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  61.  The Movius line separates __________. a.Oldowan from Acheulean tools b.Chatelperronian from Acheulean tools c.hand-axe bearing areas from those without hand axes d.Chatelperronian from Oldowan tools 62.  It is hypothesized that Asian H. erectus did not use hand-axe technology because they __________. a.had smaller brains b.had less dexterous hands c.left Africa before the hand-axe was invented d.all.
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    21.Marvin Harris’s Principle of Infrastructural Determinism assumes that the ________       conditions the ________, which in turn conditions the ________: a.superstructure; structure; infrastructure b.economy; politics; religion c.infrastructure; structure; superstructure d.technology; economy; ideology 22.According to Harris, the overall process of social evolution is driven by : a. technological change d. automatic social differentiation c.environmental depletion and the intensification of.
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  11.  Archaeological sites at which there is evidence that early hominins were obtaining the raw material to make stone tools are referred to as a.scavenging sites b.quarrying sites c.home-base sites d.gathering sites 12.  Early hominin meat-eaters might have obtained their meat by __________. a.hunting b.aggressive scavenging c.passive scavenging d.all of these 13.  Robert Blumenschine and Curtis Marean’s study of.
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  21.  Where can the sagital keel be found? a.above the eye orbits b.along the midline frontal c.on the back of the parietal d.none of these 22.  Homo erectus skulls feature a __________, a thick ridge that runs along the back of the parietal bone. a.angular torus b.occipital torus c.sagital keel d.metopic keel 23.  Research indicates that increase in brain.
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  1.  Illness is a product of __________. a.genes b.culture c.environment d.all of these 2.  __________ is the subfield of biological anthropology concerned with issues of health and wellness. a.epidemiology b.biomedical anthropology c.auxology d.forensics 3.  Which of the following best defines epidemiology? a.the quantitative study of disease in populations b.the qualitative study of disease in populations c.the study of human remains to determine.
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  1.  The work of Professor Paul Broca is important because it demonstrated the localization of function on the human brain. a.True b.False 2.  Ultimately, our complex social behavior can be attributed to __________. a.tool use b.language c.bipedalism d.the fact that we are mammals 3.  Compared to the brains of our closest relatives, the human brain __________. a.is.
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  11.  Forensic recovery is typically a/an __________ process. a.speedy b.tiresome c.ongoing d.preliminary 12. Temporary structures, fence posts, and trees make excellent datum choices. a.True b.False 13.  Why is a chain of custody so important for forensic anthropologists? a.to prevent contamination of evidence b.to have detailed records of those who participated in recovery efforts c.to ensure that remains cannot be tampered.
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  11.  Encephalization quotient is a measure of __________. a.brain weight b.brain size in inches c.the ratio of actual brain size to the expected size d.the weight of the brain divided by the brain’s size in inches 12.  An animal with a larger than expected brain will have an EQ of __________. a.less than .001 b.less.
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  11.  The biocultural view __________. a.focuses solely on the role of culture variables of disease b.focuses mostly on disease’s biological and environmental variables c.takes into account both biological and cultural aspects of disease d.does not include the role of behavior and its influence on disease 12.  Anorexia nervosa only occurs in North America. a.True b.False 13.  The.
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  21.  Today, scientists agree that Neandertals should be designated as the separate species H. neandertalensis. a.True b.False 22.  Neandertals can be found in __________. a.western Europe b.the Near East c.western Asia d.all of these 23.  The majority of Neandertal sites are from western Asia. a.True b.False 24.   Evidence of the existence of Neandertals was presented to the public before the.
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  21.  The “Man the Hunter” model of human evolution __________. a.is still in vogue today b.affected only cultural anthropology c.was criticized as sexist d.all of these 22.  The conflict model correlates the evolution of a sexual division of labor with __________. a.nutritional elements b.monogamy c.the changing size of human societies d.the fact that males have different problems.
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1.Carol Ember’s study of 181 contemporary hunter-gatherer societies indicates that : a.gathering is about as important a subsistence activity as hunting and fishing combined b.while hunting is more prestigious, gathering contributes the bulk of the calories in           most hunter-gatherer societies c.hunting (including fishing) is the dominant subsistence activity in most cases d.when the care.
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    11.The Neolithic Revolution of V. Gordon Childe is associated with which of the following: a.the emergence of agriculture b.the move from societas to civitas c.the invention of the plow d.the shift from polytheism to monotheism 12.Leslie White identifies two major transitions in human history, which are the : a.Neolithic Revolution and Urban Revolution b.fall of feudalism.
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  21.  The processes of growth and development remain constant, regardless of environmental conditions. a.True b.False 22.  The anthropological model of human growth and development __________. a.views the way humans grow in high-stress environments in the context of non-genetic adaptation b.views any deviation from optima growth patterns as evidence of ill health c.tends to focus on.
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  11.  Which of the following is NOT a cognitive universal? a.motor control b.religion c.emotions d.memory 12.  Cross-cultural universals include __________. a.language b.a system of kinship c.the organization of society along sex and gender lines d.all of these 13.  Looking at variation of variables such as sex and age is common to investigations of __________. a.within-culture variation b.the biological constraints of.
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  31.  Finds at Koobi Fora do not include __________. a.KNM-ER 3733 b.fragmentary remains older than 1.8 million years ago c.Nariokotome Boy d.all of these were found at Koobi Fora 32.  The skeletal remains of the Nariokotome boy are __________. a.post-cranial only b.nearly complete c.cranial only d.nearly complete with most of the cranium intact 33.  The oldest African.
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  41.  A calotte is the skullcap of a creature, excluding the bones of the face and the base of the cranium. a.True b.False 42.   In Java, Dubois found the calvaria of a __________. a.Australopithecus africanus b.Pithecanthropus robustus c.Homo erectus d.Homo habilis 43.  The latest surviving H. erectus are from __________. a.Koobi Fora b.Ethiopia c.The Republic of Georgia d.Java 44.  The Indonesian.
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  31.   Which of the following is something that postmortem trauma can tell researchers? a.whether trauma was the result of crime b.time of death c.whether the individual experienced nutritional stress d.establishing intent in murder cases 32. ___________ trauma helps investigators understand what happened right around the time of death. a.postmortem b.premortem c.antemortem d.perimortem 33. __________ are less concerned with perimortem trauma.
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  1.  Which of the following characteristics distinguishes our species from archaic H. sapiens? a.a more gracile skull b.a rounded cranium c.relatively small teeth and jaws d.all of these 2.  Many Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins possessed cranial capacities that are easily within the modern human range. a.True b.False 3.  Both the replacement and multiregional models of human origins.
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  1.  In Schoeningen, Germany, what particularly significant finding was made? a.wooden spears b.scarce Lower Paleolithic hominin remains c.flint tools d.all of these 2.  Which of the following in not true of the anatomically modern human skull? a.the jaws and teeth are relatively large b.it has a high forehead c.the supraorbital ridges are poorly developed or absent altogether d.all of.
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  51.  There is much evidence that Neandertals engaged in ritualized and symbolic behaviors. a.  True b.  False 52.  Evidence for Neandertal symbolic behavior includes __________. a.musical instruments b.engraved items c.extensive personal adornment d.cave paintings 53.  Which of the following potential Neandertal behaviors is best supported by the archaeological evidence? a.ritual behavior b.burials c.symbolic behavior d.hunting 54.  The labels “archaic Homo sapiens”.
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  11.  By 100,000 years ago in Africa __________. a.H. erectus was the most common hominin b.H. habilis could still be found is small pockets of ease Africa. c.H. sapiens was a well-established species d.Neandertal was making headway into the continent from the north. 12. __________ is the only region outside Africa to have yielded.
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  31.  The secular trend in growth refers to the fact that __________. a.primates all reach sexual maturity at the same age b.adolescence provides fro more social learning c.children in industrialized nations grow larger d.mortality rates rarely change over time 32.  The secular trend in growth is a result of a reduction of the impact.
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  1.  It is difficult to study the evolutionary foundations of contemporary human behavior because __________. a.we cannot see evolution happening b.we cannot do experiments on humans c.human behavior occurs in a cultural context d.all of these 2.  Edward O. Wilson defined sociobiology as the science of __________. a.the biological basis of social behavior b.the effects.
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  31.  Microliths do appear in the archaeological record before the Upper Paleolithic. a.True b.False 32.  Tools made from bone do not appear in the archaeological record before the Upper Paleolithic. a.True b.False 33.  Upper Paleolithic cultures were the first to exploit aquatic resources such as fish and shellfish. a.True b.False 34.  Microwear analysis of the teeth of Upper Paleolithic.
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  15.In the Old World, agriculture and sedentary village life emerged together, whereas in      the New World sedentary village life developed several thousand years after      agriculture was first practiced. 16.In the Old World, large animals were domesticated at about the same time that crops      began to be planted, but the New.
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  31.  Neandertals have the same inner-ear anatomy as H. erectus. a.True b.False 32.  Neandertal teeth __________. a.were more fragile than H. sapiens teeth b.show similar wear patterns to those of modern human populations c.show excessive wear and may have been used to hold objects d.were much smaller than those of modern human populations 33.  Taurodontism is a.
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  41.  Babbling starts at about the age of __________. a.7 to 8 days b.1 year to 15 months c.8 years d.7 to 8 months 42.  Motherese is typified by __________. a.slow b.higher-pitched c.more repetitive d.all of these 43.  While the practice of infant-directed speech is not universal, the form it takes when it is practiced is universal. a.True b.False 44.  While.
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  51.  Individuals infected with the protozoan Plasmodium vivax are in danger of contracting __________. a.sickle cell disorder b.bubonic plague c.malaria d.river blindness 52.  As a species, we are well adapted to living in an environment of continuous nutritional abundance. a.True b.False 53.  Compared to contemporary diets, the Paleolithic diet is __________. a.high in micronutrients and proteins b.high in.
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    31.The primary purpose of social evolutionary theories is to explain the biologically evolved adaptations that drive human social behavior.  32.An important feature of all social evolutionary theories is that they organize history into a typology of stages. 33.According to Sanderson and Alderson, the strongest evolutionary theories are those that focus.
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  1. Bioarchaeologists and forensic anthropologists are both experts in __________. a.osteological identification b.archaeological field methods c.assessing what happened at time of death d.all of these 2. Bioarchaeologists are frequently called to assist in identification of remains found in mass graves. a.True b.False 3. One way that bioarchaeologists differ from forensic anthropologists is in their focus on .
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    41.According to V. Gordon Childe, the rise of agriculture was the key features of the Neolithic Revolution.  42.Julian Steward was especially concerned with the role technology plays in social evolution. 43.According to Sanderson and Alderson, the weakest point of the social evolutionary ideas of Talcott Parsons is their excessive materialism. .
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    21.Robert Kelly’s study of the workload of hunter-gatherer societies around the world         indicates that: a.Marshall Sahlins’s claim that hunter-gatherers constitute the “original affluent society” is false b.hunter-gatherers generally work much more than members of modern industrial              societies c.only members of elite groups in such societies enjoy the affluence that Sahlins             describes d.hunter-gatherers spend on.
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  51.  Forensic anthropologists most commonly work on cases of mass fatalities. a.True b.False 52.  Forensic anthropologists must follow the rules of the courts. a.True b.False 53.  The Central Identification Laboratory was formed for what purpose? a.to identify those who die in war b.to identify bodies in mass graves c.to investigate death due to human rights abuses d.to respond to death.
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1.By definition, theories of social evolution : a.explain how and why the “fittest” societies survive and change b.explain and describe the biological adaptations of individuals and their impact on society c.explain and describe sequences of long-term social change d.none of these 2.According to Erik Olin Wright, evolutionary theories have which of the following      characteristics: a.they.
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  51.  The Early Stone Age consists of which tool traditions? a.Oldowan and Acheulean b.Acheulean and Chatelperronian c.blades and Oldowan type tools d.Chatelperronian and Oldowan 52.  Acheulean tools date back to approximately __________ years ago. a.1.8 million b.1.6 million c.1 million d.600,000 53.  Which of the following describes Acheulean tools? a.flakes removed as blades b.wooden spear throwing devices c.bifaced and flaked stone tools d.composite.
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  21.  The human brain accounts for about 2% of the body mass but uses about __________% of the total energy and oxygen consumed by the body. a.10-15 b.16-20 c.18-30 d.50-74 22.  Anthropoids have olfactory bulbs that are __________ for their overall brain size. a.of the expected size b.small c.large d.none of these 23.  When we look at a large.
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  51.  If a person suffers from two or more weeks of depressed mood or impaired enjoyment, she is said to be experiencing __________. a.an adaptive behavioral phenotype b.minor depression c.major depression d.schizophrenia 52.  Randolph Nesse associates depression with __________. a.situations presenting an “adaptive challenge” b.the pursuit of unreachable goals c.natural selection for a period of low.
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  11.  The midfacial prognathism and double-arched supraorbital torus of some archaic H. sapiens indicates their possible relationship to __________. a.H. erectus b.modern humans c.Neandertals d.H. heidelbergensis 12.  Most archaic H. sapiens found in Africa bear a strong resemblance to Neandertals. a.True b.False 13.  Asian specimens of archaic H. sapiens differ from classic H. erectus in __________. a.cranial capacity b.body.
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  21.  Which of the following describes the tools of the earliest H. sapiens? a.more complex and varied than those of H. erectus or Neandertals b.smaller and more compact than typical Middle Stone Age tools c.indistinguishable from those of earlier hominins d.none of these 22.  There is not a one-to-one correlation between the appearance of modern.
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  31.  Research on human mate selection indicates that men tend to value __________ in their partners. a.status b.resource-providing abilities c.appearance d.risk-taking behavior 32.  Risky behavior among mammalian males may occur because __________. a.it is fun b.females are attracted to risky behavior c.they are socialized to engage in such behaviors d.none of these 33.  The results if inbreeding include .
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  41.  A key component to the bioarchaeological study of human remains is the emphasis on a.determining the cause and manner of death b.understanding the effect of disease and injury on remains c.understanding the cultural context of remains d.all of the above 42. Bioarchaeology can help us understand the evolution of disease and the role of.
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  41.  The earliest skeletal remains in the Americas __________. a.exhibit features that differentiate them from recent Native American populations b.date back over a million years c.are of H. erectus d.all of these 42.  The last region of the world to be colonized by humans was __________. a.the Americas b.Siberia c.the Pacific Islands d.Northern Europe 43.  It is problematic.
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  41.  Which of the following best describes free radicals? a.accumulations in mutations over time b.molecules with unpaired electrons c.the pleiotropic effects of certain genes d.disposable soma 42.  Individuals who do not naturally produce the enzyme superoxode dismutase suffer from unusually high levels of __________. a.accumulated DNA damage b.free radical action c.pleiotropic gene effects d.all of these 43.  The .
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1.Prior to 10,000 years ago, all humans everywhere lived by : a.hunting and gathering b.hunting and gathering and horticulture c.simple horticulture d.animal herding 2.By the ancestral environment is meant : a.any society in which people revere their ancestors b.the hunting and gathering lifestyle in which anatomically modern humans have lived         until very recent times c.the cold.
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  41.  Investigation of Neandertal skeletons reveals abundant evidence __________. a.that they were not at all different from H. sapiens b.of bodies adapted to warm sunny climes c.of a relatively easy and painless lifestyle d.of traumatic injuries associated with rough terrain 42.  Neandertal tool traditions represent a revolutionary advance on past tool cultures. a.True b.False 43.  What sorts of.
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  41.  The rearrangement of throat anatomy for language purposes has  __________. a.improved breathing overall b.introduced new risks in everyday life c.had no effect on other throat functions d.improved our ability to swallow hard foods 42.  The differences between human and chimp supralaryngeal airway include __________. a.a lower larynx b.an expanded pharynx c.a shortened tongue d.all of these 43. .
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    11.Humans have subsisted entirely by hunting and gathering for ________ percent of their history: a.99 b.50 c.25 d.15 12.The production of an economic surplus by hunter-gatherers occurs : a.frequently, but the lack of appropriate preservation technology means that much of the surplus spoils b.rarely, because the natural environment is incapable of allowing it to be generated c.frequently,.
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