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    31)Anthropologists now think that the beginning of stone tools mark the beginning of hunting. 32)Currently it is difficult to reconcile the thin enamel of Ardipithecus ramidus and the seed-eating hypothesis. 33)Campbell and Loy suggest that bipedalism may have begun when smallest apes stood to brandish sticks and branches, and appear more formidable. 34)Studies.
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    21)The achievement of a 700 cc brain only occurred within the last one million years of hominid evolution. 22)None of the known hominine species shows a mean cranial capacity lower than 700 cc. 23)The fossils attributed until recently to Homo habilis have now been split into two species called Australopithecus habilis and.
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    11)The anatomy of the fossil known as "Little Foot" would suggest that A)the autralopithecines were mostly arboreal B)Paranthropus was more arboreal than Australopithecus C) the australopithecines were mostly terrestrial D) the australopithecines were partly arboreal and partly terrestrial E) Paranthropus was mostly terrestrial 12)The large grinding teeth of Paranthropus robustus suggest a diet of A)mostly.
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1) The system of classification devised by Linnaeus in the 18th century was: A)based on knowledge of evolutionary relationships B)phenetic, based on physical similarities C) cladistic D) based on the "kinds" of organisms described in the Genesis creation story E) based on amassed fossil evidence 2) Cladistic classifications and phylogenetic classifications: A)are both based on.
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    21)The scientific community was eventually shown to be correct in their rejection of the hominid status of Pithecanthropus erectus as proposed by Eugene Dubois. 22)Eugene Dubois conclusion that Pithecanthropus erectus was an ancestor of modern humans was disproved by the discovery of Sinanthropus pekinensis. 23)The anticipation that increases in brain size came.
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  31)The natural selection of was presented as process by which adaptive traits are preserved and less adaptive traits are winnowed out of species. 32)Darwin applied the principles of catastrophist of Georges Cuvier to his ideas of evolutionary theory. 33)Darwin was forthcoming in Origin of Species of the application of natural selection to.
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1) The postcranial anatomy of the australopithecines includes A)relatively long arms and short legs B)an apelike pelvis with tall and narrow iliac blades C)a narrow sacrum D)a barrel shaped ribcage E)all of the above 2) Fossil evidence of the East Africa robust australopithecine suggests that it lived between A)4.0 to 1.0 million years ago B)2.5 to 1.9 million.
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    21)Speech is A)absent among even the most humanlike apes, chimpanzees and bonobos B) the oral expression of human language C)impossible without symbolic thinking and grammar D)dependent on physical structures found only in humans E)all of the above 22)Many primate species are threatened with extinction because of human activities. In order to improve primate's chances of.
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    41)Among ________ females have more social power than chimpanzees. 42)________ live solitary lives with the exception that mothers travel with their dependent offspring. 43)________ have a harem polygyny mating system that is based on strong male-male sexual competition. 44)________ are molecular measures for estimating the time of divergence of living species from a.
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    31)Among many monkey species, maternal dominance rank has little or no affect on the rank of female offspring. 32)Meredith Small argues that female primates often chose not to be selective in their choice of mates in contradiction to current social theories. 33)Like most mammals, the behavior patterns of primates are based mainly.
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    11)If evolution shaped early hominids to stay cool by convectional heat loss A)natural selection would have favored the retention of thick body hair B)dependence on water for evaporative cooling would have decreased C) the need for drinking water would have increased D)clothes in tropical areas would have become a necessity E)the system would have.
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    41)Hominids and apes diverged about ________. 42)Campbell and Loy suggest that early hominids were living where multiple ________ meet and were exploiting a ________. 43)________ argued that bipedalism led to tool and weapon use and then to smaller jaws and teeth. 44)________ suggested that tool use helped to develop bipedalism. 45)________ has argued that.
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    21)Evidence at this time suggests which East African Australopith(s) used stone tools? A)Australopithecus garhi B)Australopithecus afarensis C)Orrorin tugensis D)Ardipithecus ramidus E) all of the above 22)Australopithecus anamesis A)was found by Meave Leakey 1995 B)is dated to 4.2 to 3.9 million years ago C)was a mosaic of apelike and humanlike traits D)has been found at Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya E)all.
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    41)The subfamily of the earliest Old World monkeys is ________. 42)A small monkeylike ape from the earliest Miocene in Africa is known as ________. 43)Campbell and Loy use the phrase ________ for those Miocene apes who appear modern in their skeletal adaptations. 44)A Miocene ape who may be ancestor of the orangutan is.
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    21)Which list of traits best describes mountain gorillas? A)harem polygyny; adults are monomorphic in body size; occasional infanticide B)unimale-multifemale harems; nonterritorial; strongest social bonds are between adult females and the silverback male C)promiscuous mating system; territorial defense between groups; largely terrestrial D)large-bodied African apes characterized by monogyny; commonly use tools to hunt small animals E)multi-male,.
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    41)The ability to bring the tip of the thumb into contact with the tips of other fingers is known as ________. 42)Among primates, habitual ________ must be viewed as a derived trait of hominids. 43)A(n) ________ allows fine control of small objects. 44)________ make tools to fish for termites in termite mounds. 45)________ refers.
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    41)The ________ is the name given to the earliest known stone-tool culture. 42)Paranthropus boisei was dated to ________ by the ________ method. 43)________ discovered Paranthropus boisei. 44)________ was the original name of Paranthropus boisei. 45)________ is the likely ancestor of Paranthropus boisei. 46)________ is the genus and species name of Lucy 47)The fossil remains of Ardipithecus.
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1) Solly Zuckerman who studied hamadryas baboons in the London Zoo concluded that the force holding primate social groups together is A)dominance relations B)genetic kinship C)defense against predators D)sexual behavior E) altruism 2) Dominance relations are sometimes associated with A) winning or losing fights with groupmates B) forming alliances among groupmates C)access to food, water, or mates D)grooming.
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    31)H. habilis and H. rudolfensis overlapped in time and in geographical distribution. 32)Paleoanthropologists believe that there is a connection between the appearance of Oldowan stone tools and meat eating. 33)The australopithecines were a successful species in that they existed for at least 3 million years. 34)There was no overlap in time or geographical.
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1)Archbishop James Ussher calculated the year of the earth's creations as A) 4004  B.C. B)10 ,000 B.C. C)5-7 million years ago D)4.5 billion years ago E)6 ,500 B. C. 2)Early naturalist John Ray explained the presence of marine fossils high on top of mountains as A)divine whimsy B)the result of human disturbance C)the result of deposition after the.
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    11)The term heritability refers to: A)the degree of similarity between parent and child B)the proportion of a phenotypic trait's variance that is attributable to genetic variance between individuals C)the proportion of a population's total phenotypic variation that is attributable to the effects of the environment D)the average phenotypic change between succeeding generations E)those phenotypic traits.
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  21)Hugo De Vries A)took the honorable action when he copied the experiments of G. Mendel and published the results without giving credit to G. Mendel B)took the honorable action when he called attention to the rediscovered work G. Mendel C)took the honorable action when he republished the experiments of G. Mendel under his.
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    11)Homo erectus materials began to be discovered in Africa in the 1950's. The oldest African fossils from this species date to A)400,000 years ago B)900,000 years ago C)1.8 million years ago D)1.6 million years ago E) 1 million years ago 12)If the dates from Sangiran, Mojokerto, and Dmanisi are correct, by 1.6 to 1.8 million.
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    11)Which of the following is a New World monkey? A)guenons B) macaques C)gibbons D)marmosets E)mandrills 12)Among the anthropoids, hominoids are characterized by A)lacking tails and having long backs and 3-cusped molars B) lacking tails and having short backs and Y-5 molars C)having long tails, narrow chests, and complex brains D)having dorsal shoulder blades, broad chests, and a lower.
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1) Most genes are located in the nucleus of the cell, but a few are found in the: A)chromosomes B)spindle C)mitochondria D)chiasmata E) vacuoles 2) Variant forms of a particular gene are called: A)hereditary variants B)alleles C)gene morphs D)subgenes E)adaptive variation 3) Structural genes are involved in such features as: A)eye color and susceptibility to certain diseases B)skin color and metabolism C)energetic and biosynthetic.
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    11)Compared to common chimpanzees, bonobos show A)stronger social bonds and alliances among males B) more frequent and inventive tool use C)more frequent and varied sexual behavior D)more frequent organized hunting behaviors E)all of the above 12)Sexual dimorphism in behavior takes what form(s) among chimpanzees? A) Males hunt for meat more than do females. B)Females use tools.
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    21)The archaeological record suggests that Oldowan tools were made and used A)exclusively by men B)exclusively by women C)by both men and women D)as weapons and not for processing food E)the archaeological record reveals nothing about how the tools were used 22)Current interpretations of the fossil and archaeological records lead most anthropologists to A)limit the label "human" to.
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    31)Although habitually upright, the australopithecines apparently depended more on side-to-side swaying for balance than do modern humans. 32)Paranthropus robustus apparently evolved earlier and went extinct before Australopithecus africanus. 33)Both of the South African australopithecines species showed the hominids traits of bipedalism and short canines. 34)There seems to be little about the anatomy of.
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1) Which of the following procedures is not a chronometric dating technique? A)carbon 14 B)stratigraphy C)potassium-argon (K/Ar) D)fission-track E)thermoluminescence 2) Proving that rock layers at different sites are the same age can A)involve the use of fossils as historical markers B)be done through faunal correlation C)be done by matching the "chemical signatures" of strata D)be done with stratigraphic sequences E)all of.
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    21)During the Paleocene the northern continent of Laurasia was intact and animals could range across North America and Europe. 22)During the early Cenozoic, topical forests were located much farther north and south of the equator than at present. 23)The plesiadapiforms are generally recognized as the ancestor of all other primates. 24)Although there are.
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    21)Phyletic transformation A)is one of the major forms of speciation in nature B)results in a strong increase in the number of contemporaneous species C) is a form of pseudoextinction D)is one circumstance under which extinction occurs E)is the result of gene flow 22)Extinction has the effect(s) of A)reducing both species diversity and the number of available.
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    31)There are genes for which the environment has no effect on the expression of the gene. 32)Allopatric speciation usually starts with the intensification of gene flow between and isolated population and the parent species. 33)Directional natural selection occurs in response to environmental change and results in modifications of the population's collective phenotype. 34)Evolution.
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    11)At Omo, Clark Howell's researchers found A)very few animal fossils because the environment did not support much animal life in the past B)the first remains of Paranthropus aethiopicus C)mostly postcranial bones D)hominid remains dated to around 500,000 years ago E)the first remains of Kenyanthropus platyops 12)Which list of traits best describes Ardipithecus ramidus? A)short incisiform canines B)lower first.
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    31)Prosimians show that the last piece of bony orbital protection to evolve was the post-orbital bar. 32)Whether tarsiers should be grouped with the prosimians or the anthropoids is a matter of disagreement among primate taxonomists. 33)Prosimians show the distinctive primate traits of stereoscopic vision and grasping hands and feet. 34)Prehensile tails are found.
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    41)When like mate with mate it is called ________. 42)The ________ is a balanced polymorphism which gives some protection against malaria in heterozygous individuals. 43)________ can be used to test if there are evolutionary changes taking place in a population. 44)Competition among members of one sex for access to members of the opposite.
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1) Homo rudolfensis A) was recently identified and named from fossils previously classified as Homo habilis B) is one of the two known species of "early Homo" C) apparently had a larger brain than Homo habilis D) lived between 2.4 and 1.6 million years ago E) all of the above 2) Early Homo.
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1) The job of a paleoanthropologist in charge of a fossil site is to A)analyze fossil plant pollen B)study paleosoils and determine the nature of ancient environments C)study the local stratigraphy and determine the geological history of the area D)map the region of the site E)none of the above 2) Raymond Dart concluded that the Taung.
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    41)Based on a single tooth, Davidson Black announced the discovery of a new genus and species of prehistoric humans called ________. Sinanthropus pekinensis 42)________ turned up the first skull of Sinanthropus in 1929. 43)The fossils of ________ were lost when the Japanese invaded China in 1941. 44)The oldest Homo erectus remains in Europe come.
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1) The unique trait(s) of the hominins are A) habitual bipedalism B) canine reduction C)brain enlargement D)speech and language E)all of the above 2) The use of technology is mostly associated with the A)hominins B)Homo C)Homo sapiens D)hominoids E)primates 3) Evidence for hominid bipedalism A)postdates stone tools by 2.4 million year B)predates stone tools by at least 1.7 million years C) predates stone.
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    31)The bipedalism of Homo erectus as reconstructed by paleoanthropologists is essentially modern. 32)There are no known fossils in Europe or Africa that are older than Homo erectus. 33)The braincase of Homo erectus seems larger than it really is because of a sagittal crest. 34)Currently the evidence suggests that Homo erectus is about equally.
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  11)T. R. Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population caused both C. Darwin and A. R. Wallace to realize the importance of A)unrestrained population growth and the lack of differential survival among the members of a species B)the Biblical account of creation and variations in anatomy among the members of a species.
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    41)Homo habilis had much in common with the australopithecines named ________ and ________. 42)________ is the main factor that differentiates the early hominines from the australopithecines. 43)The average brain size of the early hominines is ________ and the average size of an australopithecine brain is ________. 44)________ from Koobi Fora is the best.
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    11)Aegyptopithecus A)is one of the oldest known platyrrhine monkeys, dating 27 million years of age from Bolivia B)was clearly an Old World monkey, judging from it 2123/2123 dental formula and its 4- cusped bilophodont molars C)possessed both Old World monkey and ape traits and is best classified as a "generalized catarrhine" D)is the oldest.
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    31)To date all of the australopithecines seem to have had apelike arm and leg proportions. 32)Australopithecus afarensis dated to between 4.2 and 2.5 million years old is the oldest known australopithecine. 33)Each new australopithecine fossil find suggests new puzzles rather than answering old questions. 34)Omo and Olduvai are valued as places to look.
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  41)strict Darwinian evolution is also known as gradualism Short Answer Questions 42)Phenotypic traits produced by ________ may disappear for a generation, only to reappear later. 43)Crossing two heterozygous individuals (Aa X Aa) can produce ________ genotypic conditions in the offspring. 44)The writings of Charles Darwin were inspired by a book by ________. 45)________ developed the.
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    31)The location of the origin of the order Primates is unclear at this time because possible early Eocene basal anthropoids have been found in both Africa and Asia. 32)The earliest catarrhine primates are from a site in China called Shanghuang and have been dated to the Oligocene epoch. 33)The evidence suggests that.
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    11)Homo habilis A)about 5 feet tall B)females weighed about 71 pounds and males around 82 pounds C)had a brain size of under 600 cc D)had a sagittal crest E)had markedly reduced facial prognathism 12)The difference between an australopithecine like A. africanus and Homo habilis is A)one of degree and not of kind B)so small Homo habilis may be.
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1) Eugene Dubois A)realized the validity of evolution only after finding Pithecanthropus B)was convinced of the validity of evolution and this led him to look for fossils in the Dutch East Indies C)was relieved when the scientific community immediately accepted his fossils as early humans D)discovered the first skull of Sinanthropus at Zhoukoudian E).
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    21)In primates, the position of the foramen magnum is correlated with habitual posture and thus can give important clued about locomotion. 22)Raymond Dart concluded that Australopithecus africanus anticipated the modern human condition, and departed from the ape condition, with regard to facial and cerebral characters. 23)Raymond Dart's discovery and announcement of an.
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    41)A(n) ________ is a fossilized cast of the interior of a skull. 42)Raymond Dart believed that the Taung child was bipedal because of the location of the ________. 43)________ created the name Australopithecus africanus. 44)________ discovered and named the first Paranthropus robustus at a site called Kromdraai. 45)The subfamily Australopithecine is a member of.
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