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Study Resources (Anthropology)

**20.1.  Which of these is a heuristic that involves judging how probable something is by how similar an instance is to a more general category? (a)availability (b)representativeness (c) constructivism (d)  confirmation bias (e) chunking   20.2. A procedure that guarantees the correct answer to a problem, if used correctly, is called (a)a heuristic (b)representativeness (c)availability (d)an algorithm (e)a base rate procedure   20.3. A.
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Questions 12.1 - 12.7 are based on the following description.   In a classroom demonstration, the instructor raps the desk with a ruler and immediately fires a starter’s pistol.  The students wince and show a startle response to the gunshot.  The sequence is repeated several times, and many students begin to show.
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  8.21. The essential stimulus for touch is (a)deforming of the skin by mechanical pressure (b)contact with the so-called “hair cells” under the skin (c)the vestibular system cells (VSCs) (d)none of the above   8.22.A disorder of touch that makes blindfolded people unable to identify objects, such as a comb or a key, placed in their hand.
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  Questions 12.8 - 12.14 are based on the following description.   Suppose a researcher arranges for a small puff of air to be blown onto the eye of a person, which causes an involuntary reflex eyeblink.  Associated with the puff of air is a light that comes on.  The light is not.
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  IV.11.   The idea that the formation of associations is a key to learning is (a)new - Skinner is among those introducing the idea (b)20th century - Pavlov originated it (c)historical - Plato, Hume and Locke wrote on it (d)still hotly debated   IV.12. Your high school chemistry teacher consistently yelled at you and made you feel.
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  19.11. Which of these bits of advice would be consistent with Bryan & Harter’s work with the learning of Morse code? (a)don’t sweat the small stuff (b)work first on the BIG PICTURE (c)make lower order skills into automatic habits (d)take advantage of prepared learning   19.12. In Chase & Simon’s research on memory for chess positions,.
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  24.11.  Which is the least likely pairing in an incestuous relationship? (a)uncle, niece (b)father, daughter (c)adults who are not related but who had been reared together in a kibbutz (d)all are equally likely   24.12.  The text shows some pictures of rats in various kinds of cages, varying in the complexity of the rats’ environments.  This research.
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  **15.11. The word “generalize” is used in different, but related, ways by psychologists.  When one says that “the laws of operant conditioning generalize,” it means that (a)  an organism conditioned in one situation will tend to make the same   conditioned response  in a similar situation (b)  an organism conditioned in one.
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  13.11. The essential feature of operant learning is that there is a contingency between: (a)  a response and a reinforcer (b) recovery and reinforcement (c)  recovery and response (d) a response and a cumulative curve   **13.12. The simplest way to produce extinction of learned behavior is through (a)  shock therapy (b) negativism (c)  withholding reinforcement (d) increasing conflicting reinforcement   13.13. Reinforcers.
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9.1. How does an illusion differ from a hallucination? (a)the source of an illusion is primarily in the person while the source of a   hallucination is primarily in the stimulus (b)the source of an illusion is primarily in the stimulus while the source of a   hallucination is primarily in the.
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  22.21.  The results were explained in terms of (a)  the Fundamental Attribution Error (b) the foot-in-the-door effect (c)  the insufficient justification effect (d) justification of effort   22.22. Another experiment that had results that were explained by the same effect (a)had people put ugly signs on their lawns (b)had soldiers eat fried grasshoppers c  had seminarians walk by a.
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  19.31.  Which of these is not a memory process? (a)  storage (b) retrieval (c) generalization (d) encoding   19.32.  The capacity of LTM is (a)about the same as that of working memory (b)about 7±2 chunks (c)about 7±2 individual items but only 1 or 2 chunks (d)easily changed by practice (e)infinite   19.33. Which of the following is/are true? (a)given proper stimulation, we can remember.
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13.1.  For Skinner, behaviorism meant studying the environmental conditions that precede the response, the response, the environmental conditions immediately after the response, and (a)the mental (cognitive) events assumed to intervene between S and R (b)the intention behind the response, that is, the goals of the organism (c)the personality pattern if the organism studied.
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**10.1.  When you hear the speech of your native language, individual words are clear to you even though they are spoken in succession fairly quickly. This is an example of (a)cognitive perception (b)achromatopsia (c)contiguous adaptation (d)perceptual learning   10.2.  A person with congenital achromatopsia experiences an extreme and painful hypersensitivity to bright light. This is because.
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19.1.  An implication of the telegraphy experiment is (a)learning a task is smooth and gradual, with no sudden changes in the learning curve (b)mastery of more complex things will make the little things fall into place (c)learners should try to make the lower order skills automatic (d)learners should use a 2 x 2 table   19.2. William.
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    16.11. Why does the text say that it is better for kids to watch PBS than network TV? (a)they do not get commercials on PBS (b)television has substantial effects on beliefs and behavior (c)behavior affects beliefs (d)TV helps children learn to distinguish between fantasy and reality (e)they will adapt to what they see on TV   16.12..
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**18.1.  I recall vividly where I was and what I was doing when I heard that President Kennedy had been shot.  That sort of memory is called a _____ memory. (a)  semipermanent (b) flashbulb (c) epiphenomenal (d)  utilitarian (e) causal   18.2.  Bahrick's studies of long term memory included studies of (a)  places (b) names and faces (c) mathematics (d)  Spanish.
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  IV.21.  Which is not a similarity between classical and operant conditioning? (a)acquisition (b)extinction (c)spontaneous recovery (d)partial reinforcement effect   IV.22.  Which of these statements is false? (a)classical conditioning involves substitution of one stimulus for another (b)operant conditioning involves the consequences of a response (c)  the power of operant conditioning is limited by built-in response tendencies (d)extinction occurs without the use of.
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25.1.If a child maintains attention on an object that passes out of the child's sight,  such behavior would illustrate Piaget's concept of (a)conservation (b)assimilation (c)accommodation (d)egocentrism (e)none of the above   25.2.A 4-year-old child’s description of how a bicycle works would illustrate that children (a)are egocentric (b)are physically different from adults (c)do not understand social causality the way adults do (d)do.
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  18.11.Suppose you take a couple of college French classes and one college math class.  In 45 years, you are more likely to retain: (a)basic French vocabulary (b) primary mathematical skills (c)neither - decay will be too great (d) both French and math about equally   18.12.Loftus’ research on eyewitness testimony is evidence for what property of LTM? (a)flashbulb.
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  7.11. A marriage custom that involves one man having multiple wives is called (a)  polyandry (b) polygyny (c) matriarchy (d) patriarchy   7.12. In a study of over 800 cultures, polygyny was practiced in about what % of those cultures? (a)  less than 1% (b) 2 % (c) 10% (d) over 80%     7.13. In a study of over 800 cultures, polyandry.
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7.1.  Which of these findings is consistent with the idea that behavioral trends can be inherited? (a)some species of dogs are bred to be more aggressive than others, and this   aggressiveness comes out even if the dogs are not trained to be that way. (b)great racehorses are put out to stud (c)mice selected.
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  20.11. Important problems ought to be approached with both (a)representativeness and availability (b)causal reasoning and effect reasoning (c)algorithms and heuristics (d)ratio concepts and percentage reasoning   **20.12. Suppose you are shown a description of a woman that is similar to your stereotype of a romance novelist.  You are asked whether it is more likely that the.
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  11.11. Psychokinesis refers to which of these alleged phenomena? (a)mind to mind communication without ordinary physical means (b)perceiving remote events (c)moving material objects by mental effort (d)foretelling the future (e) none of the above   11.12. Precognition refers to which of these alleged phenomena? (a)mind to mind communication without ordinary physical means (b)perceiving remote events (c)moving material objects by mental.
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11.1. Why hasn’t anyone collected the Amazing Randi’s $1,000,000? (a) there is no credible evidence for the existence of paranormal effects (b) the scientific community has accepted that telepathy exists, but Randi is unconvinced (c)because, as the photographer said, the force is “tricky” (d)when ESP is put under test, the bad vibes caused by the.
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21.1.  Research shows that the belief in hot shooting streaks in basketball is  (a)  well supported by the data (b)supported for shooting from the floor but not from the foul line (c)unfounded (d)based on people using a 2 x 2 table   21.2. The 2-4-6 task illustrates (a)  algorithm use (b) confirmation bias (c) availability (d) mental maps (e) inductive.
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15.1.  Pigs were operantly conditioned to carry "dollars" to a bank.  After a while they (a)  began carrying them away from the bank (b)  developed experimental neurosis (c)went on a variable interval schedule (d)reverted to instinctual rooting behavior (e)had to have the conditioning restored by classical methods   15.2. It is hard to teach pigs to use.
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  10.11. When Stratton took the inverting lenses off after 8 days, (a)he was relieved and the world immediately seemed right side up (b)he recognized the world as it had been but felt bewildered for hours (c)he had to be hospitalized for emotional upset (d)none of the above; Stratton did not wear inverting lenses for.
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  23.11._________ occurs when the ego is afraid it will not be able to control the superego. (a)moral anxiety (b)neurotic anxiety (c)psychotic anxiety (d)perceptual anxiety (e)Freudian slip   23.12.Freud believed that the ego pushes thoughts and feelings that are causing too much anxiety into the unconscious. This is called (a)the Oedipus Complex (b)dream anxiety (c)a Freudian slip (d)repression (e)none of the above   23.13.The heart.
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  8.31. A demonstration of sensory adaptation can be obtained by (a)putting both arms into lukewarm water, then putting each arm separately   into hot and cold water (b)putting each arm separately into hot and cold water, then putting both arms in lukewarm water (c)putting both arms into hot water, then into cold water, then.
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  9.11.The Müller-Lyer illusion illustrates the influence of (a)the Gestalt principle of good continuation (b)spatial context (c)temporal context (d)all of the above   9.12.  One figure that appears different at different times even though there is no change in the figure itself is a (a)Stratton figure (b)Necker cube (c)Gestalt figure (d)parallax square   9.13.  A figure with a black blob on a white.
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23.1.   When Sigmund Freud studied with Jean Charcot in France, why did he become convinced that patients’ hysteria was caused by unconscious processes? (a)The patients themselves thought their hysteria was due to unconscious processes. (b)Charcot was successfully treating the patients using hypnosis. (c)Neither Freud nor Charcot could find anything physically wrong with the.
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  12.21. In Pavlov's terminology, the tuning-fork tone (a)changed from unconditioned stimulus to neutral stimulus (b)changed from conditioned stimulus to neutral stimulus (c)changed from neutral stimulus to conditioned stimulus (d)had no appreciable effect   12.22.  In classical conditioning, the optimal order is: (a)unconditional stimulus - lengthy break - neutral stimulus (b)neutral stimulus - lengthy break - unconditioned stimulus (c)unconditioned stimulus.
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14.1.   Which is one of the rules of thumb for using punishment? (a)don't expect miracles (b)expect side effects (c)deliver the punishment quickly and consistently (d)distinguish between suppression and retribution (e)all of the above   2. Skinner wrote that the commonest technique of control in modern life is: (a)  positive reinforcement (b) negative reinforcement (c)  punishment (d) reward   14.3. A high school senior.
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  7.21.  Which of these statements is not consistent with a sociobiological view of gender differences in sexual behavior? (a)Most men say a partner’s sexual affair would be worse than an emotional                 affair. (b)Most women say a partner’s emotional affair would be worse than a   sexual affair. (c)In Tinbergen’s research, male.
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17.1. The capacity of working memory is _______ and loss from it is largely due to ______. (a)  small, decay (b)  about 7 items, interference (c)  infinite, lack of retrieval cues (d)  infinite, interference (e)  none of the above   17.2.  We can increase the power, but not the capacity, of our working memory through: (a)increasing the functional.
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  21.11. People demonstrate confirmation bias by (a)focusing on positive information (b)not considering alternatives (c)not looking for contrary facts (d)explaining contrary facts away (e)all of the above   21.12. In a laboratory experiment with two large sacks of marbles, when people were given a sample from sack A and asked which sack they’d want another sample from, the great.
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  Questions 14.9, 14.10 and 14.11 refer to this experiment.   William K. Estes performed a classic study on the effects of punishment.  Two groups of rats were run.  In their extinction sessions, one group was placed in a Skinner box for three days, but received no shocks.  The other, the Punishment group,.
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  6.11. Compared to the right hemisphere, the left hemisphere tends to be (a)more analytical (b)larger (c)more global (d)more simple neurologically   6.12. Compared to the left hemisphere, the right hemisphere tends to be (a)more analytical (b)smaller (c)more global (d)less complex neurologically   6.13. A “split brain” patient has had what structure surgically severed? a)  hippocampus (b) Broca’s Area (c) Wernicke’s Area (d) corpus callosum   6.14.  Although it.
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22.1.  The idea that inconsistency between one's beliefs and one's behavior leads to an aversive state is known as (a)correlation (b)justificationism (c) the Fundamental Attribution Error (d)  schema based reasoning (e) cognitive dissonance   22.2.  Having people do a dull task and then getting them to lie about it was done to test the idea that (a)people are.
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6.1.  The idea that brain functions are spread uniformly over the brain is called (a) equipotentiality (b) localization (c) hippocampal equalization (d) hippocampal homogeneity (e) cerebellar homogeneity   6.2.  The idea that brain functions are spread pretty uniformly over the brain is probably: (a) True (b) False   **6.3.  The idea that brain functions are not spread uniformly over the brain.
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24.1.  In Spitz’s study, the mortality rate for measles in the Foundling Home was 26%. What factors might account for this rate? (a)this was the normal mortality rate at the time (b)the medical care was very bad (c) the children were underfed, not well dressed and often very cold infants were raised in a sterile.
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16.1.  Television has substantial effects on (a) beliefs (b) behavior (c) both A and B (d) neither A nor B   16.2.  The percentage of households in the U.S. with one or more TVs is (a) close to 100% (b) about 67% (c) about 50% (d) about 35% (e) this has never been investigated   **16.3.  The correlation between amount of TV violence.
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  19.21. Master chess players readily recall the location of chess pieces from real games, but not when the pieces are placed randomly.  This illustrates that having a ______ is helpful in learning new information (a)  flashbulb memory (b) mnemonic (c) chunk (d) schema   **19.22.  An organized knowledge structure is called (a)the method of loci (b)a representation (c)intuitive judgment (d)a.
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8.1.  The sense associated with our muscles, joints & tendons is called (a)  the vestibular sense (b) olfaction (c) transduction (d)  kinesthesis (e) the pheromone sense   **8.2. Our senses respond to: (a)change (b)dependent variables (c)constant stimulation (d)perceptual processes (e)sensations   8.3. The basic stimulus for vision is changes in (a)  the lens (b) electromagnetic radiation (c) kinesthetic stimuli (d)  mechanical pressure on the retina (e) events in the.
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  **11.21. In the example in the text of Mrs. Jones’ premonition, the 2 x 2 table showed 1 positive hit, 4 false alarms, 4 misses and 16 negative hits.  The correlation coefficient for these data is (a)+1.0 (b)0 (c)-1.0 (d)this is not a correlation problem (e)not enough information is given to answer the question   11.22.  Suppose,.
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