooperation, complementarity, matrilocality, and.
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    1.11. How many examples of psychic effects that are repeatable under controlled laboratory conditions have been demonstrated in the 20th century, per year? (a) only one (b) dozens (c) hundreds (d) thousands (e) none of the above   1.12.  An essential aspect of science is the attitude that (a)authorities should be consulted on scientific issues (b)public observations must be.
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    11.What is the “hot-cold dichotomy” of foods?   A)the attribution of gender qualities to specific foods B)a thermal state associated with non-indigenous foods only C)a symbolic temperature state that is associated with seasonal changes D)the attribution of specific qualities to foods believed to effect overall health     12.According to Matthews, each of the following are dimensions commonly.
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    11.Which of the following is the least reliable indicator of indigenous identity?   A)DNA B)group associations C) cultural affiliations D) self-identity     12.What is one of the greatest challenges that Latin American and Caribbean people face when migrating to the United States?   A)understanding culture in the United States B)communicating in their neighborhoods C)creating an entirely new identity D)finding employment     13.What did.
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    21.Many of the indigenist demands undermine the creation of a homogeneous national citizenry.     22.In the EZLN, women of Chiapas are able to serve as part of the indigenous military.     23.Intellectual property rights are strictly related to indigenous rights in Latin America.     24.“Latino” is an ethnic category in the United States.     25.Drug-trafficking, crime, and violence.
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  1.A child born to Indian and Spanish parents was classified in the early colonial period as a:   A)mestizo B)mulato C)moreno D)gazulo     2.Hypergamy can best be described as:   A)a policy in which it is more acceptable for lower-class women to engage in sexual relations with men of higher socio-economic ranks than vice versa B)a policy in which it.
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5.1.  The “starlike bodies” seen by early scientists who looked at the nervous system were (a) synapses (b) neurons (c) axons and dendrites (d) none of the above   5.2.  The “pellucid threads” seen by early scientists who looked at nervous system were (a) synapses (b) neurons (c) axons and dendrites (d) none of the above   **5.3.  The specific part of a nerve.
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    31.Using the exampl of liquichado from the Andes, discuss the challenges that patients face when choosing whether to seek biomedical or ethnomedical treatments.     32.Discuss why immigrants, such as Haitians in the early 1980s and Puerto Ricans at the beginning of the 20th century, became stigmatized with labels such as “diseased” and.
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  1.When did the direct conquest of Mexico, Mesoamerica, and South America by the Spanish and Portuguese begin?   A)before Columbus arrived B)during Columbus’s 3rd voyage C)after Columbus’s 4th voyage D)after Columbus’s 5th voyage     2.Which of the following was not a primary wave of Spanish exploration and expedition?   A)through the northern Orinoco river basin area B)westward into Panama and.
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1. In the opening quotation, Stephen J. Gould, a prominent biologist and author of numerous books about science, calls for (a)compromises with conceptual richness (b)no bypassing of ignorance (c)no bypassing of ambiguity (d)removal of jargon (e)all of these except A   2. Psychology has established some principles that fly in the face of common sense, yet are.
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    1.Illegitimate or illegal state violence against citizens is called:   A)genocide B)ethnocide C)dirty war D)structural violence     2.In areas such as Nicaragua and El Salvador, each of the following contributed to the increase in economic disparity and repression so evident in the 1970s except:   A)cattle B)coffee C)cotton D)rice     3.Which country most opposed the Sandinista victory in Nicaragua?   A)United States B)Spain C)Mexico D)Honduras     4.One of the most significant.
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    11.Recent research on the Maya now suggests that:   A)all Maya kingdoms suddenly collapsed throughout the area B)soils associated with the Maya agricultural areas show no evidence of intensification C)Maya population was not as high as originally projected D)there was not a general collapse of all Maya kingdoms     12.Which of the following represent core social units.
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  1.What is meant by eating “Salvadoran style”?   A)eating with family and relatives B)eating festival foods C)using tortillas to scoop up food D)eating in a squatting position     2.Each of the following was an important domesticated crop of Mesoamerica except:   A)potatoes B)corn C)squash D)chili peppers     3.Among the following European crops, which was the least well received by indigenous peoples?   A)fava beans B)barley C)oats D)wheat     4.What is feijoada?   A)a.
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  2.11.  Mrs. Kelly notices that her child, Robin, does less homework as she watches more TV.   A proper inference for her to draw is that (a)watching TV causes less homework to be done (b)Robin’s TV watching is positively correlated with the amount of    homework done (c) Robin’s TV watching is negatively correlated with the.
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    1.21. Mendel's work is regarded as great science.  His work shows that scientists  (a)  must never speculate about things that they cannot observe directly (b)  must use complex mathematics to be seen as making great advances (c)  often work in large research groups and under intense pressure to publish first (d)  sometimes make.
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  1.Which of the following aided the Spanish proselytizers least in the spread of Christianity?   A)monotheism B)destruction of indigenous temples C)replacing indigenous festival dates with Catholic ones D)indoctrination using an array of European deities     2.Popular Catholicism is best described as:   A)a fusion of medieval Catholicism and diverse indigenous and African traditions B)a fusion of modern Catholicism with medieval.
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2.1. Correlational research involves making _____ and looking for relationships among them. (a)  hypotheses (b) theories (c) measurements (d) assumptions (e)  constraints on one’s beliefs   2.2. Which of these relationships could be assessed most directly by a coefficient of correlation? (a)between a husband and wife (b)how similar a brother is to his sister (c)between the philosophies of Plato and.
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    11.Which of the following dance/music has been most widespread in Latin America?   A)jazz B)reggae C)tango D)salsa     12.One of the outcomes of the popularity of telenovelas has been:   A)a decrease in political corruption and crime B)the intensification of a pan-Hispanic/Latino identity C)an increase in development programs in Latin America D)higher standards of morality in Latin America     13.Which best describes the quinceañera?   A)a.
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  1.Most non-anthropological studies of popular cultures have focused on:   A)celebrations B)texts C)music D)television     2.The “Soccer War” in 1969 was between:   A)Peru and Ecuador B)El Salvador and Honduras C)Brazil and Argentina D)Nicaragua and Mexico     3.What was the primary cause of the “Soccer War”?   A)intense sports rivalry between neighboring countries B)religious unrest and demographic pressure C)demographic pressure and migration D)political corruption and economic devastation     4.The barras bravas.
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    11.What was the first independent nation-state in Latin America?   A)Haiti B)Peru C)Mexico D)Cuba     12.Historical processes of ethnic formation are called:   A)ethnic resistance B)ethnocentrism C)ethnogenesis D)ethnohistory     13.All of the following are important colonial legacies in Latin American and Caribbean societies except:   A)enclave economies B)political inequality C)syncretic cultures D)racial homogeneity   14.Which of the following statements is most accurate?   A)The colonial legacy left a unified and rapidly-developing region. B)Colonialism permanently.
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    21.By the late 1980s, more than 10% of Latin America’s population identified itself as non-Catholic.     22.Religious conversion is often a highly gendered process.     23.Actually, there is no such thing as “problem drinking” in Latin America.     24.The most important supernatural beings in the Afro-Latin religions are the intermediaries between mortals and creator gods.     25.Candomblé, santería.
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    26.Define cultural complexity.       28.Describe the characteristics of the Horizon phase of development.     30.What are the “major dimensions” of Mesoamerican religion?         31.Compare and contrast bands and tribes.                 .
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  1.All of the following are premises associated with medical anthropology except:   A)healing systems must be culturally appropriate B)illness is best understood as a function of biology and culture C)diseases occur regardless of socio-political circumstances D)the human body and symptoms should be interpreted through culture     2.The culturally-specific medical systems of non-Western societies are also called:   A)ethnomedicine B)medical anthropology C)traditional.
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    21.Terms such as “homosexual” and “bisexual” are cross-cultural identities.     22.Sex wars occur throughout Latin America.     23.Male violence against women is extremely rare among the Yanömamo.     24.A multisited ethnography is a study that is carried out in multiple locations.     25.Migration creates culture change.         26.What are three primary sources that scholars in the Andes and Mexico use.
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    11.Which area has suffered the most devastating losses of forest cover due to deforestation in the past decade?   A)Mesoamerica B)Central America C)Amazonia D)Andean region     12.An approach that stresses conflictive relationships between members of different social categories with unequal access to productive resources and economic and political power is called:   A)political economy B)political ecology C)systemic violence D)gendered global division of.
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  1.The way in which physical desires and practices toward others are shaped, internalized, challenged, and practiced by men and women is called:   A)gender B)sexuality C)gender division of labor D)sexual parallelism     2.Spanish colonial gender ideologies were based on the notion of:   A)honor B)legitimacy C)power D)courage     3.All of the following contributed to the diminution of women’s status and autonomy in the nineteenth.
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  Questions 3.19 through 3.22 refer to the following scenario.   Suppose an investigator was interested in the analgesic (pain reducing) qualities of a new drug.  Call it PainAway.  The investigator solicits a group of people to serve as subjects via advertisements calling for people who suffer from headache.  After obtaining medical evaluations,.
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  21.Nervios is a folk illness in Latin America.     22.Children are far more susceptible to susto than adults.     23.Shamans are healers.     24.Ayahuasca ceremonies usually take place at first light in the morning.     25.Coca consumption is a key element of Andean health.       26.What is critical m dical anthropology?       30.Give at least four uses of coca in the Andes.         .
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  5.11. The firing of a neuron is called a/n (a) synapse (b) action potential (c) axonal eruption (d) dendritic event   5.12.  An action potential occurs: (a)when positively charged particles flow into a neuron and then quickly   flow back out (b)when negatively charged particles flow into a neuron and then quickly   flow back out (c)when positively charged particles flow.
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    1.1.  Science is a way of ______ beliefs. (a)  proving (b) constraining (c)  stating (d) making it unnecessary to have   1.2. The structure of DNA was discovered by (a)  Charles Darwin (b)  Gregor Mendel (c)  Watson and Crick (d)  Phineas Parallax   1.3.  In order to be scientific, a proposition must be (a)  potentially falsifiable (b)  proven true (c)  expressed mathematically (d)  demonstrated by a.
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Questions 3.1 through 3.6 refer to the following scenario.  Where the number 3.1 appears in the scenario, question 3.1 provides the choices for the term that, when filled in, will make that sentence correct, and so on.   Suppose we are interested in whether aspirin lowers the risk of heart attack.  We.
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    I.1. There are two broad classes of psychological research: (a)  internal and external (b) direct and indirect (c)  behavioral and nonbehavioral (d) experimental and correlational (e)  theories and hypotheses   I.2.  Sir Karl Popper is known for his ideas concerning the role of ______ in science, a concept related closely to the idea of letting evidence constrain.
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      21.Many colonial practices survive today in contemporary Latin America, reinterpreted and culturally reframed to meet the challenges of today.     22.African slaves were not the primary source of labor for mines in Mexico and Bolivia.     23.One of the best-known examples of a maroon society is Palmares in Brazil.     24.The Garifuna are a contemporary maroon.
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    11.The Afro-Latin religious traditions coalesced primarily during the:   A)16th and 17th centuries B) 17th and 18th centuries C) 18th and 19th centuries D) 19th and 20th centuries     12.The Afro-Latin religious tradition is associated primarily with:   A)the upper class B)recent migrants from African countries C)the working class D)the poor and disenfranchised     13.The reconstitution of novel, often Yoruba-dominated, religious traditions.
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  3.11. Which is not a limitation of the experimental method? (a)it cannot be used for some important questions (b)in the world, things are all correlated rather than having "other" things held constant (c)causal inferences cannot be made from experimental data (d)there is, in most experiments, just a single situation     3.12. The measure of the behavior of.
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  I.11. X and Y may covary because (a)X causes Y (b)Y causes X (c)both X and Y are caused by some third factor (d)any or all of the above     I.12. If all we know is that watching a lot of televised violence is correlated positively with the tendency to behave aggressively, then we could conclude that (a)people.
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    21.Tens of thousands of civilians were “diappeared” in Argentina during the 1970s.     22.A high-ranking female combatant led the initial EZLN assault on San Cristóbal de Las Casas.     23.The current stalemate in Chiapas is political and not military.     24.Cultural anthropologists long predicted the rise of indigenous guerilla movements in late twentieth century Peru.     25.The 1992.
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  1.Each of the following terms has been used to describe globalization except:   A)shifting world B)decompression of time and space C)global ecumene D)deterritorialization     2.The belief that the unregulated market is a far better regulator of economic (and social and cultural) life than the state is called:   A)neoliberalism B)globalization C)globalized labor D)cultural negotiation     3.Which of the following is not a major hallmark.
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  4.21. What position does the text take on the question of whether human beings have “instincts?” (a)the term used to be used for human beings but it is now clear that there is                 no such thing as instinctual behavior in humans (b)people have instincts but American psychologists attribute everything to learning (c)people.
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  4.11. Some robins reproduce.  Some don’t.  How does one explain this? (a)chance (b)they differ in ways that make some better suited to the environment than others (c)the surviving ones are bigger, and larger organisms are always fitter than smaller ones (d)both A and B are factors   4.12. A robin that is more likely to reproduce than another.
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    21.In Brazil, feij o with meat is believed to increase sexual potency.     22.National cuisines are very stable and do not change frequently.     23.Cuisines now in Belize considered “authentic” or “traditional” represent largely an inversion of the colonial hierarchy of taste and cuisine.     24.Although there is some discrepancy on whether one food is hot.
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**4.1.  When speaking of evolution, the term "fitness" refers to (a)  an increase in the amount of DNA (b) a decrease in one’s gene pool (c)  increased reproductive success (d) increased strength and size   4.2. Biological fitness is defined ultimately in terms of (a)  strength (b)  size (c)  aggressiveness (d)  reproductive  success   4.3. The theory that important aspects of behavior.
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    21.Salsa is a Caribbean creation.     22.Telenovelas, as a genre, date from the late 1960s and early 1970s.     23.Quinceañera is celebrated by indigenous and urban women throughout Latin America.     24.According to the Catholic Church, the quinceaña celebration is an extension of baptism.     25.The quinceañera feast drains all social and economic resources from the poorer families.
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    11.What is a “topographical-hydraulic model” of health?   A)a model that relates the anatomy and physiology of the body to a sociogeographical space B)a model that relates sickness to development and culture change C)a model that relates emotions and physical state with environmental policies D)a model found among indigenous peoples that relates the body to.
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    21.Some itinerant Mexican farmworkers are in the United States legally.     22.Maquiladoras are found in Mexico only.     23.In the Amazon area the colonial practice of shifting cultivation was the prime cause of the deforestation witnessed today.     24.A prime cause of the recent deforestation suffered in Central America is due to demand for export goods.
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  1.31. Which of these beliefs has little or no scientific support? (a)punishment is a broadly effective means of controlling behavior (b)intelligence tests don’t really measure anything important (c)money buys happiness (d)many people have “paranormal” abilities such as ESP (e)all are on the list of fundamentally incorrect beliefs   1.32. Suppose a physician were to give you an.
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    11.In an effort to gain control over the rising violence in Colombia, elite landowners and wealthy individuals created:   A)An army-air force unified front B)counter-terrorism organizations C)paramilitary organizations D)new military and civilian posts     12.All of the following were catalysts in the Zapatista struggle except:   A)1994 privatization of indigenous communal lands B)failure of neoliberal reforms for indigenous peoples in.
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