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  21.Since older individuals in foraging societies cannot participate in hunting and gathering activities as readily as they did when they were younger, they are considered of little use and quickly lose status and prestige. 22.In most forager societies, once an individual has ceased to be of economic value, they are simply.
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1. Latin America had relatively little cultural diversity prior to the arrival of the Spanish. 2 Led by Hernando Cortés, the Spanish were able to establish domination over the Aztec empire in less than three years. 3.Guatemala and Honduras were colonized by the Portuguese. 4.Slavery was practiced in African chiefdoms before the arrival.
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  31.Which of the following descent groups is likely to result in the most flexible and loosely structured corporate social unit? A.a patrilineal descent group B.a matrilineal descent group C.a clan D.a kindred 32.When two or more clans recognize that they share a common genealogical relationship, the more general grouping of these clans is known as.
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  11.Anthropological research has shown that in some cultures females do not have social roles; only men have roles. 12.Small-scale societies tend to have more social stratification than large-scale societies because there are fewer people to occupy the statuses and play the roles. 13.A family is a social group that consists of two.
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  40."Fission" and "fusion" in hunting and gathering societies refer to: A.hazards of contacts with the industrialized world B.cyclical change in population density relative to resources C.decision-making processes used by tribal leaders D.the dynamics of wild plant resources 41.Hunting and gathering societies will sometimes resort to infanticide in order to: A.engage in more frequent intercourse B.supplement scarce hunting.
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  11.If a tribal society has norms that prescribe cross-cousin or parallel-cousin marriage and an individual does not have a cousin in the particular category, that individual must remain single for the rest of his or her life since no mates fit the norm. 12.Margaret Mead felt that culture (enculturation) can strongly.
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  11.The extended family was the predominant form of family in most agricultural states. 12.The Nayar family is an excellent example of the economic benefits an agricultural state accrues by organizing people and labor on the basis of single nuclear families, which combined into patrilineages and eventually into competitive moieties. 13.In agricultural states,.
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  25.A system of symbols with standard meanings is a __________. A.society B.phonology C.syntax D.language E.semantic 26.The gorilla named "Koko" was able to: A.speak and communicate by using over 100 English words B.learn to program a computer using the computer language called FORTRAN C.communicate using about 170 signs from American Sign Language (ASL) D.write her own name and verbally communicate her.
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1.Slash-and-burn cultivation is found primarily in Arctic and tundra areas where the growing season is short. 2.Pastoralists, such as the Nuer, slaughter most of their cattle in the fall and store the meat for use over the year. 3.The mobility required by the pastoralist lifestyle has caused these groups to develop elaborate.
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  26.A primary feature that separates an industrial society from a preindustrial society is: A.All kinship networks, such as kindreds, extended families, lineages, and clans, have been replaced with corporations, businesses, and schools. B.Most productive labor in industrial societies involves factory and office work rather than agricultural or foraging activities. C.Social stratification decreases, causing.
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  35.One goal of anthropological linguistics is to determine the number of phonemes (phonetic structure) that exist in different languages. This goal is accomplished by employing the use of: A.minimal pairs B.phone taps C.maximal differences D.syntax units 36.The word "lower" contains: A.two bound morphemes B.two bound phonemes C.two free morphemes D.one bound morpheme and one free morpheme E.no morphemes of any.
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1.States differ structurally from bands, tribes, and chiefdoms by having a bureaucratic or governmental organization. 2.The term “civilization” usually implies societies with a complex division of labor, with economic roles other than those pertaining to food production. 3.In contrast to horticulture, intensive agriculture allows a population to produce a surplus of food.
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  19.Anthropologists are interested in understanding how biological, environmental, demographic, economic, social, political, and other cultural variables influence warfare and feuds. 20.Through enculturation people learn the specific norms regarding the expectations of society, and this, in turn, brings about perfect social control since these internalized norms are always followed. 21.Religion appears to be.
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  35.During your lifetime you will probably be a member of two families, the family of orientation (the family into which you were born and enculturated) and the family of __________ (the family in which you will have or adopt children). A.acculturation B.deculturation C.procreation D.life E.socialization 36.Which of the following is not a function of the family? A.nurture.
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  50.The phrase "original affluent society" refers to: A.the earliest foragers, who lived in rich environments B.the notion that hunter-gatherers spend little time working C.the ancient Egyptian civilization D.the concept of the "noble savage" 51.It has been suggested that, in forager societies, the more concentrated and predictable the resources: A.the less likely the group will be egalitarian.
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  20.Adjudication of legal disputes in chiefdom societies was not a major responsibility of the chief. 21.Chiefs often maintained political legitimacy through rituals and religious beliefs. 22.In Polynesia, a powerful chief would have been considered by other members of his culture to have more mana than a commoner. 23.On the Northwest Coast, respected shamans.
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  51.Throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Bedouin communities are becoming: A.absorbed into existing nation-states B.economically self-sufficient C.autonomous nations with their own governments D.wealthy through oil revenues 52.As a result of policies of industrialization and modernization under the Shah of Iran, the Qashqa'i nomads began to: A.demand more autonomy B.manufacture cigars C.adapt an agricultural way of life D.live in cities like Tehran 53.Through.
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1.Anthropologists who use the holistic approach to analyze sociocultural systems try to "shoot holes" in the theories and studies of other anthropologists. 2.Part of the challenge for anthropologists in doing field research is adjusting to a different society and gaining a much better perspective of one's own society. 3.Since there are no.
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  25.Conducting unstructured and structured interviews, talking with key informants, making naturalistic observations, engaging in participant observation, and collecting quantitative and qualitative data are all parts of a research design __________. A.in ethnographic fieldwork B.that attempts to uncover ecofacts that influence cultures C.of sociologists but not anthropologists D.to avoid getting culture shock 26.Ethnographic research can be.
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  11.Reciprocity occurs only in egalitarian, non-stratified societies. 12.The attempt to get something for nothing is called negative reciprocity. 13.All forager groups have a concept of private land ownership similar to that found in Western societies. 14.Band organization among foragers is very rigid and unchanging since individuals must remain band members for life. 15.A cross.
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1.Unilineal evolution is the view that all societies evolve in a single direction called "progress" toward complexity and civilization. 2.In the 19th century, E. B. Tylor suggested that all societies progressed through three evolutionary stages: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. 3.Lewis Henry Morgan believed in a hierarchical evolution of society from "savagery" to "civilization,".
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  38.According to Malinowski, magic __________. A.has a basis in the existence of supernatural powers in all cultures B.functions to relieve the anxieties of individuals C.only works when it has the full participation of a given society D. has no useful purpose for thinking people 39.According to White's theory of the evolution of sociocultural systems,.
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  11.During a potlatch among the Northwest Coast Indians, the more gifts that were given or destroyed by a chief, the higher his status. 12.A potlatch is an exchange ceremony when the Trobrianders give their chief lots of presents to show their appreciation of his leadership skills. 13.All individuals in chiefdom societies have.
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  20.In addition to social stratification based on occupation, many industrial states have a system of stratification based on ethnic or "racial" descent. 21.Japan is the least homogeneous society in the world, with at least 50 distinct social classes and even more ethnic stratification than exists in the United States. 22.Nationalism is a.
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  59.Christopher Boehm has hypothesized that the lack of political domination and power in band level societies is due to what he calls "reverse dominance." Reverse dominance ensures that the whole group will prevent a single individual from being politically dominant or exercising undue coercive powers. Reverse dominance is practiced through.
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  41.In most tribal societies, rules of descent, marriage, and residence are: A.flexible and often subject to lengthy discussion and negotiations B.strictly enforced and rarely changed C.known only to village elders, who are consulted whenever a decision must be made D. unconscious, and therefore defined mostly by outsiders (such as ethnographers) 42.In general, divorces are.
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  28.The concept of                  maintains that societal change occurs when societies borrow cultural traits from one another. A.functionalism B.structuralism C.evolutionary dispersal D.cultural scatter E.diffusionism       29.The body of anthropological theory concerned with the spread of technology, religion, economic systems, art forms, and other expressions of culture is known as: A.idealism B.particularism C.functionalism D.diffusionism 30.Grafton Eliot Smith and William Perry, major figures.
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  21.Like forager societies, tribal groups lack art and music because of the mobile nature of their society. 22.One of the chief advantages of slash-and-burn cultivation is that it: A.involves a huge labor force in converting forest to agricultural fields B.can be carried out indefinitely on a single plot of land C.produces food without complex.
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  11.According to general evolutionists such as Leslie A. White, since the degree of societal development is measured by the amount of energy harnessed by the sociocultural system, the greater the energy, the more highly evolved the system. 12.The cultural ecological perspective of cultural evolution focuses on how specific sociocultural systems adapt.
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  31.In order for a society to modernize it must first: A.stress individual achievement over traditional community reciprocity B.build roads and public utilities C.achieve universal literacy D.reduce population growth 32.According to modernization theorists, the primary impediments to economic development are: A.foreign investment and exchange B.poor nutrition and health care C.cultural values and traditionalism D.international relief agencies 33.The term "Second World" refers.
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  36.Capitalist societies share three basic ideals. Which of the following is NOT one of these ideals? A.The elements of production are privately owned. B.Companies are free to maximize profits and accumulate wealth. C.Land and resources should be owned and controlled by the state government, while production and services are in the hands of.
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1.Hunting and gathering societies have always existed in marginal environments. 2.By studying contemporary foragers (hunter-gatherers) anthropologists can gain a better understanding of life during the Paleolithic period. 3.The nice thing about studying hunter-gatherer societies is the fact that they have never been in contact with or influenced by other cultures; thus, they.
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  31.High infant mortality rates, the view that children are future assets who can care for their parents in old age, and the benefits associated with child labor all encouraged individuals in agricultural states to: A.have large families B.rely on sorcery, witchcraft, and shamanism to ensure that very few people died C.have small families.
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  42.Noam Chomsky suggests humans are born with a brain prewired to enable us to acquire languages easily.  This “prewiring” is referred to as __________. A.syntax B.universal grammar C.infinite model D.functional template 43.If someone came up to you and said, "Oh, you see everything through rose-colored glasses," this might suggest to you that the person speaking.
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  46.Through the control of resources and surplus goods, chiefs were able to ensure loyalty and deference from the general population. This status and authority enabled the chiefs to do all of the following EXCEPT: A.recruit armies B.distribute land and water rights to certain families C.sentence someone to death for violating social norms D.maintain absolute power.
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  11.Fazenda and hacienda both refer to large-scale farms established during the Colonial period in Latin America. 12.The pattern of inefficient, localized production and marketing characteristic of haciendas is still present in Latin America today. 13.Catholicism was predisposed to accommodate elements of the pagan traditions of the Americas. 14.All of the West African countries.
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  11.The Ju/’hoansi or San were protected from exploitation and assimilation by the South African government. 12.Ju/’hoansi or San men fought against guerrillas who opposed apartheid as members of the South African military. 13.Rates of alcoholism among the Ju/’hoansi or San have increased as a result of wage labor. 14.Mbuti Pygmies have adapted well.
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  21.Since individualistic religious practices and beliefs were deemed as threatening to the state, one of the major functions of priests was to standardize religious beliefs and practices for the society. 22.In ancient agricultural states, religion sanctified and legitimized the authority of political leaders. 23.Most cultures with matrilineal social organizations are found in.
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  36.The kula, described by Malinowski in Argonauts of the Pacific, refers to: A.a type of outrigger canoe used for long-distance travel by island chiefs B.a ceremonial dance performed by the indigenous Hawaiians C.a ritual in which red shell necklaces were traded for white armbands D.a sacred beverage whose use was restricted to Tahitian chiefs 37.The.
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1.Anthropologists refer to a society as a chiefdom on the basis of whether or not its members refer to one person as their chief. 2.A chiefdom is a type of society that is intermediate in form between the band, tribal societies, and formally structured bureaucratic state societies. 3.The term "chiefdom" causes much.
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  21.Approximately one third of Native Americans in the U.S. live in urban areas. 22.The Yanomamö have become one of the wealthiest Native American tribes since gold was discovered on their traditional lands. 23.Yanomamö populations have been increasing steadily since 1987. 24.Bedouins, such as the Al-Murrah tribe of Saudi Arabia, are traditionally pacifists. 25.Before contact.
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1.The Industrial Revolution is a term that is used to describe the events that occurred when humans changed from foraging (hunting and gathering) to food production (domestication of plants and animals) about 10,000 years ago. 2.Unlike bands, tribes, or chiefdoms that are affected by the environment, industrial states have developed such.
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  18.The principal theoretical objective of modern anthropology is: A.to document differences between ethnic groups B.to study the close relationship between genetics and culture C.to provide useful explanations of human society and behavior D.to formulate laws for predicting human behavior and thought 19.Edward B. Tylor, who published a major book entitled Primitive Culture in 1871, is.
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  41.In many agricultural states, women were restricted to domestic activities while men were permitted to engage in public (outside) endeavors. Women were often not allowed to own property, engage in politics, or pursue educational goals. These restrictions were reflected in a number of cultural practices such as: A.purdah and foot binding B.caste.
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  26.Most chiefdom societies: A.occupied areas that were rich in natural resources and conducive to producing a surplus B.were located in marginal lands that demanded intensive irrigation and plow agriculture C.were based on intensive foraging, supplemented by occasional hunting and fishing D.relied on herd animals as the basis of their subsistence economy E.were composed of two.
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  30.A foraging society depends on                     for food. A.the cultivation of plants B.the herding of animals C.primitive agriculture D.wild resources 31.The term "hunter and gatherer" evokes for anthropologists a society: A.whose economic, social, and political unit is the band B.that exists as a large, sedentary community C.that is organized as a tribe with a powerful chief D.that subsists.
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1.Globalization refers to the rise of industrial states and the social, economic, political, and cultural consequences this industrialism has had on nonindustrial societies, among other things. 2.Globalization began in the middle of the last century. 3.One of the preconditions for modernization is the acceptance of the belief that progress is both necessary.
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  11.Kinship in industrial societies becomes less important as new structures and organizations take over the primary functions of kinship groupings. 12.Anthropologists have found that it is not possible to study industrial societies using techniques such as participant observation and key informants that worked well in preindustrial societies. 13.A major factor leading to.
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  41.Since the 1960s, the Ju/’hoansi or San have become: A.increasingly independent and isolated from the modern world B.middle class citizens of the nation of South Africa C.increasingly dependent upon government assistance D.one of the few indigenous societies to become financially independent 42.The introduction of a cash economy has disrupted traditional Ju/’hoansi patterns of: A.egalitarianism and reciprocity B.food.
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