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Study Resources (Anthropology)

    51.The average weekly workload of the average member of a contemporary Third World       country is lower than that of the earliest agriculturalists some 10,000 years ago.  52.Maryanski and Turner argue that there has been a steady increase in individual        autonomy throughout social evolution.  53.Heilbroner sees the rise of increasingly authoritarian.
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  1.The first definitive fossil evidence for primates is from:   A.The Pliocene B.The Oligocene C.The Miocene D.The Eocene   2.No fossil primates from the Eocene have yet been found in:   A.North America B.South America C.Asia D.Europe   3.The diverse anthropoids found in Egypt come from deposits:   A.In the Eocene B.In the Oligocene C.In the Miocene D.In the Pleistocene   4.From the beginning to the end of the Miocene, the.
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    41.Sanderson and Alderson suggest that a world-annihilating war is : a.completely unbelievable b.a very real possibility c.very unlikely given new technological advances d.very easily avoidable 42.Some scholars, such as Christopher Chase-Dunn, think that a world-annihilating war may only be avoidable through the establishment of: a.a protective war tribunal b.world-scale economic organizations such as the WTO c.a multi-country.
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    21)Cultural ecology emphasizes the interaction between A) technology, economics, and social complexity. B)individuals within a society. C)cultures and the environment. D)both A and B. E)A, B, and C. 22)Participant observation is what makes sociology different from other social and behavioral sciences. 23)Anthropologists are sometimes incorporated/initiated into the culture. 24)Anthropologists sometimes use directed interviews and questionnaires. 25)Anthropologists do not.
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    21)Anthropologists today believe that ideas about behavior form consistent sets. 22)Culture is groups of physically alike people. 23)A cline is the continuous variation in human physical attributes. 24)The biocultural model says that specific, learned cultural behavior is built upon a general, innate, species-wide biological base. 25)The ability to learn language is a human universal. 26)In.
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1.Sanderson and Alderson have suggested that : a.hunter-gatherers have generally had the lowest standard of living of all types of           societies b.the sharpest decline in the standard of living in human history occurred with the           emergence of agrarian societies c.there has been a steady improvement in the standard of living with technological         .
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    11.Nonaggressive intergroup encounters, such as those observed in capuchin monkeys:   A.Indicate the absence of competition between males from different groups B.Never occur; intergroup encounters are always aggressive C.Provide opportunities for subordinate males to test their future prospects should they transfer into neighboring groups D.Reflect the absence of hierarchical relationships among males in those species.
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    41.All scholars view globalization as a unidimensional process and focus primarily on single      dimensions of globalization, such as the world-capitalist economy.  42.Among scholars and laypersons, opinions about globalization do not vary greatly, and        most are in favor of it.  43.Sanderson and Alderson argue that globalization seems to have done more.
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    1.Sexual monomorphism in body size is not a good predictor of mating systems because:   A.It occurs only in monogamously pair-bonded primates B.It can occur in primates with diverse mating systems C.It is never found in polygamous primates D.It is characteristic of both polygamous and polygynous primates   2.The variance in male reproductive success is equal to.
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    31.There is a great deal of disagreement as to whether globalization is a beneficial or harmfulprocess. 32.The 1999 Human Development Report reported that in 1960 the ratio of the world’s richest income quintile to the world’s poorest quintile was 30:1 and that by 1990 it had increased to 600:1 and.
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    11.Depending on the classification system used, the tarsiers have been classified in which of the following two taxonomic groups?   A.Prosimii or Haplorhini B.Prosimii or Platyrrhini C.Haplorhini or Anthropoidea D.Strepsirhini or Haplorhini   12.The only primates to possess fully prehensile tails are:   A.Some callitrichids B.Some cebids C.Some cercopithecines D.Some lemurs   13.The two superfamilies of the Catarrhini are:   A.Ceboidea and Cercopithecoidea B.Ceboidea and Hominoidea C.Cercopithecoidea and.
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    11)The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis asserts that  A) language reflects culture. B)language shapes culture. C)people’s perceptions of the world are filtered through the structure of their     language. D)all of the above E)A and C only 12)The current debate about the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis centers on the concept or concepts A)sociolinguistics: the study of language in its social context. B)linguistic determinism,.
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    1.Which of the following is not a source of genetic variation?   A.Mutations B.Sexual reproduction C.Recombination D.Genetic drift   2.Neutral mutations:   A.Are under strong directional selection pressures B.Are invisible to natural selection C.Can never confer benefits to their carriers under any conditions in the future D. Arise from close inbreeding   3.Inbreeding is an example of:   A.Extreme positive assortative mating B.Random mating C.Extreme negative assortative.
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1.The “new international division of labor or “global capitalism” that has emerged in the     context of globalization is one in which: a.manufacturing has increasingly been relocated from the core to the periphery and         semiperiphery b.skill-intensive work has increasingly been monopolized by peripheral countries c.core countries have increasingly specialized in manufacturing, peripheral countries        .
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1)Who is credited with identifying the 16 design features of human language? A)Edward Sapir B)Charles F. Hockett C)Ray L. Birdwhistell D)Benjamin Whorf E)Alan Lomax 2)Chimpanzees, who have been taught non-verbal communication, A) cannot associate hand gestures with certain objects. B)have infinite creativity. C)have proven to be smarter than bonobos. D)cannot learn a real language as defined by Hockett. E)none of.
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  1.Mild habitat disturbances:   A.Have similarly deleterious effects on all primates B.Appear to benefit primates with specialized diets C.Appear to benefit primates with generalized diets D.Have similarly beneficial effects on all primates   2.Concerns with the effects of habitat fragmentation on primate populations:   A.Reflect the risks of allopatric speciation B.Focus on the loss of genetic diversity C.Involve the higher mutation.
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    21.As of May 2004, 25 countries belonged to the European Union (EU).  Which of the       following were members at that time? a.Germany, France, Britain, and Sweden b.Germany, Russia, Switzerland, and Romania c.France, Britain, Hungary, and China d.Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Uzbekistan 22.The main reason that the EU came into existence was : a.to create one.
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    11.The primary target of the antiglobalization critics is : a.the World Trade Organization b.the Santa Barbara, California, Chamber of Commerce c.the United States Congress d.Ford Motor Company 12.Which of the following have been charges made against the World Trade Organization? a.it places profits ahead of environmental concerns and human well being b.it is undemocratic in its.
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  1.Secondary sex ratios refer to:   A.Adult sex ratios B.Sex ratios at birth C.Sex ratios at conception D.Sex ratios of breeding individuals in a group   2.Which of the following statements about development is true A. The energetics of maternal body size determine infant growth rates B.Juvenile primates grow quickly compared to other mammals C.Adults devote energy to their.
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  1.In primate communities, smaller-bodied species:   A.Can avoid competition with larger species by feeding on terminal branches B.Stick to the upper level of the canopy to avoid avian predators C.Devote a larger proportion of their feeding time to abundant leaves than larger species D.Avoid polyspecific associations   2.Assemblages of species:   A.Coordinate their activities B.Have higher biomasses than large groups.
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1)Which of the following is NOT part of the anthropological definition of culture? A) bounded by geography and politics B)shared ideas. C)adaptive. D)constantly changing. E)learned ideas. 2)The concept defined in the text as "learned, shared ideas about and patterns of behavior" is the concept of A) race. B)pre-destination. C)biocultural inheritance. D)culture. E)none of the above 3)Cultures are A)both externally consistent and.
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    11)According to the biocultural model A)learned behavior is built upon a biological base. B)behavior is prescribed by biology only. C)behavior is entirely a product of culture. D)biology and culture are unrelated. E)none of the above 12)Malaysia, a Southeast Asian country,  A) has a cold desert climate. B)is sparsely populated and primarily Christian. C)has a culture that has historically.
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  1.What is the most effective mode of communication that primates use for long- distance spacing?   A.Tactile B.Visual C.Olfactory D.Vocal   2.Which group of primates has the most limited repertory of facial expressions?   A.Prosimians B.Platyrrhines C.Catarrhines D.Hominoids   3.Sound spectrograms demonstrate that gibbon vocalizations:   A.Are indistinguishable across different species B.Differ between species, but are identical in all populations of the same species C.Differ between species and.
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  11.Involving local people in conservation efforts:   A.Increases their interest in hunting B.Is an essential component of programs to protect primates and their habitats C.Does not require a long-term commitment D.Rarely succeeds   12.Sclater's guenons:   A.Are the most endangered guenons today B.Are protected by unviolated hunting taboos throughout their range C.Are prime targets as bushmeat D.Are considered important trophy species in.
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    11)Dani warfare A)is portrayed in the film Dani Sweet Potatoes. B)is portrayed in the film Dead Birds. C)is portrayed in the film Rashomon. D)has no rules. E)two of the above 12)In the complete film Dead Birds  A) Pua is Weyak’s son. B)Pua and Weyak live in the same neighborhood but are not closely related. C)Pua and Weyak live.
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    11)An anthropologist studying a particular observes that people smile at each other when introduced.  The anthropologist theorizes that people in all social groups smile when introduced.  This theory is flawed because the anthropologist’s study is NOT  A) holistic. B)cross-cultural. C)ecological. D)evolutionary. E)none of the above. 12)The field of anthropology that involves the analysis of pre-historic.
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  1.Most diurnal primates are also:   A.Social B.Solitary C.Nocturnal D.Cathemeral   2.Energy minimizers tend to spend more time than energy maximizers:   A.Resting B.Searching for food C.Feeding on fruit D.Traveling   3.Which of the following is not an appropriate dietary category for primates:   A.Frugivore B.Folivore C.Carnivore D.Insectivore   4.Territoriality in primates:   A.Refers to groups with overlapping home ranges B.Is a fixed attribute of those species in which it occurs C.Is associated with short.
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    11.The composition of juvenile play groups often reflects:   A.Whether they rely more heavily on adults or peers for social support B.Their inherited ranks C.Whether their development is risk aversive D.Their foraging and locomotor skills   12.Which of the following statements about the behavior of these juvenile primates is false?   A.Male long-tailed macaques, which disperse with their natal.
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1)The study of humans which examines human fossils, disease, nutrition, health, the skeleton, and physical characteristics is A) archaeology. B)paleoanatomy. C)biological anthropology. D)paleoanthropology. E)none of the above. 2)An anthropologist has been hired to research a specific group of people in the Caribbean who have a high infant mortality rate and to suggest strategies to decrease.
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  1.Evolutionary theory predicts that competition among male primates should be greater than competition among females because:   A.Males cannot benefit their inclusive fitness by cooperating with one another B.Males are primarily concerned with between-group competition C.The costs of aggression outweigh the benefits for females, but not males D. Fertilizations cannot be shared the way.
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    11.Female proceptivity:   A.Is restricted to their ovulatory cycles B.Is  a way to attract male sexual interest C.Is only observed in species with sex skins D.Is limited to seasonal breeders   12.Heterosexual "friendships" among baboons and macaques:   A.Never involve recent male immigrants B.Lead to sexual fidelity between partners C.Exclude all but the most dominant males D.Are ways for subordinate males to.
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    71.One problem with the creation of a world state is that it may become an “Orwellian      monster” that greatly undermines the freedom of individuals.  72.Sanderson and Alderson argue that the chances for the creation of a world state are very small.  73.Given its strongly unified nature, it is very likely.
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    61.In many underdeveloped nations half or more of the population is engaged in       agriculture, compared to less than ten percent of the population in the developed       nations.  62.According to Rostow, all underdeveloped societies are at the stage of development that he terms “traditional society.”  63.Sanderson and Alderson prefer the “soft”.
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    31.In industrial societies today the infant mortality rate is about 7 or 8, whereas in the same societies as recently as 1900 the rate was about:      a. 60 b.150 c.350 d.500 32.Studies surveyed by Minge-Klevana suggest that the belief that modern industrial societies       are characterized by abundant leisure time is:       a. true b. equivocal,.
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    11.Compared to folivores, specialized frugivores tend to:   A.Have smaller home ranges than more folivorous primates B.Expend less energy than folivores C.Devote more time to resting than folivores D.Have longer day ranges       12.High levels of between-group contest competition favor:   A.Female dispersal from their natal groups B.Fluid associations among females C.Cooperative resource defense by cohesive matrilines D. Solitary lifestyles   13.Scramble competition.
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  1.Compared to leaves, fruits are generally much better sources of:   A.Protein B.Carbohydrates and lipids C.Tannins D.Fiber   2.Large food patches full of high quality fruits:   A.Are not worth defending because there is enough food for all B.Lead some primate groups to fission into smaller feeding parties C.Can be worth defending from other groups D.Lead to low foraging efficiency   3.Subsistence diets are:   A.Low.
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    21.Sanderson and Alderson argue that : a.globalization will continue for decades to come without any reversals at all b.there is nothing inevitable about continuing globalization and a reversal of the current          globalizing trend could occur c.globalization is about to burn itself out and will stop within the next ten years      d. none.
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    71.Between 1980 and 1995, China was the fastest growing economy in the world, averaging 10% growth per year. 72.According to Sanderson and Alderson, dependency and world-system theories do a fairly good job of explaining global patterns of unequal economic development over the past few centuries, but they are less effective.
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  1.Scramble competition occurs when:   A.Resources are evenly distributed in time and space B.Individuals or groups can exclude others from patches by fighting C.Between group competition is stronger than within group competition D. Males play important roles in reconciling female conflicts   2.In the absence of strong within-group feeding competition:   A.Day range length increases with increases in.
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    11.Seyfarth and Cheney demonstrated that vervet monkeys respond to distress calls from:   A.Close kin only; they never respond to nonkin B.All kin independent of degree of relatedness C.Kin and nonkin grooming partners D.Kin and high ranking nonkin   12.Affiliative relationships among male primates are expected when:   A.Dispersal patterns are male-biased B.Males are philopatric C.They live in matrilocal societies D.Both sexes.
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    11)People think, learn, and organize knowledge A) in basically the same way in most cultures. B)differently in different cultures. C)differently based on mental capabilities. D)from instinct. E)none of the above 12)Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences identifies A)logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences. B)mechanical, artistic, and scientific intelligences. C)linguistic, musical, and intrapersonal intelligences. D)all of the above E)A and C.
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1)Human psychology is A)the same for all peoples. B)variable only within a culture. C)variable between cultures. D)a Western concept. E)none of the above. 2)Psychology concentrates primarily on A) culture and perception. B)mental illness. C)personality and perception. D)people as members of social groups. E)none of the above 3)Margaret Mead's study of Samoan adolescents yielded A) some popular books only. B)the theory that sex.
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    11.Economic inequality : a.reached its height in agrarian societies b.reached its height in the period of European colonialism c.reached its height during the Industrial Revolution d.is probably greater today, at least at a world level, than at any time in human              history 12.According to Simon’s critique of “doom and gloom” outlooks on the future.
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    11.The comparative method requires that:   A.Behavioral data be collected in standardized ways B.All aspects of a species' life history are known C.Species with similar feeding strategies are used D.The same observer collects all of the data   12.Marmosets and tamarins are unusual primates because:   A.Females have unexpectedly slow reproductive rates B.Ovulation can be suppressed in subordinate females C.They have.
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    61.Cultural relativism has emerged as a highly successful alternative to ethnocentrism. ( F ) 62.Cultural relativism often leads to unacceptable moral conclusions not anticipated or        desired by cultural relativists themselves. 63.Sanderson and Alderson are strong supporters of cultural relativism and argue that it is the only way to judge different cultures.  64.In.
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1)Fieldwork A)is done by anthropologists who live with the group studied. B)uses many different methodologies. C)can be done in the anthropologist's own culture. D)when written about is called an ethnography. E)all of the above 2)If an anthropologist wants to establish rapport with a group he/she can do so by A) making friends. B)giving presents. C)taking part in daily.
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    21)Only language is considered true communication. 22)Regarding Hockett's design features of human language:  only humans have all 16. 23)Small scale social organizations and simple technology lead to primitive languages. 24)All languages use emblems but there are no universal emblems. 25)The study of proxemics shows that the cultural use of space is a means of.
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    21)All parts of culture and the environment change to some degree as they interact. 22)Human behavior is a mixture of biological and cultural influences. 23)Anthropology is the only social science that makes comparisons between cultures. 24)The "Green Revolution" helped the people of Bali produce larger rice crops. 25)The temples and the irrigation system in.
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  1.Which of the following traits does not distinguish primates from other mammals?   A.Nails instead of claws B.Large brains relative to body size C.Stereoscopic vision D.Gestation and lactation by females   2.The neocortex is associated with:   A.Color vision B.Reasoning abilities C. Brain development D. Primitive limbic functions   3.According to the Jarman/Bell principle, large bodied animals:   A.Can subsist on large quantities of poor.
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    11.When female rank is age-related:   A.Females avoid males as much as possible B.Females past their reproductive primes become dominant C.Affiliative bonds among females are weak D.Hierarchical relationships are stable throughout females’ lives   12.Mountain baboons and mountain gorillas are similar in:   A.The strong affiliative relationships among males B.The strong affiliative relationships among females C.The strong affiliative relationships males maintain.
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