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  1.  Most early anthropologists obtained their data from lengthy field research. a.True b.False 2.  Biological anthropologists are most interested in studying variation at the individual level. a.True b.False 3.  Humans vary __________. a.only at the group level b.only at the individual level c.only at the population level d.at the group, individual, and population level 4.  Sex and age are examples of.
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  1. __________is a field devoted to the gleaning of all the information that can be extracted from fossils. a.Taphonomy b.Paleontology c.Geology d.Stratigraphy 2.  A fossil can be studied to learn __________. a.its age b.the kind of organism it represents c.the environment is which the original creature lived d.all of these 3.  Geology is best defined as the study of.
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  11.  The primate order can be broken down into two suborders including the suborder __________. a.strepsirhines Strepsirhini b.prosimians Prosimii c.haplorhines Haplorhini d.all of these 12.  The strepsirhine infraorder includes __________. a.lemurs b.tarsiers c.monkeys d.none of these 13.  Members of the haplorhine infraorder closely resemble the earliest primates. a.True b.False 14.  Humans and apes are members of the __________ infraorder. a.prosimian b.anthropoid c.haplorhine d.strepsirhine 15.  The primate body plan.
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  31.  Which of the following is true of primates? a.they live longer lives than all the other mammals b.they grow up faster than other mammals c.they rely on instinct more so than other mammals d.they have an extended ontogeny 32.           is perhaps the most fundamental social adaptation that characterizes most primates. a.A nocturnal.
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  51.  Animals in the hominoid taxon __________. a.all form large societies b.are all exclusively frugivorous c.all have brachiator anatomy d.are all highly arboreal 52.  Which of the following is NOT true of gibbons? a.they sometimes have secretive matings outside of their pair bonds b.they are among the least vocal of all nonhuman primates c.they are highly arboreal d.they range.
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  21. While the femur of a quadruped is straight, the femur of a biped is __________. a.curved b.angled inward to the knee c.reduced at the knee d.angled outward to the knee 22. Over time, hominin legs lengthened relative to trunk lengths which __________. a.made climbing more difficult b.increased the energy requirements of hominins c.increased stride length and efficiency d.decreased.
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  21.  Who among the following was opposed to the use of the term race? a.Carolus Linnaeus b.Franz Boas c.Ashley Montagu d.Reverend Samuel Stanhope Smith 22.  What is a difference between the concepts of race and ethnic group? a.races are separated from one another by social barriers b.the concept of race explicitly incorporates sociocultural factors c.ethnic groups are separated.
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  31.  The Tertiary period spans from __________. a.4.5 million to 60,000 years ago b.65 billion to 54.8 million years ago c.5.43 billion to 45 million years ago d.248 million to 6.5 million years ago 32.  Which of the following is an epoch of the Tertiary? a.the Pleistocene b.the Oligocene c.the Holocene d.the Cenozoic 33.  Which of the following is an.
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  61.  __________ years ago, the earth was divided into two continents, Gondwanaland and Laurasia. a.50 million b.200 million c.2 billion d.3.5 million years ago 62.  A high  18oxygen/16oxygen ratio in the shells of marine animals indicates __________. a.colder temperatures and lower sea levels b.higher temperatures and lower sea levels c.colder temperature sand higher sea levels d.warmer temperatures and higher.
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  21. The only two species of early hominin known from western Africa are __________. a.Australopithecus afarensis and Ardipithecus ramidus b.Orrorin tugenensis and Sahelanthropus tchadensis c.Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Austrolapithecus bahrelghazali d.Australopithecus africanus and Ardipithecus ramidus 22. Orrorin tugenensis dates to approximately __________ and was discovered in __________. a.5 mya, Tanzania b.6 mya, Kenya c.4.6 mya; South.
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  1. Direct physical evidence of human ancestors is obtainable only through __________. a.environmental reconstruction b.the fossil record c.primate studies d.conjecture 2. The Hominin family includes __________. a.humans as well as the great apes b.all extinct human ancestors after the split from the last common ancestor with chimps c.humans as well as all extinct ancestors after the split from.
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  61.  Our perception of bonobo behavior may be tainted by the fact that __________. a.bonobos are actually the same species as chimps b.bonobos are more aggressive and therefore harder to study safely c.most bonobo studies have been done in captive settings d.bonobos live solitary lives and are therefore hard to find 62.  After observing bonobos.
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  51.  __________can be defined as variant forms of an element. a.isotopes b.half-life c.radiometry d.none of these 52.  What is a parent-isotope? a.a radiometric dating technique b.a calibrated chemical stratum c.the original radioactive isotope in a sample d.the isotope that is produced as the result of radioactive decay 53.  What is a daughter-isotope? a.a radiometric dating technique b.a calibrated chemical stratum c.the original radioactive.
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  11. Bipeds have a(n) __________ spine. a.elongated b.s-shaped curved c.c-shaped curved d.straight 12. In bipeds, the lumbar vertebrae are enlarged in order to __________. a.more effectively bear weight b.provide a strong anchor for the upper legs c.enlarge the birth canal in females d.correct for balance problems 13. The __________ is comprised of fused vertebrae and forms the back of the.
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  31. Australopithecus afarensis lived from __________. a.4.2 to 3.5 mya b.5.1 to 4.5 mya c.3.9 to 2.9 mya d.3.2 to 2.5 mya 32. Lucy was discovered by Donald Johanson at Hadar, in the Awash Valley of __________ in 1974. a.Kenya b.Tanzania c.South Africa d.Ethiopia 33. Lucy is significant because __________. a.of her surprisingly small brain size b.the very early.
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  21.  Which is the least inclusive division of the GTS? a.eras b.epochs c.periods d.eons 22.  The Earth is estimated to be approximately __________ years old. a.65 million b.4.5 billion c.45 million d.6.5 billion 23.  The GTS is divided into the __________  eons. a.Precambrian and Cenozoic b.Archaean and Phanerozoic c.Precambrian and Phanerozoic c.  Mesozoic and Cenozoic 24.  What are the dates of the Precambrian? a.4.5 million to.
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  31.  Which of the following may be a factor in determining a population’s blood type distribution? a.bacterial disease b.temperatures c.cephalic index d.skin color 32.  A child may be born with hemolytic anemia if __________. a.there is maternal-fetal incompatibility of the rhesus system b.both the mother and child have type A blood c.there is maternal-fetal incompatibility of the ABO.
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  1.  Observing living primates can teach us about __________. a.human evolution b.adaptive radiation c.convergent evolution d.all of these 2.  Following Jane Goodall, most primatologists spend ___________ in the field. a.one or two days b.several months c.one or two years d.no time at all 3.  Primatology today benefits from new research tools including __________. a.DNA analysis to determine paternity b.hormonal studies using hormones.
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  51.  There are no populations where dairying is present, but lactose tolerance frequencies are low. a.True b.False 52.  In a balanced polymorphism, __________  prevents any of the alternative phenotypes from going to fixation or being lost. a.random forces b.genetic drift c.cultural practices d.natural selection 53.  A balanced polymorphism that is maintained because the advantageous phenotypes only retain their.
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  21.  Primates achieve stereoscopic vision by having __________. a.forward-facing eyes b.large eyes c.eyes that see well at night d.round eyes 22.  Primates usually have           at the ends of their digits. a.claws b.suction pads c.flat nails d.chemo receptors 23.  The arm of a(n) __________ has a full range of motion. a.ape b.strepsirhine c.monkey d.vertical clinger and leaper 24.  The arboreal hypothesis attributes primate.
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  21. __________ are remains that are so recent they have not yet fossilized. a.Skeletons b.Subfossils 22. The discovery of subfossil species of lemurs have shown __________. a.that lemurs are ancestral to higher primates b.that lemurs disappeared only about 1,000 years ago c.that lemurs were a much larger and varied group than previously thought d.that lemurs lived in.
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  11.  Which of the following states that strata are laid down parallel to the Earth’s gravitational field? a.uniformitarianism b.the principle of original horizontality c.the principle of superposition d.the principle of faunal succession 12.  Who is associated with the principle of original horizontality? a.Steno b.Lyell c.Smith d.Hutton 13.  Which of the following states that older strata are laid down below younger.
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  1. The footprints at Laetoli in Tanzania date to about __________. a.1.5 million years ago b.3.6 million years ago c.2 million years ago d.4 million years ago 2. Which of the following is NOT a feature of a hominin classification system? a.it is based on genetic rather than morphological data b.it shows modern humans and chimpanzees to.
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  31. Most scientists agree that energy efficiency is the prime mover for the development of bipedalism. a.true b.false 32. Bipedal walking is more energy efficient __________. a.than knucklewalking b.than quadrupedalism c.when running d.than arboreal locomotion 33. Which of the following is NOT a scenario for the evolution of bipedalism? a.energy efficiency b.tool making c.ecology d.sexual selection 34. According to Dean Falk and Glenn.
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  61.  Which of the following is a human response to extreme heat? a.vasoconstriction b.hypoxic ventilatory response c.sickle cell disorder d.vasodilation 62.  Which of the following is a human response to extreme cold? a.vasoconstriction b.hypoxic ventilatory response c.Sickle cell disorder d.vasodilation 63.  According to Bergmann’s Rule, __________. a.there is no relationship between body form and temperature b.the colder the climate, the larger the.
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  11.   A researcher investigating how various cultures classify organisms in the natural world is engaged in study of __________. a.ethnobotany b.ethnobiology c.polygenism d.anthropometry 12.  Both the ancient Greeks and Romans were aware of human variation. a.True b.False 13.  Friedrich Blumenbach believed __________. a.in a polygenic creation of life on earth b.that each human “race” was actually a separate species c.that the.
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  41.  At least __________ primate species are critically endangered. a.250 b.150 c.50 d.25 42.  Nearly all threatened nonhuman primate species live __________. a.in developing countries b.near cities c.in Central America d.in Africa 43.  The New World monkeys are classified in the infraorder __________. a.Prosimii b.Catarrhinii c.Platyrrhinii d.Pingidae 44.  All platyrrhines __________. a.have a relatively large body size b.have three premolar teeth c.are primarily terrestrial d.all of these 45.  There are.
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  21.  It is widely agreed that male primates compete for dominance to gain reproductive access to females. a.True b.False 22.  Which of the following is true of most nonhuman primates? a.Females invest less time and energy in reproduction than do males. b.Females compete for males. c.Females do not always mate with whichever male wins competitions. d.Females carrying.
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  51. Evidence exists that frugivorous primate species have __________ than folivorous primate species. a.more efficient calorie-burning metabolisms b.greater mobility c.larger digestive systems d.greater brain to body ratios 52. One problem with ecological intelligence models is __________. a.that the correlation between greater intelligence and foraging efficiency is weak b.that frugivorous primates are rarely more intelligent than other primates c.that.
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  11.  Which of the following best describes reproductive asymmetry? a.Females have a higher reproductive rate than males. b.Males invest more energy and time in offspring than females. c.Females tend to be competed for by males. d.Females are often very concerned about finding a male. 12.  In female philopatric species, __________ form the core of the.
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  11. Throughout hominin evolution over time __________ a.brain size and facial size vary between larger and smaller b.facial size decreases while brain size long remains constant c.brain size increases while facial size long remains constant d.brain size increases while facial size decreases 12. The reduction or loss of cranial crests in hominin species represents.
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  41.  Gene flow in skeletal populations is commonly traced by investigating __________. a.dental anatomy b.ancient DNA c.cephalic index d.the Duffy blood group 42.  A scientist constructing an evolutionary tree indicating relatedness and divergence times among taxonomic groups is making a __________. a.deme b.population c.phylogeny d.balanced polymorphism 43.  Which of the following is NOT true of phylogenetic trees? a.they are precise reconstructions.
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  51. The Taung child was identified by __________. a.Mary Leakey b.Richard Leakey c.Donald Johanson d.Raymond Dart 52. Australopithecus africanus has been found throughout __________. a.central Africa b.southern Africa c.eastern Africa d.western Africa 53. In an article in the British science journal Nature, Dart argued that Taung was a hominin, based on __________. a.its generalized teeth b.the broad and short.
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  61.  Ideal populations are common in nature. a.true b.False 62.  Hardy’s paper absolutely put to rest notions of “blending inheritance.” a.True b.False 63.  Which of the following best defines the idea of group selection? a.organisms never act altruistically b.natural selection can sometimes occur for the good of a whole group of animals c.animals never act selfishly d.all of these 64.  By.
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  41. A characteristic that differentiates Old World monkeys from apes is __________. a.eye orbits completely enclosed by a bony ridge b.downward-facing nostrils c.an extra premolar d.bilophodont molars 42. A characteristic that differentiates apes from Old World monkeys is __________. a.the lack of a third premolar b.more massive jaws c.a suspensory shoulder d.downward-facing nostrils 43. __________ may be a good candidate.
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  31. The first monkeys appeared between __________ million years ago. a.78 and 60 b.58 and 40 c.65 and 55 d.45 and 40 32. Much of the current information on the origins of higher primates comes from __________. a.The Congo Basin in central Africa b.Thailand c.southern China d.the Fayum in Egypt 33. Aegyptopithecus belongs to the __________ family of primates. a.Parapithecidae b.Oligopithecidae c.Propliopithecidae d.none of.
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  41. The Lovejoy model claims that pair bonding and male provisioning of females is the force behind the evolution of bipedalism. a.true b.false 42. One potential problem with the Lovejoy model is that __________. a.it is well established that early hominins were not monogamous b.it is not possible for males to know exactly when females.
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  31.  The study of nonhuman primates to access information about human evolution is limited by __________. a.the fact that we are not really primates ourselves b.the small number of nunhuman primate species living c.the huge variety and number of living nonhuman primate species d.the relative lack of similarity between primates and ourselves 32.  Primatologists choose.
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  51.  According to Hrdy, langur infanticide was the result of __________. a.human presence b.starvation c.competition for reproductive success d.overcrowding 52.  Critics of Hrdy attribute potential instances of langur infanticide to accidental death. a.True b.False 53.  In India, Paul Newton’s study of langurs correlated infanticide with __________. a.high population density b.human presence c.disease d.none of these 54.  Which of the following describes the occurrence.
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  41.  Prosimians tend to __________. a.have a solitary social system b.live in small groups c.live in large groups d.have a mixed social system depending on the season 42.  Which of the following typifies a prosimian social system? a.males live in large groups and compete for solitary females b.males live alone and use a system of smells and.
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  1.  The earliest members of the genus Homo are remarkably different from their Australopithecine ancestors. a.True b.False 2.  Which of the following is NOT a way that Homo differs from Australopithecus? a.only members of the genus Homo use tools b.hominins in the genus Homo have a larger braincase c.hominins in the genus Homo have less projecting.
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  61.  Which of the following is a difference between chimpanzees and bonobos? a.bonobos do not hunt b.only bonobo males engage in border clashes c.bonobo females do not emigrate d.bonobo females can achieve more dominance status 62.  Most primates are herbivores. a.True b.False 63.  Trees and __________ are in a long-running symbiosis. a.folivores b.frugivores 64.  The very largest primates tend to.
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  51. Early apes exhibiting Y-5 molar patterns but monkey-like postcranial skeletons are called __________. a.true apes b.false apes c.dental apes d.pre-apes 52. Which of the following is NOT true of the dental apes? a.they were small bodied compared to modern apes b.they had less fully developed stereoscopic vision c.they lacked a suspensory shoulder d.they walked in a plantigrade fashion 53..
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  61. Which of the following is NOT true of Gigantopithecus? a.it had a tough, fibrous diet, perhaps of bamboo b.it co-existed with Homo erectus c.it lived in western Africa d.it was the largest primate that ever lived 62. The probable ancestor of the gorilla, chimpanzee and bonobo lineages is __________. a.Ouranopithecus b.Dryopithecus c.Oreopithecus d.none of these 63. The divergence of.
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  1.  The earliest mammals most resembled living __________. a.monotremes b.primates c.lizards d.insects 2.  The first placental mammals appeared in the __________ period. a.Mesozoic b.Triassic c.Cretaceous d.Jurassic 3.  The diversification of __________ had a great effect on the diversification of Mesozoic mammals. a.birds b.big lizards c.flowering plants d.microscopic life forms 4.  During the Paleocene epoch, many archaic groups of mammals arose that are not precisely like.
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  11.  The fossil record of the __________ reveals the first true primates. a.Paleocene b.Miocene c.Eocene d.Jurassic 12.  Compared to plesiadapiforms, adapoids and omomyoids have __________. a.larger brains b.longer snouts c.claws d.all of these 13.  Compared to plesiadapiforms, adapoids and omomyoids have more stereoscopic vision. a.True b.False 14.  Adapids resemble modern __________. a.apes b.monkeys c.tarsiers d.none of these 15.  The __________ are best considered the most primitive known group.
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  41.  __________ is the study of geologic deposits and their formation. a.lithostratigraphy b.biostratigraphy c.tephrostratigraphy d.provenience 42.  Which of the following deals specifically with volcanic ash? a.lithostratigraphy b.biostratigraphy c.tephrostratigraphy d.provenience 43.  __________ is a dating technique using comparison of fossils. a.lithostratigraphy b.biostratigraphy c.tephrostratigraphy d.provenience 44.  Relative dating techniques establish the age of a fossil only in comparison to other material found with it. a.True b.False 45.  __________ dating techniques.
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  41. Habitat reconstructions at A. afarensis sites suggest __________. a.these hominins lived in open savannas b.these hominins lived in marshy areas c.these hominins lived in forests d.these hominins lived in brushy regions 42. Australopithecus afarensis shows ___________ sexual dimorphism. a.little b.no c.extreme d.average 43. The high degree of sexual dimorphism in A. afarensis suggests __________. a.that individuals of.
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  61. The masseter, temporalis, medial and lateral pterygoid muscles are as a group called the muscles of mastication. a. true b. false 62. The robust australopithecines are today sometimes referred to by the genus name __________. a.Paranthropus b.Aethiopicus c.Zinjanthropus d.Orrorin 63. Robust australopithecines probably had a diet that was __________. a.highly variable but completely vegetarian b.composed completely of.
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  1.  Biological anthropologists are interested in nonhuman primates because __________. a.we share a common ancestry b.studying their evolutionary history can teach us about evolutionary processes in general c.because they are intrinsically interesting d.all of these 2.  Most living nonhuman primate species are under threat of extinction. a.True b.False 3.  About __________ mammal species exist today. a.400 b.2,000 c.4,000 d.200 4.  Mammals in the.
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