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  41.Upper Paleolithic hunters increased the power and accuracy of their projectiles by using: A.slingshots B.spear throwers C.bows and arrows D.stone projectile points 42.The term "composite tool" refers to an artifact made by: A.firing clay into a hard material B.using bone or antler to remove thin flakes C.putting two or more materials together D.several different people 43.At the 15,000 year-old site.
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  21. A society with an institutionalized government run by full-time officials is referred to by archaeologists as a __________. A. segmental clan B. chiefdom C. oligarchy D. state 22. The world's first civilizations appeared around: A. 125,000 years ago B. 55,000 years ago C. 12,500 years ago D. 5,500 years ago 23. Which of the following features was NOT.
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  41. Homo habilis was found at _________ by __________. A. Olduvai Gorge/the Leakeys B. Laetoli/Mary Leakey C. Hadar/Donald Johanson D. Lake Turkana/Raymond Dart 42. Footprints at the site of Laetoli in northern Tanzania indicate that fully bipedal hominids roamed the earth between _________ million years ago. A. 15 and 10 B. 30 and 20 C. 4 and.
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1. Unilineal evolution is the view that all societies evolve in a single direction called "progress" toward complexity and civilization. 2. In the 19th century, E. B. Tylor suggested that all societies progressed through three evolutionary stages: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. 3. Lewis Henry Morgan believed in a hierarchical evolution of society.
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  1.The beginnings of human culture cannot be studied by looking at the fossilized remains of ancient human skeletons. 2.Humans are not the only primates to use tools. 3.Scientific evidence indicates that the first stone tools used by early hominids were highly crafted. 4.Archaeologists are able to do experiments that reveal methods used in.
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  35. One goal of anthropological linguistics is to determine the number of phonemes (phonetic structure) that exist in different languages. This goal is accomplished by employing the use of: A. minimal pairs B. phone taps C. maximal differences D. syntax units 36. The word "lower" contains: A. two bound morphemes B. two bound phonemes C. two free morphemes D..
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  21. The primary characteristic that identifies hominids as a taxonomically distinct group from other primates is: A. social behavior B. aggression and murder C. habitual bipedalism D. the number and type of teeth 22. According to your text, paleoanthropologists suggest that the fossil forms called _________ precede the genus Homo. A. Aegyptopithecus B. Proconsul africanus C. Australopithecus D. Ardipithecus 23..
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  41. The mating patterns of gibbons can be best described as: A. monogamous B. a multi-male and multi-female group C. a single male with many females D. a single female with many males 42. Chimpanzees have been shown to do all of the following except: A. kill other chimpanzees B. form stable, long-lasting monogamous relationships C. make and.
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  21. According to Marvin Harris, the dietary practices of various cultures may be rooted in ecological conditions. 22. Anthropologists have determined that specific food preferences are biologically based and not culturally influenced. 23. Cultural diversity is a reflection of environmental adaptations and the consequence of symbolic creations. 24. The Rastafarian movement of Jamaica.
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  41. The earliest agricultural complexes of South America are noteworthy for their inclusion of: A. medicinal plants, like hemp and flax B. non-food plants, like cotton C. cultivated grasses, like oats and barley D. domesticated animals, like horses and cattle 42. Maize cultivation in North America was the result of: A. independent domestication of maize in.
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  31. According to scholars Ester Boserup, Lewis Binford, and Mark Cohen, the principal factor responsible for the beginning of plant and animal domestication was: A. resource availability in key environmental niches B. seasonal differences in the abundance of wild species C. population pressure on finite natural resources D. the increased cranial capacity of Pleistocene.
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  11. New World Monkeys are found throughout Africa and south East Asia. 12. The fossil record of the monkeys in the Americas is abundant, diverse and one of the most complete of the fossil records for any known lineage of animals. 13. Gigantopithecus is probably the ancestor of modern day gorillas. 14. Orangutans.
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  1. Psychological anthropologists tend to study people in their own societies. 2. Humans are animals. 3. Instincts can be learned. 4. A parrot's ability to speak like a human is an example of a closed instinct. 5. A basketball player's knowledge of where he or she is relative to the basket would be an.
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  31. Central place theory is difficult to apply to actual geographic regions because: A. natural resources are usually widely available B. central places may be located outside these regions C. natural resources and topography are rarely uniform D. the size of sites with similar functions is always the same 32. The unequal ranking of towns,.
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  31. There are many definitions of culture; however, there are a number of aspects that are common to most definitions. These include all of the following except: A. culture is shared B. culture is learned C. culture is biologically inherited D. culture is made up of elements such as values, beliefs, norms, and material.
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  1. Culture consists of both material and nonmaterial components. 2. The concept of "culture" is central to many anthropological discussions and issues. 3. Culture can be defined as a shared way of life that includes values, beliefs, and norms that are transmitted within a particular society from generation to generation. 4. A society.
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  21. Children can be active agents in the enculturation of their siblings and parents. 22. Individualism is valued differently in different cultures. 23. According to Francis Hsu, the individual in China is strongly encouraged to reject familistic and group norms. 24. Melford Spiro's research was strongly influenced by the theories of Sigmund Freud.
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  21. In order to understand variation in human populations, anthropologists must consider three primary causes: (1) evolutionary processes, (2) the environment, and (3) __________. A. culture B. race formation C. genetic induction D. polymorphism 22. All of the genes possessed by a population are known as its: A. genetic complement B. gene pool C. polymorphic unit D. polytypic unit 23..
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  21.The earliest stone tools, which have been found in East Africa, are called __________ tools. A.Oldowan B.Acheulian C.Mousterian D.Composite 22.The term "manuport" refers to: A.a type of unifacial pebble chopper B.a fossilized bone at an early hominid site C.a stone found where it does not naturally occur D.a chip struck off of a stone during percussion flaking 23.When an archaeologist.
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  11.Homo erectus was the first hominid species to intentionally bury their dead. 12.Neandertals probably cared for individuals with disabilities. 13.Burins were special, chisel-like tools for working wood, ivory, and bone. 14.The harpoon was invented by people with a Lower Paleolithic technology. 15.Upper Paleolithic artisans made stone tools in a limited range of styles that.
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  11. All human societies share the same basic values. 12. A worldview consists of various beliefs about the nature of reality that provide people with a means of interpreting and understanding the world around them. 13. Most people in a given society assume that their beliefs are rational and firmly grounded in.
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  21. Individuals who study living, nonhuman primates are known as: A. ethnologists B. pongidologists C. primatologists D. astrologists 22. What characteristic is not commonly used to describe the Primate order? A. long gestation period B. habitual bipedal locomotion C. opposable thumb D. lack of specialization in the diet (omnivore) E. generalized limb structure 23. Primate evolution has produced some morphological characteristics.
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  11. Racist beliefs have no basis in biological fact: human groups never fit into neat categories. 12. Today, anthropologists agree that there are six races of humans on the earth. 13. Today, anthropologists consider the genetic variation within populations to be less important than variation between populations. 14. Anthropologists have found that almost.
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  21. E. B. Tylor and other eighteenth-century thinkers asserted that "primitives" around the world would eventually evolve through the stages of barbarism to become civilized like Europeans, but that these "primitives" would need some help from the civilized world to reach this ultimate, ideal stage. This perception that Western society.
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  31. Two early (18th century) classifiers who devised similar "racial" categories based primarily on skin color were: A. Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel B. Stanley Garn and Stephen Jay Gould C. Carolus Linnaeus and Johann Blumenbach D. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace 32. An ideology that advocates the superiority of certain races and inferiority.
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  31. The most famous Homo erectus (Sinanthropus pekinensis) site in China that dates from about 460,000 to 230,000 years ago is: A. Trinil B. Zhoukoudian C. Shangdong D. Beijing 32. Which is true of Homo erectus in the New World? A. Unlike forms in the Old World, New World forms used a refined Mousterian stone tool.
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  43. In her classic work Patterns of Culture (1934), Ruth Benedict used the terms "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" to describe: A. cultural "personalities" of Pueblo and Plains Indians B. religious cults of northern and southern Greece C. rituals of warfare and celebration in the South Pacific D. contrasting models of cultural diffusion 44. Margaret Mead got.
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  11. At Teotihuacán, an ancient city in central Mexico, the houses varied widely in terms of size and furnishings. 12. Archaeologists think that the quantity of a material acquired through trade is typically greatest at sites nearest to the source of the material. 13. Conflict theories of state formation assume that the.
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  41. Integrationist theories of state formation: A. emphasize domination and exploitation B. assume state formation resulted from its beneficial effects C. place state authority in the hands of the merchant class D. emphasize revolts against monopoly control 42. The theories about the effects of external contacts on ancient cultures of the Americas that have been.
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  21. Between the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene epochs, the world's climate became markedly: A. warmer B. colder C. wetter D. drier 22. The term "broad-spectrum collecting" refers to: A. specialized regional patterns and technologies B. use of a wide variety of wild plant and animal foods C. a technique for dating archaeological deposits D. a.
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  31. In order for diffusionism to work as envisioned by the British and German schools, adherents had to assume or maintain all of the following except: A. that some peoples were not sufficiently innovative to develop their own cultural traits B. racist assumptions about the inherent inferiority of different non-Western peoples C. that.
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  1. Most archaeologists consider a society to be a civilization when it has all of the features specified in V. Gordon Childe's classic definition. 2. In early states, political authority was rarely based on the control of agricultural surpluses. 3. The division between the world of the supernatural and that of social.
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  31.Which of the following sites has yielded Acheulian tools? A.Torralba and Ambrona B.Cro-Magnon C.Le Moustier D.Lascaux 32.One of the most important tool types invented by Homo erectus was the: A.hammerstone B.projectile point C.grinding stone D.hand axe 33.A shelter of stones and saplings was built by people who used Acheulian tools at the site of: A.Zhoukoudien B.Terra Amata C.Olduvai Gorge D.Cro-Magnon     34.The Levalloisian technique refers to.
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  11. Most modern archaeologists agree that the "Neolithic revolution" occurred when an unknown, solitary “genius” came up with the idea of planting seeds. 12. In Europe, Mesolithic patterns of hunting and gathering without agriculture persisted for the longest period of time in Sweden and Finland. 13. The earliest evidence regarding the use.
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  11. According to general evolutionists such as Leslie A. White, since the degree of societal development is measured by the amount of energy harnessed by the sociocultural system, the greater the energy, the more highly evolved the system. 12. The cultural ecological perspective of cultural evolution focuses on how specific sociocultural.
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    25. A system of symbols with standard meanings is a: A. society B. phonology C. syntax D. language E. semantic 26. The gorilla named "Koko" was able to: A. speak and communicate by using over 100 English words B. learn to program a computer using the computer language called FORTRAN C. communicate using about 170 signs from the American.
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  33. Psychological anthropologists differ from psychologists in that their research focuses on: A. the behavior of social deviants B. physiological characteristics of the human brain C. cross-cultural similarities and differences D. individuals in their own societies 34. The process by which an individual learns how to behave within a particular society is known as: A. cognition B..
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1. Language is a system of symbols with standard meanings. 2. Chimpanzees and gorillas have been taught to speak up to 100 English sentences so they can communicate their daily needs as well as humans. 3. According to Herbert Terrace's research, chimpanzees are highly intelligent animals who can learn many signs, but.
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  41. __________ may occur when one dominant group in a complex society imposes its cultural beliefs on subordinate ethnic groups. For example, the dominant ethnic group in the U.S. during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (the white, Anglo-Saxon Protestants) was able to impose its language, cultural beliefs and practices on.
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  31. Lemurs are found in what part of the world (not counting zoos)? A. Australia B. Iceland C. Asia D. South and Central America E. Madagascar 32. The fossil record of the evolution of the primates in the Americas is: A. abundant B. completely unknown C. sparse and consists of fragmentary evidence D. one of the best fossil records we.
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  11. The Taung child, better known as Australopithecus boisei, was found in South Africa by Robert Broom in 1891. 12. According to your text, Australopithecus afarensis is dated from 4 to 3 million years ago, making these the earliest well-described hominids. 13. As paleoanthropologists uncover more and more fossils, it becomes increasingly.
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  11. Culture allows humans to adjust to a wide range of physical environments. 12. According to the culture-and-personality theory, there is a correlation between personality and ethnicity. 13. Franz Boas had a guiding influence on Margaret Mead. 14. According to Mead, Samoan adolescents engaged freely in premarital sex. 15. Human behavior can be attributed.
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  1. Modern humans are divided into four distinct species that correspond to the major geographic areas of Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. 2. Cultural practices affect genetic and physical variation by influencing gene flow or altering the environment. 3. Anthropologists speculate that Paleolithic populations consisted of small bands (30-100 individuals) in.
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  41. You are studying the inhabitants of Svölbärd. These people have compact, round bodies with thick, short limbs. Based on Bergmann's and Allen's rules, these people probably live in what kind of environment? A. a tropical desert B. a hot jungle C. an Arctic island D. a malarial infested swamp E. a tropical savanna region 42..
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1. Hominids are not members of the order Primates, but are classified in a separate order. 2. Paleoanthropologists have determined, beyond a doubt, that bipedalism arose in the hominids because of selective pressures favoring tool use since the canines had reduced in size earlier. 3. Because bipedal locomotion requires a better sense.
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