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1.Daniel Bell claims that Western societies, and the United States in particular, have      been evolving toward a postindustrial society. This is a type of society in which: a.knowledge and expertise replace property ownership as the basic mechanism on which the system turns b.communism replaces capitalism c.cherished values are threatened d.industrial forms of technology.
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    81.Redistribution differs from reciprocity in that the former is a less formalized process. ( F ) 82.Most hunter-gatherer societies display notable patterns of social stratification.  83.Ranking is a form of stratification found in many simple horticultural societies.  84.In intensive horticultural societies the negative features of the stratification system are frequently softened by.
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1.Carol Ember’s study of 181 contemporary hunter-gatherer societies indicates that : a.gathering is about as important a subsistence activity as hunting and fishing combined b.while hunting is more prestigious, gathering contributes the bulk of the calories in           most hunter-gatherer societies c.hunting (including fishing) is the dominant subsistence activity in most cases d.when the care.
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    61.Agriculture originated in the Middle East some 10,000 years ago and spread from there to China, Southeast Asia, and the New World. 62.Most slash-and-burn simple horticulturalists maintain relatively short fallow periods ( i.e., no longer than 10 years) on previously cultivated garden land.  63.Intensive horticulturalists differ from simple horticulturalists mainly.
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    51.Wallerstein believes that any capitalist nation’s economic actions cannot be understood apart from the global network of capitalist relations.  52.In many ways what Wallerstein has done is to expand Marx’s model of capitalist        exploitation to the world-system as a whole.  53.The most severe forms of exploitation in the capitalist world-economy.
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    21.Robert Kelly’s study of the workload of hunter-gatherer societies around the world         indicates that: a.Marshall Sahlins’s claim that hunter-gatherers constitute the “original affluent society” is false b.hunter-gatherers generally work much more than members of modern industrial              societies c.only members of elite groups in such societies enjoy the affluence that Sahlins             describes d.hunter-gatherers spend on.
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    11.The absence of market principles in state socialist societies is evidenced in the : a.semimonetarized character of the economy  b.totalitarian character of the political system c.large size of the state sector d.continued existence of small-scale artisans 12.Sanderson and Alderson attribute the transition to postsocialism to : a.a shift in emphasis in the state socialist societies.
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    11.The Neolithic Revolution of V. Gordon Childe is associated with which of the following: a.the emergence of agriculture b.the move from societas to civitas c.the invention of the plow d.the shift from polytheism to monotheism 12.Leslie White identifies two major transitions in human history, which are the : a.Neolithic Revolution and Urban Revolution b.fall of feudalism.
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1.Pastoral societies : a.live off animal herds and their products rather than agriculture b.are generally found in environments in which the practice of agriculture is difficult or impossible c.are still found in some parts of the world today d.all of these 2.Agrarian societies : a.generally have short fallow periods for land, or no fallow periods.
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    61.One of the most common explanations of the demographic transition is that it resulted from: a.the declining economic value of children’s labor with industrialization b.female empowerment c.declining infant mortality rates d.the development of stem cell research 62.Sanderson and Dubrow’s research found that the most important factor determining declining rates of childbearing in the demographic.
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    11.Among the industrial capitalist societies, _____ appears to have the most unequal        distribution of income, while _____ has/have the most egalitarian distribution:        a.  Britain; Sweden b.Germany; Norway c.the United States; Sweden, Denmark, and Japan d.Italy; Switzerland 12.While the social democratic welfare states of Scandinavia have had limited success         in achieving a more equal.
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    41.In peripheral market societies the principal focus of economic life is the market and its activities.  42.Traditionally, it has been thought that economic commercialism was of little        significance in precapitalist societies.  43.A market is a physical place where people assemble in order to buy and sell        valuables.  44.The Roman Empire.
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1.In state socialist societies : a.all forms of property are owned and controlled by the state b.the state controls the means of economic production and manages the economy   c.a form of social life very close to Marx's conception of socialism prevails       d.  all of these 2.Chase-Dunn and other world-system theorists regard the Soviet Union.
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    51.The type of political organization frequently associated with intensive horticultural         societies is known as a:         a.  state b.band c.bureaucracy d.chiefdom 52.Bands and tribes : a.commonly lack formalized legal and political mechanisms for maintaining order and settling disputes b.frequently threaten to collapse into anarchy and chaos c.do not have political systems d.are often characterized by political centralization 53.Social.
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    41.Inequalities of income and wealth in the United States and Britain are : a.very different – Britain is a much more unequal society b.very different – Britain is a much more equal society c.much more similar than different 42.Keister’s research shows that the Gini coefficient for wealth inequality in the United States in.
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    51.Janos Kornai has viewed the state socialist economies as permanent shortage economies. 52.The Soviet economy was never successful in any way at any stage of its development. 53.              Sanderson and Alderson attribute the major difficulties that state socialist economies         experienced in the 1980s entirely to the internal economic limitations of.
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    41.The “leopard-skin chief” is a major leader in which of the following societies?        a. the Kpelle b.the Yanomama c.the Nuer d.the Basseri 42.Two well-known pastoral societies from the historical past were the : a.Hsiung-nu and the Mongols b.the Chinese and the Arabs c.the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians d.the Greeks and the Romans 43.Pastoralists are usually organized into.
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    31.The capitalist world-system is not only an expanding system, for it is also an evolving        system. This means that it has:        a. gotten bigger over time b.changed its structure over time c.improved over time d.none of these 32.A hegemonic society is one that : a.is economically “number one” b.controls a very strong military c.has a very.
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    11.Industrial capitalism differs from other forms of capitalism in that it involves the : a.earning of profit through the exploitation of wage workers b.reorganization of the work force into the factory system c.establishment of the factory as the basic unit of production        d.  all of these 12.Sanderson and Alderson suggest that the idea.
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    31.Generalized reciprocity : a.does not occur in all societies b.is in evidence when “please” and “thank you” are commonly heard c.constitutes the very essence of economic life among intensive horticulturalists         d.  all of the above e.  none of the above 32.“Bigmanship” is associated most closely with : a.reciprocity b.pure distribution c.partial redistribution d.surplus expropriation 33.The quest for high.
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    31.The primary purpose of social evolutionary theories is to explain the biologically evolved adaptations that drive human social behavior.  32.An important feature of all social evolutionary theories is that they organize history into a typology of stages. 33.According to Sanderson and Alderson, the strongest evolutionary theories are those that focus.
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    41.The stratification system is still associated with a strong “redistributive ethic” in          ________ societies: a.simple horticultural b.intensive horticultural c.pastoral d.agrarian e.industrial 42.Persons of prestige and influence in hunter-gatherer societies : a.are typically accorded a number of special privileges not available to others b.are considered no more than “firsts among equals” c.typically pass their prestige and influence on.
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    21.Marvin Harris’s Principle of Infrastructural Determinism assumes that the ________       conditions the ________, which in turn conditions the ________: a.superstructure; structure; infrastructure b.economy; politics; religion c.infrastructure; structure; superstructure d.technology; economy; ideology 22.According to Harris, the overall process of social evolution is driven by : a. technological change d. automatic social differentiation c.environmental depletion and the intensification of.
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    41.According to V. Gordon Childe, the rise of agriculture was the key features of the Neolithic Revolution.  42.Julian Steward was especially concerned with the role technology plays in social evolution. 43.According to Sanderson and Alderson, the weakest point of the social evolutionary ideas of Talcott Parsons is their excessive materialism. .
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    61.Industrial capital was entirely absent from the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century        European economic landscape.  62.The fact that capitalism has not been transformed into a world-empire is believed        by Wallerstein to have contributed greatly to its long-term persistence.  63.Slavery, serfdom, and other forms of forced labor disappeared as the capitalist world-economy grew.
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      91.The wielding of great power by certain individuals is characteristic of numerous bands and tribes.  92.Bands and tribes notably lack social conflict over access to the means of economic         production.  93.According to Marshall Sahlins, Polynesian chiefs were only men of influence and lacked any capacity to compel others to serve.
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    11.According to Boserup, the adoption of more intensive modes of production : a.is likely to lead to an improvement in living standards b.is likely to occur when people suffer a significant drop in their standard of living as a result of population growth c.is likely to lead to a resumption of earlier.
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    21.Which of the following features of modern mass educational systems do the authors of the theory of education as nation-building claim to address? a.the universal, standardized, and highly rationalized character of modern mass              educational systems b.the striking similarities between the educational systems of otherwise very              different countries c.the orientation of modern educational systems.
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    51.Wallerstein supports the idea that the Industrial Revolution represented a dramatic         rupture with the past.  52.Considerable mechanization occurred in Europe in the centuries prior to the Industrial Revolution, especially during the period between 1540 and 1640.  53.The turn of the twentieth century witnessed the relative decline of Great Britain and         the.
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    11.Wallerstein’s most distinctive contribution to our contemporary understanding of        capitalism is his: a.view that capitalism is headed for self-destruction b.notion that the United States is starting on a path of steady decline within world capitalism c.notion that capitalism is inherently exploitative d.concept that capitalism has always existed as a complex world-system 12.According to Wallerstein,.
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    71.Hunter-gatherers only came to understand how to domesticate plants and animals        about 10,000-12,000 years ago.  72.Some social scientists have suggested that an important distinction needs to be made        between two types of hunter-gatherer societies, those who store food and those who do not.  73.Marx’s notion that the earliest societies lived.
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1.The Industrial Revolution : a.was a technological revolution only b.involved a series of technological developments that radically reorganized the           nature of capitalism c.was immediately recognized as such by those who lived through it      d.  none of these 2.The first phase of the Industrial Revolution took place in _______ from       approximately ________: a.England; 1760-1830 b.England;.
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    31.Which of the following do Sanderson and Alderson identify as important causes of the       collapse of socialism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe?        a. overcentralization of production b.no economic planning c.the economic, political, and military constraints on socialism exerted by a hostile           capitalist world-economy        d. two of these 32.The highest ranking.
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1.Peripheral market societies generally establish the prices of goods by : a.impersonal market mechanisms b.having them set by members of the elite c.haggling d.government committees 2.Hunter-gatherers, simple horticulturalists, and many intensive horticulturalists are :        a.  market-based societies b.marketless societies c.peripheral market societies d.market-dominated societies 3.Which of the following societies is a peripheral market society? a.the Yanomama b.the !Kung c.medieval Europe.
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    21.Karl Marx and Immanuel Wallerstein have both argued that : a.capitalism requires the existence of a class of wage laborers b.the distinction between merchant and industrial capitalism is  a vital one c.capitalism originated in fourteenth-century Italy d.the maximum accumulation of profits over time is the guiding aim of capitalist               economic activity 22.Mercantilism : a.became prominent.
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    21.Sanderson and Alderson suggest that the recent political upheavals in Eastern Europe        were: a.“people’s revolutions” begun in order to introduce democracy b.“revolutions from above,” i.e., revolutions initiated by a segment of the political elite c.possible because the Soviet Union relaxed its political and military domination of               Eastern Europe         d.  all of these 22.Sanderson.
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    31.Social mobility in agrarian societies was : a.basically nonexistent b.occasionally upward but mainly downward c.occasionally downward but mainly upward d.almost always upward 32.According to Sanderson and Alderson, the emergence of stratification : a.is preceded in time by the production of an economic surplus b.is unrelated to the production of an economic surplus c.occurs first and is then.
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    51.Medieval England is a good example of the agrarian mode of subsistence technology. 52.Pastoralists often obtain agricultural products through trade with agricultural        neighbors. 53.According to Sanderson and Alderson, whenever new forms of technology become       available people will automatically adopt them because of their obvious benefits.  54.Population pressure exists whenever population.
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    31.In the United States in 1995, the top income quintile received ________ percent of the total income, whereas the bottom quintile received ________ percent:       a. 20; 20 b.10; 30 c.20 ;  50 d.46.5; 4.4 32.Research by Lisa Keister shows that, in terms of the distribution of wealth, the top wealth quintile in the.
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    81.According to Keister, income inequality is a better measure of the real extent of inequality than wealth inequality. 82.Sanderson and Alderson are critical of Erik Olin Wright’s insistence that class relationships are always based on exploitation. 83.Paul Kingston shows that mobility rates in the United States are relatively high. 84.The.
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    41.If Giovanni Arrighi’s notion of the systemic cycle of accumulation is correct, then we should expect which of the following in the near future? a.a great boost in the hegemonic power of the United States b.a cyclical return to the rise of Genoa as a world-economic power c.a great decline in the hegemonic.
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    11.Humans have subsisted entirely by hunting and gathering for ________ percent of their history: a.99 b.50 c.25 d.15 12.The production of an economic surplus by hunter-gatherers occurs : a.frequently, but the lack of appropriate preservation technology means that much of the surplus spoils b.rarely, because the natural environment is incapable of allowing it to be generated c.frequently,.
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    71.According to Sanderson and Alderson, western Europe and Japan became the first        truly capitalist societies primarily because they had religions and cultural systems        that were highly conducive to the rational acquisition of wealth.  72.Many of the methods and practices that define modern capitalism (i.e., doubleentry bookkeeping) were actually developed centuries.
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    21.How many societies have achieved hegemonic status within the capitalist world-system        throughout its history?        a. 3 b.8 c.1 d.12 22.According to Wallerstein, which of the following countries have been hegemonic in the        modern world-system? a.Holland, Great Britain, and the United States b.Holland c.Great Britain and the United States d.Great Britain, the United States, and Germany 23.Great Britain.
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    71.In industrial countries today, primary and secondary education is more or less       universal (i.e., nearly everyone of the appropriate age attends).  72.According to Barrington Moore, the turn toward parliamentary government in        England had to do with the compatibility of that form of government with the class interests of capitalists.  73.According.
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    21.Sanderson and Alderson suggest that a distinction must be made between        expropriation and partial redistribution because: a.landlords have considerably greater power than chiefs b.the flow of goods between peasants and lords is substantially more unequal than the flow of valuables between chiefs and commoners c.both of these d.neither of these 22.The two most important.
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    61.What Sanderson and Alderson call the scarcity theory of stratification views surplus economic production as a consequence of an initial condition of stratification rather than as a fundamental cause of stratification.  62.Agrarian societies are by far the most highly stratified of all preindustrial societies.  63.The privileged status of the priestly.
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    51.Rueschemeyer, Stephens, and Stephens claim that historically the social class most hostile to democracy has been the:        a. landlord class b.working class c.peasantry d.middle class 52.According to Rueschemeyer, Stephens, and Stephens, democracy took root earliest and most firmly in those societies that had experienced:        a. the Protestant Reformation b.governmental reform c.high levels of industrialization d.religious.
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    31.Sanderson and Alderson argue that the emergence of capitalism in Europe and Japan is attributable to a combination of: a.favorable preconditions and the timing of the critical mass of commercialization b.dominant ideology and technology c.demographic collapse and political decentralization d.growing class conflict and the revival of long-distance trade 32.The capitalism of Bruges and of.
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    41.According to Sanderson and Alderson, our best hope for a future society is likely to be : a.capitalism based on completely free markets b.a global socialist system c.a return to agrarian societies but with more emphasis on economic equality d.“capitalism with a human face,” as in northern European countries 42.There is no disagreement among.
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