Info
Warning
Danger

Study Resources (Anthropology)

  43. The collapse of the jajmani system is related to: A. Western conveniences that eliminated the need for certain services B. the adoption of a single monetary system by a centralized government C. the return of skilled artisans to their traditional villages D. Indian independence and self-determination     44. The current status of the caste system.
1 Views
View Answer
  21. Japan is the least homogeneous society in the world, with at least 50 distinct social classes and even more ethnic stratification than exists in the United States. 22. Nationalism is a strong sense of loyalty to nation-states based on shared language, values, and culture. 23. The legal systems in Japan, Europe,.
0 Views
View Answer
  11. Kinship in industrial societies becomes less important as new structures and organizations take over the primary functions of kinship groupings. 12. Anthropologists have found that it is not possible to study industrial societies using techniques such as participant observation and key informants that worked well in preindustrial societies. 13. A major.
0 Views
View Answer
  21. Since older individuals in foraging societies cannot participate in hunting and gathering activities as readily as they did when they were younger, they are considered of little use and quickly lose status and prestige. 22. In most forager societies once an individual has ceased to be of economic value, they.
0 Views
View Answer
  21. Religion appears to be a cultural universal, although specific practices and beliefs vary significantly from culture to culture. 22. A major goal of most anthropological studies of religion is to determine the "truth" or "falsity" of particular religious beliefs so that the truth about the supernatural can be discovered. 23. Most.
0 Views
View Answer
  31. The substantivist approach in economics differs from the formalist view by: A. suggesting that money is the prime mover in all economic systems B. focusing on supply and demand economics as opposed to price fixing C. maintaining that the ways of allocating goods and services in small-scale societies differ fundamentally from those.
0 Views
View Answer
  11. The extended family was the predominant form of the family in most agricultural states. 12. The Nayar family is an excellent example of the economic benefits an agricultural state accrues by organizing people and labor on the basis of single nuclear families, which are combined into patrilineages and eventually into.
0 Views
View Answer
  23. The Suez Canal, built in 1869, resulted in: A. greater independence for Middle Eastern countries B. the economic isolation of Egypt from European commerce C. greater contact between the Middle East and Europe D. the Napoleonic Wars 24. "Zionism" refers to: A. the movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine B. the concept of a.
0 Views
View Answer
  11. Fazenda and hacienda both refer to large-scale farms established during the Colonial period in Latin America. 12. The pattern of inefficient and localized production and marketing characteristic of haciendas is still present in Latin America today. 13. Catholicism was predisposed to accommodate elements of the pagan traditions of the Americas. 14. All.
1 Views
View Answer
1. Slash-and-burn cultivation is found primarily in Arctic and tundra areas where the growing season is short. 2. Pastoralists, such as the Nuer, slaughter most of their cattle in the fall and store the meat for use over the year. 3. The mobility required by the pastoralist lifestyle has caused these groups.
5 Views
View Answer
  41. Political systems with centralized bureaucratic institutions that establish power and authority over large populations in a specific territory are known as: A. bands B. tribes C. chiefdoms D. fiefdoms E. states 42. Clearly defined norms of a society that, when violated, provide punishment through the application of formal sanctions by ruling authority are called: A..
1 Views
View Answer
  30. Modernization theory provides a model to explain how would cause social and cultural change. A. traditionalism B. dependency C. the world system D. industrial capitalism 31. In order for a society to modernize it must first: A. stress individual achievement over traditional community reciprocity B. build roads and public utilities C. achieve universal literacy D. reduce population growth 32..
0 Views
View Answer
  21. Approximately one third of Native Americans in the U.S. live in urban areas. 22. The Yanomamö have become one of the wealthiest Native American tribes since gold was discovered on their traditional lands. 23. Yanomamö populations have been increasing steadily since 1987. 24. Bedouins, such as the Al-Murrah tribe of Saudi Arabia,.
0 Views
View Answer
  50. Saudi Arabian control of the Al-Murrah Bedouins has been accomplished by making their traditional leader, the emir: A. the head of an independent state B. a common Saudi citizen C. a prisoner for life D. a dependent government official 51. Throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Bedouin communities are becoming: A. absorbed into existing nation-states B. economically self-sufficient C..
1 Views
View Answer
1. Globalization refers to the rise of industrial states and the social, economic, political, and cultural consequences this industrialism has had on nonindustrial societies, among other things. 2. Globalization began in the middle of the last century. 3. One of the preconditions for modernization is the acceptance of the belief that progress.
6 Views
View Answer
  41. In many agricultural states women were restricted to domestic activities while men were permitted to engage in public (outside) endeavors. Women were often not allowed to own property, engage in politics, or pursue educational goals. These restrictions were reflected in a number of cultural practices such as: A. purdah and.
0 Views
View Answer
  30. A foraging society depends on for food. A. the cultivation of plants B. the herding of animals C. primitive agriculture D. wild resources 31. The term "hunter and gatherer" evokes for anthropologists a society: A. whose economic, social, and political unit is the band B. that exists as a large, sedentary community C. that is organized as.
0 Views
View Answer
  11. During a potlatch among the Northwest Coast Indians, the more gifts that were given or destroyed by a chief, the higher his status. 12. A potlatch is an exchange ceremony when the Trobrianders give their chief lots of presents to show their appreciation of his leadership skills. 13. All individuals in.
1 Views
View Answer
  22. One of the chief advantages of slash-and-burn cultivation is that it: A. involves a huge labor force in converting forest to agricultural fields B. can be carried out indefinitely on a single plot of land C. produces food without complex technology D. is effective in virtually any environment 23. While studying the Yanomamö, Napoleon.
0 Views
View Answer
  31. The Union of South Africa was established in 1910 by the: A. French B. Germans C. Portuguese D. British 32. The most significant factor in Latin American demographic change after the arrival of Europeans was a dramatic increase in: A. fertility B. mortality C. employment D. life expectancy 33. The most serious health problem faced by indigenous populations of.
0 Views
View Answer
1. Latin America had relatively little cultural diversity prior to the arrival of the Spanish. 2 Led by Hernando Cortés, the Spanish were able to establish domination over the Aztec empire in less than three years. 3. Guatemala and Honduras were colonized by the Portuguese. 4. Slavery was practiced in African chiefdoms before.
5 Views
View Answer
  46. Through the control of resources and surplus goods, chiefs were able to ensure loyalty and deference from the general population. This status and authority enabled the chiefs to do all of the following EXCEPT: A. recruit armies B. distribute land and water rights to certain families C. sentence someone to death for violating.
0 Views
View Answer
  26. Archaeologists and historians have found that most chiefdom societies: A. occupied areas that were rich in natural resources and conducive to producing a surplus B. were located in marginal lands that demanded intensive irrigation and plow agriculture C. were based on intensive foraging, supplemented by occasional hunting and fishing D. relied on herd.
0 Views
View Answer
1. Anthropologists have helped dismiss the notion of clearly bounded, racially-distinct populations of humans. 2. Multiculturalism means that a person can easily switch between two or more cultures without getting confused and frustrated. 3. African Americans had the largest demographic increase compared to other ethnic groups, according to the 2000 census. 4. Ethnic.
5 Views
View Answer
  41. The Bantustan homelands in South Africa were created to: A. return traditional lands to black tribes B. increase the physical separation of blacks and whites C. lay the foundations for independent African republics D. exploit rich mineral deposits and construct factories 42. The concepts of rising expectations and relative deprivation are most useful in.
0 Views
View Answer
  11. In spite of industrialization, farming communities in Egypt like Kafr el-Elow have rejected Western clothing, housing styles, and manufactured goods. 12. In Arab societies, the traditional family structure is matrilineal and matriarchal. 13. Unless financially or physically impaired, every Muslim is required to marry. 14. Polygyny is the most common form of.
1 Views
View Answer
  50. The phrase "original affluent society" refers to: A. the earliest foragers, who lived in rich environments B. the notion that hunter-gatherers spend little time working C. the ancient Egyptian civilization D. the concept of the "noble savage" 51. It has been suggested that in forager societies the more concentrated and predictable the resources: A. the.
1 Views
View Answer
  32. When two or more clans recognize that they share a common genealogical relationship, the more general grouping of these clans is known as a: A. patrilineage B. moiety C. phratry D. descent group 33. A society that is organized into moieties (a terminology derived from the French) has a particular social organization that structures.
0 Views
View Answer
  31. High infant mortality rates, the view that children are future assets who can care for their parents in old age, and the benefits associated with child labor all encouraged individuals in agricultural states to: A. have large families B. rely on sorcery, witchcraft, and shamanism to ensure that very few people.
1 Views
View Answer
  1. Anthropologists who use the holistic approach to analyze sociocultural systems try to "shoot holes" in the theories and studies of other anthropologists. 2. Part of the challenge for anthropologists in doing field research is adjusting to a different society and gaining a much better perspective on one's own society. 3. Since.
6 Views
View Answer
  40. The term "Second World" is used to refer to: A. modern, industrialized nation-states B. what used to be called the Soviet Union and other communist countries C. undeveloped, nonindustrialized countries D. traditional, prestate societies affected by contact with the modern world 41. Since the 1960s, the Ju/’hoansi or San have become: A. increasingly independent and.
4 Views
View Answer
  11. Reciprocity occurs only in egalitarian, non-stratified societies. 12. The attempt to get something for nothing is called negative reciprocity. 13. All forager groups have a concept of private land ownership that is similar to that found in Western societies. 14. Band organization among foragers is very rigid and unchanging since individuals must.
0 Views
View Answer
  40. "Fission" and "fusion" in hunting and gathering societies refer to: A. hazards of contacts with the industrialized world B. cyclical change in population density relative to resources C. decision-making processes used by tribal leaders D. the dynamics of wild plant resources 41. Hunting and gathering societies will sometimes resort to infanticide in order to: A..
0 Views
View Answer
  1. Hunting and gathering societies have always existed in marginal environments. 2. By studying contemporary foragers (hunter-gatherers) anthropologists can gain a better understanding of life during the Paleolithic. 3. The nice thing about studying hunter-gather societies is the fact that they have never been in contact with or influenced by other cultures,.
5 Views
View Answer
  51. The compadrazgo system in Latin America is based on the establishment of kinship ties by becoming someone's: A. in-law B. spouse C. godparent D. fictive sibling 52. African women in urban regions are rural women to receive a formal education. A. more likely than B. less likely than C. as likely as D. paid by 53. Ethnologist Oscar Lewis.
1 Views
View Answer
  31. Division of labor in industrial societies is often divided into three sectors. The primary sector is involved in the extraction of energy and raw materials, the secondary sector consists of the factories which process the raw materials, and the tertiary sector which includes services. At the present, the most.
0 Views
View Answer
  21. The typical Yoruba household consists of a man, his wife, and their unmarried children. 22. Urban West African women tend to be more educated and independent than their rural counterparts. 23. Women in rural Africa tend to be the poorest people on the world’s poorest continent. 24. According to Oscar Lewis, a.
0 Views
View Answer
  52. Like band societies, tribal societies: A. have highly structured and efficient political organizations B. do not have any political organizations, only kinship groupings C. have decentralized political systems in which authority is vested among a number of individuals, groups, and associations D. have acephalus political organizations 53. A form of tribal political organization found,.
1 Views
View Answer
1. The Industrial Revolution is a term that is used to describe the events that occurred when humans changed from foraging (hunting and gathering) to food production (domestication of plants and animals) about 10,000 years ago. 2. Unlike bands, tribes, or chiefdoms that are affected by the environment, industrial states have.
4 Views
View Answer
  36. The kula, described by Malinowski in Argonauts of the Pacific, refers to: A. a type of outrigger canoe, used for long-distance travel by island chiefs B. a ceremonial dance performed by the indigenous Hawaiians C. a ritual in which red shell necklaces were traded for white armbands D. a sacred beverage whose use.
0 Views
View Answer
1. States differ structurally from bands, tribes, and chiefdoms by having a bureaucratic or governmental organization. 2. The term “civilization” usually implies societies with a complex division of labor, with economic roles other than those pertaining to food production. 3. In contrast to horticulture, intensive agriculture allows a population to produce a.
5 Views
View Answer
  11. Anthropological research has shown that in some cultures females do not have social roles; only men have roles. 12. Small-scale societies tend to have more social stratification than large-scale societies because there are fewer people to occupy the statuses and play the roles. 13. A family is a social group that.
1 Views
View Answer
  33. The ultimate aim and spiritual goal for all Hindus is: A. freedom from the cycle of reincarnation through spiritual enlightenment B. following the code of law given to humans by God C. emulating the life of the prophet Muhammad D. achieving salvation and eternal life through a personal relationship with God 34. One of.
0 Views
View Answer
  11. If a tribal society has norms that prescribe cross-cousin or parallel-cousin marriage and an individual does not have a cousin in the particular category, that individual must remain single for the rest of his or her life since no mates fit the norm. 12. Margaret Mead felt that culture (enculturation).
1 Views
View Answer
  42. In general, divorces are most common among societies that are: A. patrilineal and patrilocal B. matrilineal and matrilocal C. organized into bilateral descent groups D. polyandrous and avunculocal 43. Deborah Gewertz, who has re-examined Mead's interpretations of the Tchambuli (Chambri), arrived at the conclusion that: A. Chambri women are among the most aggressive in all.
0 Views
View Answer
  11. The Ju/’hoansi or San were protected from exploitation and assimilation by the South African government. 12. Ju/’hoansi or San men fought against guerrillas who opposed apartheid as members of the South African military. 13. Rates of alcoholism among the Ju/’hoansi or San have increased as a result of wage labor. 14. Mbuti.
1 Views
View Answer
  21. Since individualistic religious practices and beliefs were deemed as threatening to the state, one of the major functions of priests was to standardize religious beliefs and practices for the society. 22. In ancient agricultural states, religion sanctified and legitimized the authority of political leaders. 23. Most cultures with matrilineal social organizations.
0 Views
View Answer