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Study Resources (Anthropology)

  25.11.As we learn more about the world, we change.  Piaget called this (a)conservation (b)syncretism (c)the fundamental attribution error (d)accommodation (e)assimilation   25.12.As we learn more about the world, we change how we interpret new things in ways that differ from individual to individual.  Piaget would call this change of ourselves (a)conservation (b)syncretism (c)the fundamental attribution error (d)accommodation (e)assimilation   25.13.Piaget called the cognitive structures.
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  Ep.1.  Scientific knowledge (a)can show that capital punishment is morally wrong (b)can show that capital punishment is morally acceptable (c)has nothing to contribute to debates on moral issues, such as capital punishment (d)may be relevant to factual arguments made on one side or the other in arguments about capital punishment   **Ep.2. Facts refer to _____; values to.
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**37.1.  Behaving appropriately to the situation most of the time is one conception of (a)psychological health (b)conformity (c)the whole person (d)reliability (e)self-actualization   37.2. The appropriateness of behavior varies with the situation (a)true (b)false (c)this is not discussed in the text   37.3.  Which does not belong?  Psychologically healthy people (a)are productive (b)hold themselves to standards of perfection (c)get along well with most other people (d)can.
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  30.11. A psychologist develops a test for sales ability, gives it to all applicants and correlates the scores with sales at the end of the applicants' first year.  That r assesses (a) validity (b) reliability (c) standardization (d) autocorrelation   30.12. A test given to a group of people that permits the prediction of some important.
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41.1. The theory of how people make causal judgments is called (a)  cognitive feedback theory (b) attribution theory (c)  positive illusion theory (d) the positive adaptation model   41.2. “I got an A on the last exam” illustrates a/an _________ attribution. (a)  internal (b) external (c) illusory (d)  none of the above   **41.3.  “I got an A on the last exam.
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  37.11. Another term for mental illness is (a)self-actualization (b)psychopathology (c)psychosocial relativity (d)all of the above (e)none of the above   37.12. The category system describing the various forms of mental illness, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the (a)MMI (Manual of Mental Illnesses) (b)DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) (c)MMI (Myth of Mental Illness) (d)DIB (Description of Inappropriate Behaviors)   37.13. Psychology and.
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  25.21. Which is an example of the fact that children do not understand physical causality the same way adults do? (a)the game of marbles (b)having the child put animals into boxes of various sizes (c)running together with the child (d)asking the child how a bicycle works (e)none of the above   25.22.  Which is an example of.
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**43.1.  You bet $15.00 to win $100.00 when the probability of winning is .10.  What is the expected value of your bet? (a) $0 (b) $15.00 (c) -$5.00 (d) $5.00 (e) none of the above   43.2.  There are three types of decision models.  Which is not one of them (a) normative (b) descriptive (c) conceptual (d) prescriptive   **43.3.  According to the.
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28.1. Why do most 6-year-old violinists play worse at a recital than at a rehearsal? (a)  they are much more concerned about criticism at a rehearsal (b)the mere presence of other people has a substantial effect on behavior (c)the violin teacher is much more supportive at a rehearsal (d)the parents of the 6-year-old are.
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  26.21. Pinker, in a book entitled The Language Instinct, refers to three year old children as (a)in the beginnings of the language stage (b)grammatical geniuses (c)linguistically challenged (d)at about the same level of development as Washoe   26.22. It is important for parents to have a good idea of when their children should reach certain developmental.
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  35.11. Which is the correct sequence? (a)arousal response-exhaustion-resistance (b)arousal response-resistance-exhaustion (c)resistance-arousal response-exhaustion (d)resistance-exhaustion-arousal response (e)any of the above, depending on the nature of the stress and on individual    differences in reaction to stress   35.12. If a stressor is extreme and prolonged, then the body’s ability to cope with the stress diminishes, and the organism enters a.
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  21. Which of these is not a key assumption in Zajonc’s model of social facilitation? (a)  people have a response hierarchy, in that in a given situation there is a   most probable response, a second most probable one, etc. (b)arousal increases the probability that the dominant response will be made (c)the presence.
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  26.11. How does an investigator estimate the size of a person’s vocabulary (a)counting all the words that the person can recognize by seeing the words (b)counting all the words that the person can recall without seeing the words (c)taking a sample of the person’s speech and extrapolating from that (d)  giving the person a.
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  39.11. In the 19th century, a common treatment for abnormal behavior was (a)drug therapy (b)to lock the person up (c)Freudian psychoanalysis (d)intervention by a psychiatric social worker (e)all or any of the above   39.12. In the term “dementia praecox,” praecox means (a)  primary (b) early, with regard to age of onset (c)predominant, with regard to dementia as the predominant.
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33.1. What explains why identical twins behave more similarly to each other than fraternal twins?   (a)because they are raised in more similar environments (b)because society expects them to do so, given that they are more physically similar (c)because many individual differences have a strong genetic component (d)  none of the above; there is no good.
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  **36.11. Increases in monetary wealth are (a)associated with less happiness (b)completely unrelated to happiness (c)weakly associated with happiness, as long as wealth is above a modest   level (d)strongly positively correlated with happiness   36.12. From the teenage years to later adulthood, job satisfaction in men _____ and _____ in women. (a)stays constant, stays constant (b)stays constant, rises steadily (c)rises.
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29.1.  Game theory can be used to analyze (a) the nuclear arms race (a)chess (b)poker (c)the chooser-cutter example (d)the competitive aspects of bipolar disorder (e)both A and C   **29.2.  If a game is such that whatever one person wins, the other loses, then it is called a/an (a)fair game (b)tragedy of the commons (c)Axelrod game (d)zero-sum game (e)competitor intensive game   29.3.  “One cuts,.
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  36.21.  When he investigated situations in which skills are high but challenge is low, Csikszentmihalyi used what method? (a)the experimental method (b)the experience sampling method (c)the Csikszentmihalyi flow meter (d)a variant of operant conditioning (e)an in-depth interview   36.22.   In Csikszentmihalyi’s research using pagers telling subjects when to fill out a booklet, the only time job satisfaction.
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  **31.11.  Mischel believed that, when personality traits are expressed, situations should be defined by __________ rather than by __________. (a)their title; their psychological features (b)the number of people in them; where it takes place (c)whether it is work, school, or home; the number of people in them (d)their psychological features; their title   31.12. Is behavior.
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31.1.  Your subjective experience and understanding of the world and of yourself is called (a)nomothetic reaction (b)phenomenology (c)dispositionism (d)interpersonalism   31.2.  According to the text, looking for internal causes of behavior is important partly because an evolutionary approach to understanding human behavior assumes that variation is a crucial aspect of natural selection. How does this apply.
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  38.11. “A persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, or situation ... that leads to a compelling desire to avoid it” is coded by the DSM IV as a/an (a)  specific phobia (b) panic disorder (c)  neurotic stress disorder (d) irrational stress disorder (e)  avoidance disorder   38.12. An important criterion before any phobia is diagnosed is that (a)if.
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  43.11.  Which of these generalizations about decision making is false? (a)People often produce relatively few options for action, even in situations in which many options could be produced (b)People often consider too many possible states of the world (c)People assess frequencies and probabilities of events by using a set of   rules of thumb.
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27.1. Which is the least powerful explanation of why there are more Christians in France than there are in Iraq? (a)chance (b)disposition + affiliation (c)social influence (d)there aren't more Christians in France than in Iraq, per capita   27.2.  Which study showed that people can be influenced to say something that they seriously doubt is true? (a)Asch’s.
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  34.11. When Ekman examined more than a dozen different cultures, asking people to identify emotions from facial displays, he found that (a)there was much disagreement in labeling of certain emotions (b)there was consistent agreement in labeling of certain emotions (c)people in Western cultures tended to give different responses from people                 in.
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  33.11. For an important characteristic, you would expect the highest correlations between (a)fraternal twins reared together (b)fraternal twins reared apart (c)identical twins reared together (d)identical twins reared apart (e)not enough information is given to answer the question   33.12. Schizophrenia differs from intelligence in that schizophrenia is (a)a matter of degree (b)an all-or-none phenomenon; you either have it or.
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  40.21. About 1% of people in the U.S. die by suicide.  What percentage of people who are suffering from an affective disorder or have suffered from one eventually commit suicide? (a)  1% (b) 2% (c) 15% (d) 57%   40.22. Over _____ of people who attempt suicide are women. (a)  1% (b) 25% (c) 50% (d) 75%   40.23. About _____ of.
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**26.1. A typical three-year-old speaks more fluently than any chimpanzee because (a)children, as Skinner showed, can learn language via operant conditioning (b)children are appropriately reinforced by their language community for correct speech (c)no serious attempt has been made to teach chimps to communicate (d)humans have a biologically programmed capacity for language   26.2. Which of these aspects.
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  40.11. The most common form of serious mental illness (by which is meant a mental illness so severe that hospitalization or drug treatment is required) is (a) major depression (b) manic depression (c) schizophrenia (d) phobias   40.12. Mood disorders are also called _____ disorders. (a) neurotic (b) feedback (c) affective (d) phobic (e) schizophrenic   **40.13. Five or more criteria must be met.
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  Ep.11. The distinction between fact and value is (a) useless (b) important (c) not perfectly clear (d) both B and C but not A   **Ep.12. Many proponents of the death penalty assert that “capital punishment is a deterrent to crime.”  This as a (a)statement of value based on experimental evidence (b)statement of fact widely accepted in the.
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**30.1.  Which of these is not a step in the measurement of psychological constructs? (a)create a pool of items and have people respond (b)start with a tentative conceptual definition (c)test the test, that is, assess its reliability and validity (d)infer causality from the validity correlations, in order to make the test useful (e)establish a reference point.
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  N.1.  Which of these demonstrated that people underestimate the power of the situation? (a)  Freud (b) Milgram (c) Piaget (d) Pavlov (e) Skinner   N.2.  Which of these is associated with a theory of cognitive development? (a)  Freud (b) Milgram (c) Piaget (d) Pavlov   N.3.  Which of these is associated with classical conditioning? (e) Skinner (a)  Freud (b) Milgram (c) Piaget (d) Pavlov (e) Skinner   N.4.  Which of these.
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  32.11.  The average chronological age of children who get the same score as Jill is Jill’s (a)IQ (b)chronological age (c)mental age (d)validity (e)normal distribution   32.12. If a person gets a 120 on an IQ test in February, that person will likely get an IQ test score  around 120 in March.  This is most closely related to.
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34.1.  According to James’ early theory of emotion, a person’s visceral, or physiological, response comes ______ the feeling of fear when that person encounters a bear in the woods. (a)after (b)before (c)simultaneously with (d)A, B, or C, depending on the situation   34.2.  Which of these was later found to be one of the problems with.
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35.1. Which is not a component of the Type A behavior pattern? (a)competitive behavior (b)an excessively casual attitude toward time (c)a high degree of hostility and aggression (d)a prolonged response to stress   35.2. Which aspect of Type A behavior is most strongly associated with coronary disease? (a)competitive behavior (b)an excessively casual attitude toward time (c)a high degree of.
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  27.11.  Milgram’s research on obedience used (a)fairly strong electric shocks to the subjects (b)fairly strong electric shocks to the confederate (c)films of the Nazi death camps, and asked subjects what they would have done (d)a confederate acting as though he was being shocked; no shock was used   except in the instructions   27.12.  In Milgram’s obedience.
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36.1. From 1950 to 1990, personal income _____ ; the percentage of people reporting themselves “very happy” ______ . (a)  rose steadily, rose steadily (b) rose steadily, fell (c)  rose steadily, stayed constant (d) stayed constant, stayed constant   36.2. Lottery winners, who averaged about a half-million dollars each, reported their level of personal happiness before they.
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**42.1. Which of the following shows expectancy effects? (a) medicine (b) interpersonal relationships (c)  education (d) all of the above   **42.2. Suppose an experimenter makes up 20 inkblots, and randomly pairs a statement about a psychological problem with each inkblot.  Subjects in an experiment are shown all 20 inkblot-problem pairs, and asked whether there is.
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39.1.  What effect do the drugs used in the treatment of schizophrenia have on people? (a)they make the person accessible to psychotherapy (b)they calm the person (c)they reduce hallucinations (d)all of these (e)none of these   39.2. An early name for schizophrenia was (a) anxiety reaction (b) reality phobia (c) manic depressive reaction (d) dementia praecox   39.3. Which is not a DSM-IV.
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38.1. The DSM-IV has been designed according to a system that considers psychological disorders to be like physical illnesses.  That is, the DSM IV has been constructed according to (a)psychoanalytic theory (b)conditioning models of psychopathology (c)the medical model (d)the dysfunction approach (e)none of these   38.2.  The DSM-IV (a)is in a state of flux (b)is produced by the American.
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  29.11.  In the prisoner's dilemma research, males are  _________ females. (a)more competitive than (b)less competitive than (c)about as competitive as (d)there are no data on gender effects   29.12.In WWI the allies and Germans did not shell each others' supply lines.  This is an example of (a)social facilitation (b)the tragedy of the commons (c)cooperation (d)paradigm related behavior (e)all of the above   29.13.If.
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44.1.  People can use machines more easily (a)when the control information is in the environment (b)when the control information has to be memorized (c)when the designer employs user-centered conceptual models (d)when control information is meaningful, not arbitrary (e)A, C and D are all correct   **44.2.  People can use machines more easily when the control information is.
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  43.21.  The Decisional Balance Sheet can be criticized for failing to take into account (a)multiple goals (b)irrational forces such as emotions (c)the benefits of decomposition (d)the benefits of a quantitative method of combining information (e)the benefits of externalization   **43.22.  People who use the Decisional Balance Sheet (a)are more prone to postdecisional regret (b)are less likely to persevere in.
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  42.11. In an investigation of the effects of expectancies on angina pectoris after an operation, the experimental group was operated upon, and the control group (a) was told that they had been given a drug that would reduce their pain (b)had their chest cut open and then just sewn back up (c)was given.
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40.1. What did Abraham Lincoln and Georgia O’Keeffe have in common? (a) agoraphobia (b) schizophrenia (c) depression (d) manic depression   **40.2. The concordance rate for manic depression for identical twins is about (a)10% (b)50%; about the same as for schizophrenia (c)70%; higher than for schizophrenia (d)100%; if one twin has manic depression, the other would too, or else they  .
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  28.11. A complicated, interconnected mix of theories, hypotheses, assumptions etc. defines what Kuhn called a (a) paradigm (b) scientific program (c) scientific revolution (d) anomaly   28.12. When the conception of the solar system as earth-centered gave way to the suncentered model, this was, in Kuhn’s term, a (a)  paradigmatic obstacle to scientific progress (b) scientific program change (c) .
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    41.11.  One of the reasons that people make external attributions is to (a)protect their self esteem (b)avoid the fundamental attribution error (c)recognize real causes (d)maintain the illusion of control (e)make their behavior consistent with their beliefs   41.12. Who would be more likely to make internal attributions? (a)successful teams after victories (b)mediocre teams after defeats (c)successful teams after defeats (d)unsuccessful teams.
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