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1. What is anthropology? A. the art of ethnography B. the study of long-term physiological adaptation C. the study of the stages of social evolution D. the humanistic investigation of myths in nonindustrial societies E. the exploration of human diversity in time and space 2. A holistic and comparative perspective A. makes general anthropology superior to sociocultural.
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  55. Antimodernism describes a rejection of the modern in favor of what is perceived as an earlier, purer, better way of life. 56. Fundamentalists are correct in seeing a rise in secularism in contemporary North America. 57. To Kottak, the widespread U.S. belief that recreation and religion are separate domains is both.
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  25. Unlike “indigenous peoples,” what term, which highlights the prominence that the exclusion of strangers has assumed in day-to-day politics worldwide, has been claimed by majority groups in Europe? A. indigenous people B. autochthon C. mestizo D. euroindio E. freedom fighter 26. ________ describes the process of viewing an identity as established, real, and frozen, so.
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  16. Which of the following statements about British colonialism is NOT true? A. It lacked an intervention philosophy. B. It can be divided into two stages. C. It was legitimized by the racist notion of the “white man’s burden.” D. It began to disintegrate after World War II. E. It was partly driven by business.
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  47. Colonialism refers to the solicitation by peripheral countries of political and financial assistance from core nations. 48. The British notion “white man’s burden” is similar to the French concept mission civilisatrice in that both were racist ideologies used to justify the colonial efforts of their respective countries. 49. French colonial strategies.
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  21. ________ refers to the blurring and breakdown of established canons—rules, standards, categories, distinctions, and boundaries. A. Chaos B. Entropy C. Postmodern D. Agoraphobia E. Diaspora 22. Social movements worldwide have adopted which term as a self-identifying and political label based on past oppression but now legitimizing a search for social, cultural, and political rights? A. indio B..
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  26. Protestant values such as asceticism and entrepreneurship as a result of the belief that success on earth could lead to salvation, and a fervent individualism due to the belief that only individuals could be saved lead, in the right conditions, to the rise of capitalism. Who made this argument? A..
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  50. In Western societies, artistic and craft specialization is based on kin groups. 51. The reason students of non-Western art have generally ignored individual artists in the societies they have studied is that there aren’t any. In non-Western communities, there is no concept of individual artists. 52. The increasing role of the.
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  6. This chapter’s description of how humans cope with low oxygen pressure in high altitudes illustrates A. human capacities for cultural and biological adaptation, the latter involving both genetic and physiological adaptations. B. how biological adaptations are effective only when they are genetic. C. how human plasticity has decreased ever since we embraced.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 32. The current world stratification system features a substantial contrast between capitalists and workers in the core nations, and workers on the periphery. 33. According to Wallerstein, the nations in the world system can be classified into three types: core, periphery, and frontier. 34. Trade and other economic relations between core.
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1. Because our planet’s climate is always changing, the key question becomes, how much of global warming is caused by human activities versus natural climate variability? On this issue, most scientists agree that the causes are mainly A. evolutionary. B. ecological. C. anthropogenic. D. moral. E. indigenized. 2. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that.
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  52. Neoliberalism refers to a revival of Adam Smith’s classic economic liberalism, which suggests that governments should not regulate private enterprise and that free market forces should rule. 53. The distinction between small-c communism and large-C Communism is an example of arbitrary concepts defined in the social sciences. 54. With the spread.
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  11. Who viewed the nation-state as an instrument of oppression and religion as a method of diverting and controlling the masses? A. Weber B. Freud C. Tylor D. Marx E. Morgan 12. Which of the following statements about Karl Marx is NOT true? A. He analyzed 19th-century industrial production capitalism. B. He viewed socioeconomic stratification in terms of.
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  49. The term indigenous people gained legitimacy within international law with the creation in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations. 50. Social movements worldwide have adopted the term indigenous people as a self-identifying and political label based on past oppression but are now legitimizing it in the.
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  6. In states, how is art typically defined? A. If something is mass produced, it cannot be art. B. State societies rely heavily on critics, judges, and experts to make these decisions. C. Only things intentionally created as art can be called art. D. Only artists create art. E. If it is expensive, it is.
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  35. Nonstate societies generally lack permanent, specialized venues for art and religion. 36. In the United States, there is a sharp distinction between what is considered art and what is not. 37. In modern states, there tends to be much more uniformity in the culture’s artistic standards compared to in less stratified.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 29. Although anthropologists may be interested in contemporary global issues such as climate change, their perspective is necessarily limited to the local scale of their fieldwork. 30. Scientists prefer the term climate change to global warming. The former term points out that, beyond rising temperatures, there have been changes in.
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  40. The differences between sociology and cultural anthropology are becoming increasingly more distinct. 41. Psychologists tend to study only people living in the non-Western world, so anthropology has very little to offer this field. 42. Applied anthropology encompasses any use of the knowledge and/or techniques its four subfields to identify, assess, and.
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  31. Which of the following statements about religion is NOT true? A. The functions of religious beliefs and practices vary with the society. B. Religion is often an instrument of societal change, even revolution. C. Religion serves only to maintain social solidarity; it does not create or maintain societal divisions. D. Political leaders never.
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  11. The Handsome Lake religion A. led the Iroquois Indians to reject European farming techniques and therefore avoid ethnocide. B. was compatible with the Iroquois’ stress on female over male labor. C. led the Iroquois to adopt communal longhouses. D. was a revitalization movement that helped the Iroquois survive in a drastically modified environment. E..
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 35. Émile Durkheim, an early scholar of religion, stressed what he termed religious effervescence. Anthropologists too have stressed the collective, social, shared, and enacted nature of religion, the emotions it generates, and the meanings it embodies. 36. Like ethnicity and language, religion is also associated with social divisions within and.
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  42. Weber argued that the only true capitalists were Protestants, and people who believed in any other faith could never fully mature as capitalists. 43. Higher wages and improved benefits for workers in core nations are possible only because an added surplus from the periphery enables companies to maintain high profit.
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  11. Because music is a cultural universal and musical abilities seem to run in families, A. everybody, regardless of culture, loves to dance. B. it is possible to use musical abilities as a biological marker for human races. C. it has been suggested that music is a concept of a social fiction. D. anthropologists.
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  16. Cultural meaning is A. imposed by a text. B. locally created. C. inherent in a text. D. produced by a text, not from it. E. determined only by the author. 17. Illustrating how forces from world centers can and are creatively modified to fit the local culture, how did the Native Australians interpret the movie.
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  16. Art can often lead to an intense emotional release, also referred to as A. hypercommunication. B. catharsis. C. exalted symbolism. D. humor. E. intensive aesthetics. 17. In many non-Western societies, how are traditional manifestations of expressive culture transmitted? A. through formal state-run schools for the arts B. by chance C. in families D. through the nonproductive members of society E..
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  45. Religion can be used as a powerful means of controlling society. 46. Witch hunts are an example of how religion can be used to limit deviant social behavior by instilling strong motivations to behave properly. 47. Shamans are full-time religious practitioners generally found in state-level societies. 48. Max Weber argued that the.
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  21. In nonindustrial societies, artists A. tend to be full-time specialists. B. tend to be part-time specialists. C. do not exist. D. are relegated to the hidden transcript of the social contract. E. tend to display their work exclusively in galleries. 22. All of the following are examples of an ethnocentric view of art in the.
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  44. TV programming that is culturally alien tends to outperform native programming when the alien programming comes from the United States, Great Britain, and France. 45. Forces influencing production and consumption are no longer restricted by national boundaries. 46. Diaspora refers to the hegemonic policy of dominators to isolate individuals who publicly.
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  16. What is communitas? A. a social inequality that is accepted even by those who are less privileged B. a collective liminality C. anxiety D. the Latin word for mana E. the supernatural 17. Rituals serve the social function of creating temporary or permanent solidarity among people—forming a social community. We see this also in practices.
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  6. Which of the following did NOT result from Christopher Columbus’s voyages? A. The rate of violence among Native Americans markedly increased. B. Europeans extracted silver and gold from the land. C. Europeans enslaved Native Americans. D. Europeans offered statehood to Peru, Mexico, and Cuba. E. Europeans colonized New World lands. 7. What does the term.
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  55. U.S. popular culture has moved from a preoccupation with class differences to a tendency to deny or ignore their existence. The narratives we see on screen and in print today often present homogenized upper-middle-class lifestyles in which social diversity is minimized and the economic underpinnings of class are ignored. 56..
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  11. What are the four subfields of anthropology? A. medical anthropology, ethnography, ethnology, and cultural anthropology B. archaeology, biological anthropology, applied linguistics, and applied anthropology C. biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology D. genetic anthropology, physical anthropology, psychological anthropology, and anthropology and linguistics E. primatology, ethnology, cultural anthropology, and paleoscatology 12. Anthropologists’ early interest.
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  11. Which of the following is true about rites of passage? A. Beliefs and rituals can, ironically, both diminish and create anxiety and a sense of insecurity and danger. B. Despite their prevalence during the time that Victor Turner did his research, rites of passage have disappeared with the advent of modern.
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  6. Today’s ecological anthropology, also known as environmental anthropology, attempts not only to understand but also to A. find solutions to environmental problems, acknowledging that ecosystems management involves multiple levels. B. prescribe top-down solutions to ecological problems. C. work closely with state agencies, among whom they do most of their ethnography, to promote.
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1. How does the modern world system affect ethnographers? A. There are almost no truly isolated cultures left, making it difficult to do real ethnographic research. B. They need to be aware of the fact that any culture they study is influenced by and has influence on other cultures. C. They must be.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 30. All art is objectively beautiful. 31. Expressive culture refers to the components of a culture that are expressed publicly, as opposed to the private aspects of culture that are hidden from anthropologists. 32. Art and religion are similar, because both refer to aspects of culture that are of more than.
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  26. One effect of the spread of industrialization has been A. a decrease in global power. B. the destruction of indigenous economies, ecologies, and populations. C. the incorporation of indigenous communities into industrial projects. D. an increased awareness among industrialists and states of the need for environmental protection. E. an increase in the equitable distribution.
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  45. The oldest known musical instrument, the “Divje babe flute,” dates back to more than 43,000 years ago. 46. Some researchers have proposed that early humans with a biological penchant for music may have been able to live more effectively in social groups, thus conferring an adaptive advantage to this penchant. 47..
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  21. Linguistic anthropology A. is a research strategy of biological anthropologists studying the emergence of language among nonhuman primates. B. relies heavily on the methods of phrenology. C. includes sociolinguistics, descriptive linguistics, and the study of the biological basis for speech. D. includes cultural anthropology and paleoecology. E. has securely dated the origin of hominid.
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  16. Which of the following perspectives emphasizes how cultural forces constantly mold human biology? A. cultural genetics perspective B. biocultural perspective C. psychological anthropological perspective D. holistic perspective E. scientific–humanistic perspective 17. Ethnography is the A. study of biological adaptability. B. preliminary data that sociologists use to develop survey research. C. fieldwork component of cultural anthropology. D. cross-cultural comparative component.
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  37. The Industrial Revolution did not begin in France, because the French domestic manufacturing system could produce satisfactorily without innovating. 38. The seeds of industrial society were planted well before the 18th century. For example, a knitting machine invented in England in 1589 was so far ahead of its time that.
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  39. Although acculturation can be applied to any case of cultural contact and change, the term most often has described Westernization, the positive influence of Western expansion that has spread democratic and capitalistic values to those less fortunate. 40. As a vehicle of change, religious proselytizing is a culturally neutral factor. 41..
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  21. All of the following are true about neoliberalism EXCEPT that it A. places more emphasis on individual responsibility than on the common good. B. characterizes the type of policies designed by powerful international financial institutions. C. has been spreading globally. D. refers to a recent revival of economic liberalism. E. is characterized by the.
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  50. Worldwide, Islam is growing at a rate of about 2.9 percent annually, versus 2.3 percent for Christianity, whose overall growth rate is the same as the rate of world population increase. 51. The Handsome Lake revitalization movement urged its followers to reaffirm the traditions of the Iroquois. 52. A syncretism is.
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1. ________ is synonymous with the arts. A. Social creativity B. Aesthetics C. Myth D. Expressive culture E. Performance 2. Which of the following statements is true regarding the relationship between art and religion? A. All non-Western art is produced anonymously for religious purposes. B. In all societies, art is produced for religious purposes as well as its.
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  21. Which of the following functions to reduce differences in wealth between the members of a society and tends to be directed at socially marginal individuals? A. blood feuds B. Olympian religions C. rites of passage D. cargo cults E. witchcraft accusations 22. What term refers to a custom or social action that operates to reduce.
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  6. Besides animism—and sometimes coexisting with it in the same society—there is a view of the supernatural as a domain of raw impersonal power, or force, that people can control under certain conditions. This conception of the supernatural is particularly prominent in Melanesia. Melanesians refer to this force as A. taboo. B..
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