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  11)Increased aggression between Northwest Coast groups after 4000 years ago may A)have been to protect territories and resources B)indicate starvation periods C)be part of ceremonial ritual D)indicate groups that are out of control 12)The people from the Channel Islands of Southern California A)did not hunt dolphin because they did not have boats B)did not hunt dolphin because.
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  11)The function of the postorbital bar is to A)protect the hearing mechanism B)surround and protect the eye C)give 3D vision D)separate vision and hearing 12)How long ago does molecular evidence predict monkeys split from the lineage leading to humans? A) 60 myr ago B) 40 myr ago C)20 myr ago D)l0 myr ago 13)Primates initially became arboreal in order.
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1)Molecular dating suggests all primate species alive today can trace their ancestry back to a common ancestor some 63 myr ago. 2)In general, psychologists study “why” questions and anthropologists study the “how” questions in  primate research. 3)Only when what is learned about fellow primates can be applied to knowledge about humans is.
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  21)Australian aborigines and their 40 kyr ancestors both show the morphological traits of small flat faces. 22)Recent African Origin advocates claim Neandertals had little to no admixture from Neandertal or any  other archaic population through gene flow. 23)RAO and MR proponents are as unchanged in their positions now as they were 15.
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  21)Based on molecular evidence, orangutans split from the lineage leading to humans about 9 myr ago. 22)The most common social unit among gorillas is monogamy, with one male, one female, and their kids. 23)Although other primatologists have accused Jane Goodall’s banana provisioning as being the source of at least some agonistic behavior,.
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  17)All australopithecines had small chins. 18)Mary Leakey found 2 to 3 sets of hominid footprints at Laetoli. 19)The first Australopithecus africanus fossil was contentious as a hominid partly because it was a young child. 20)The large muscles that connect the lower jaw to the crest at the top of the skull in all.
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  11)There are no correlations between particular blood types (A,O,B) and disease. 12)The sickle cell gene continues in many populations because malaria is also present. 13)Lip thickness in humans is correlated with both humidity and heat. 14)Baboons form subspecies/biological races, but humans do not. 15)For any species to form subspecies/biological races, they must show either.
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1)Complex chiefdoms are another term for state societies. 2)Basalt was a luxury commodity used for elite purposes in Olmec cultures. 3)The Olmec site of El Manatí has the earliest evidence for the Mesoamerican ballgame. 4)City planning at Teotihuacan was on a grid system centered on two long, intersecting avenues. 5)The Aztecs worshipped some Teotihuacan.
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1)Because the Americas enjoyed similar ecological conditions there is little diversity in culture in the continent. 2)Beringia, exposed during glacial periods, lies beneath the Bering Strait. 3)Dental and molecular evidence suggests that the first Americans derived from northeast Asia. 4)Clovis is the name given to the first groups to enter the Americas. 5)The term.
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  11)Ancient Egypt was rich in mineral resources, but poor in good quality wood. 12)Slaves built Egyptian pyramids. 13)The Indus state was the earliest state of Pakistan and India. 14)The Indus state was ruled by a dynasty of hereditary kings. 15)Stone architecture dominates Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. 16)Shang kings were not powerful politically. 17)Shang bronze technology was an.
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1)Glacial conditions were present throughout the Paleolithic / Stone Age. 2)Permafrost is permanently frozen ground beneath surface sediments. 3)Woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, musk ox, steppe bison, reindeer and wild horse are cold loving, migratory herbivores. 4)Groups in the Paleolithic / Stone Age were hunter-gatherers and farmers. 5)Stone artifacts at Gona and Lokalalei shows an.
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  19)The only proper way to define “intelligence” is as problem solving by a particular species. 20)Although experts have found there are no groups that are more intelligent than any other, they have found three groups that are less intelligent than the rest. 21)Human adaptation can be genetic and evolutionary, physiological and temporary,.
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  11)Of the following, which is the only set of human traits to covary? A)skin color and stature B)height and weight C)hair form and hair color D)shoe size and eye color 12)All of the following argue that “race” today is more cultural than biological EXCEPT A)birth certificates may cite one “race” at birth and another at death B)the.
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  11)If AMH replaced Neandertal, there should be some evidence of one of the following EXCEPT A)killing of one population by the other B)better tools by AMH to better extract resources C)no change in the environment D)enough DNA different to suggest different species 12)A comparison of European fossils from Neandertal through AMH has yielded evolutionary trends.
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1)The term “modern humans” refers to hominids who could/can do what contemporary humans do. 2)Your text authors suggest 50 kyr ago is an appropriate date to identify truly modern humans. 3)Linguistic, archaeological, and biological data all point to a Polynesian origin for Easter Islanders. 4)The newest evidence concerning how Europeans became farmers is.
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  18)The ability to intentionally deceive others is found A)only in primates B)cats, dogs, apes, monkeys, humans C)in three orders of mammals D)only in apes and humans 19)Experts turn to gibbons to generate hypotheses about early humans because of all of the primate groups, gibbons show _______ that is similar to modern humans A)monogamous pair bonds B)equal amounts.
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  1)The primary importance of monumental architecture is to A)exploit local resources B)keep citizens busy with work C)symbolize the power of the state D)promote places of worship 2)The systems model of state development considers A)an increase in population size to be the defining factor in state formation B)states as part of an integrated cultural and ecological whole in.
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  1)The Olmec elite of San Lorenzo were able to control trade because A) they were the most powerful group in the region B)San Lorenzo was strategically placed on trade routes C)all the traded goods originated in San Lorenzo D)the traded goods originated in La Venta 2)Olmec is not considered a state because A)there is no.
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  11)The custom of decorating and burying skulls by communities in the Middle East suggests A)  pathological disorder among the communities B)lack of burial grounds in villages C)an ancestor cult D)B and C 12)LBK groups began farming A)earlier than in the Middle East B)at the same time as in the Middle East C)about 3000 years after it had.
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  1)The peopling of the Americas occurred A)between 30 kyr and 15 kyr ago B)  between 60 kyr and 50 kyr ago C)between 50 kyr and 40 kyr ago D)earlier than 60 kyr 2)The most widely accepted route into the Americas by the first settlers is A)by sea along the Pacific coast B)across the Pacific from Japan C)across.
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1)Brachiation is the kind of locomotion where apes swing arm over arm in trees. 2)Specialization in locomotion shows up in both the ape and human lineages about 8 myr ago. 3)Humans have two more bones than any modern ape species. 4)Between 4 and 2 myr ago, hominid evolution was entirely in Africa. 5)Bipedalism defines.
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  11)Chavín de Huántar was the first South American state. 12)Workers who built the Moche Pyramids of the Sun and Moon may have been fulfilling a form of state tax. 13)Textiles were considered prestige items in Andean society. 14)Moche portrait pottery vessels depict deities worshipped by the Moche. 15)Tiwanaku and Wari were contemporary states. 16)Tiwanaku and.
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  11)Levallois is a A)site in Africa B)characteristic tool technique associated with Neandertals C)characteristic tool technique associated with modern humans D)characteristic tool technique of the Lower Paleolithic 12)Variability in Middle Paleolithic stone tool kits may due to A)ethnic differences B)the nature of tasks undertaken C)change through time D)a combination of factors 13)Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age groups A)never buried their dead B)practiced cremation C)buried all.
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  11)All monkeys, Old and World alike, share all of the following traits EXCEPT A)bilophodont teeth B)external tails C)quadrupedalism D)Y-5 molars 12)The main reason why most experts do not believe NW monkeys evolved separately from OW is because A)there are more than 15 myr separating any ancestral primates in the NW from earliest monkeys B)parallel evolution cannot account.
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1)Contraction of glaciers caused sea levels to rise in the Late Glacial / Early Holocene period. 2)Many Scandinavian Mesolithic and Japanese Jomon groups intensively exploited marine and riverine resources 3)There is good evidence for extensive salmon exploitation in the Jomon. 4)Groups at Abu Hureyra successfully targeted gazelle migrations for thousands of years. 5)The increase.
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1)A hierarchical settlement pattern of major city, towns, village and hamlets is often characteristic of state societies. 2)Craft specialists who worked for early states had to produce their own food. 3)All states must have an army to control their citizens. 4)The development of irrigation agriculture was an important factor in the rise of.
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1)Prehistory begins with the advent of writing. 2)Artifacts are portable objects made and used by humans in the past. 3)One thing all archaeology “features” have in common is that they cannot be moved. 4)Matrix is the three-dimensional location of any and all archaeological objects. 5)Extreme cold, wet, and dry conditions are poor for the.
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  11)Identifying the species of animal in bone remains is the job of the A)palynologist B)archaeobotanist C)GIS expert D)zooarchaeologist 12)The lithic analyst studies A)bone B)pottery C)stone tools D)plants 13)Processual archaeology that began in the 1960s focused primarily on A)describing past cultures B)scientifically explaining culture C)using symbols to interpret cultures D)predicting culture change by climate 14)The first technique ever used to date artifacts or bones was A)14C B)K-Ar C)stratigraphy D)coins 15)All of.
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  1)Primatologists properly use the study of any or all primate species to A)represent stages in human evolution B)infer behavioral evolution C)generate hypotheses about human evolution D)both A and B are correct 2)In which primate research situation is there the least amount of human interference? A)zoos B)laboratories C)provisioned field situations D)unimprovised field situations 3)There are more primates per geographic unit of.
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  1)Of the items listed, which was the last to appear in the lineage to modern humans? A)art B)ability to speak C)blade technology D)bone tools 2)As of now, the answer to the question “how did Europe get farming some 8,000 years ago” is A)they invented it independent of any other source B)the idea diffused from the Middle East.
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  11)Many present-day food staples in the world were originally domesticated in the Americas. 12)Quinoa and tubers grow in the high altitudes of the Andes. 13)Hopewell sites are located in the central riverine area of Eastern North America. 14)The Hohokam practiced irrigation agriculture. 15)Ballcourts and platform mounds in the American Southwest indicate Mexican influence. 16)Chiefs of.
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  20)Molecular evidence suggests monkeys split from the lineage eventually leading to humans about 40 myr ago. 21)The best hypothesis to explain why primates became arboreal is that they could eat insects in the trees. 22)Molecular evidence would date the first primates at about 100 myr ago. 23)The famous Fayum Depression is in Egypt. 24)A.
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  1)What made humans human? A)bipedalism B)big brains and intelligence C)tool manufacturing D)all of the above 2)Intelligence helped make us human.  What kind of problems did more intelligence allow us to solve? A) coping with predators B)general cognitive ability C)coping with environmental change D)getting better quality food 3)Compare the evolution of bipedalism, dentition, and brain size, and the conclusion is.
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  11)Because of the habitats they inhabit, beetles and land mollusks can be good indicators of changes in climate and environment 12)The main job of the palynologist is to identify the species of animal in bone residue. 13)Post processual archaeologists argue that there can be various interpretations of archaeological evidence 14)Artifacts are only useful.
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  11)The Japanese school of primatology is more apt to anthropomorphize their primates than Westerners. 12)All prosimians use scent marking glands in their genital area to mark their territory. 13)DNA evidence suggests the large variability in Madagascar prosimians is due to multiple raftings from Africa to the island, one rafting per modern species. 14)The.
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  1)The Younger Dryas refers to the A)coldest period of the last Ice Age B)cold snap that occurred before the onset of the Holocene C)Holocene D)the beginning of agriculture 2)Shell middens indicate A)intensive exploitation of shell fish by humans B)natural accumulation of fish C)tidal deposition of shell fish D)shell working production sites 3)The period spanning the Late Glacial and Early Holocene.
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  1)The primary aim of prehistoric archaeology is to A)excavate sites B)collect artifacts C)describe the life of people in the past D)date sites 2)Archaeological features include A)pits B)walls C)hearths D)all of the above 3)By definition, ecofacts allow archeologists to reconstruct A)any and all material culture items B)human diets C)the world of the supernatural D)communication in the past, mostly in the form of language and speech 4)Provenience.
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  1)Which of the following various ways of primate locomotion shows similar length of front and back limbs? A)leapers and clingers B)brachiators C)suspensory primates D)arboreal or terrestrial quadrupeds 2)If you were classified as a cathemeral primate, you would: A)hang out around edges of churches B)be active at any time of day or night C)eat only insects and their larvae D)hibernate.
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  11)A ‘tell’ is a natural hill on which people constructed their homes. 12)Central and Northern European farmers adapted to climatic conditions of the region by planting their crops for summer harvesting. 13)LBK groups adopted the farming package from migrant farmers. 14)Scandinavian groups took up farming at the same time as LBK groups. 15)Rice, millet,.
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  11)Wari and Tiwanaku are similar in that A)they were both vassal states under the Inca B)they had colonies beyond their borders C)their capitals were located on the coast of Peru D)marine foods were their primary source of food 12)Spanish colonial documents on the Aztec and Inca A)provide an unbiased account of both empires B)provide a biased account.
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  11)Neandertal’s large nasal opening is likely connected to breathing in cold weather. 12)Neandertal may have been shorter than modern humans, but they had larger cranial capacities. 13)Because Neandertals had a larger cranial capacity than modern humans, they were probably smarter as well. 14)Experts believe Middle Eastern Neandertals migrated from Europe during a warm.
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  11)There is undisputable evidence for huts at Terra Amata, France. 12)Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age groups did not make stone blades, microliths, or bone tools 13)The Neandertal diet consisted primarily of plant foods. 14)Ochre has been found at many Middle Paleolithic / Middle Stone Age sites. 15)Modern humans had reached all parts of.
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1)Experts point to encephalization as the single most important factor characterizing the evolution of the genus Homo. 2)Bones (fossils) are a better indicator of a population’s distribution than artifacts. 3)The cranial capacity of Homo erectus hovers around 1000 cc. 4)By Homo erectus times, modern proportions of legs and arms had evolved. 5)The fossil called.
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  1)The period between 2.3 myr and 11.5 kyr ago is known as A)the Holocene B)the Pleistocene C)the Miocene D)the Pliocene 2)Paleolithic is A)an archaeological term B)a biological term C)a geological term D)an anatomical term 3)The earliest evidence for hominid activity is in A)the USA B)East Africa C)Europe D)Asia 4)Oldowan / Mode I technology  refers to A)Mary Leakey B)Olduvai Gorge C)earliest stone tools D)hand axes 5)The patterning of materials at an.
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  11)Which of the following correctly defines Shang oracle bones: they were A)medium through which people received counsel from their ancestors B)the medium on which Shang laws were inscribed C)the remains of ritual feasting D)the only form of Shang writing 12)Shang bronzes are often very large because A)there was an abundance of bronze available B)they were needed for.
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  11)A description of any or all of the australopithecines would include all of the following traits EXCEPT A) a large and jutting jaw B)a large face C)a small chin D)an average cc of 500 12)The Laetoli footprint trail is comprised of A)2 to 3 adults with fully bipedal gait B)one human footprint, the rest being large.
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  1)The Last Common Ancestor can be characterized as likely showing all of the following traits EXCEPT A)generalized in locomotion B)equally adept in trees and on the ground C)quadrupedal D)specialized on the ground as weight bearing knuckle walkers 2)Which hominid trait came first? A)bipedalism B)large brain C)U-shaped dental arch D)hairlessness 3)What happened to the spine when some quadruped group evolved to bipeds? A)it.
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  1)Making and using tools is not unique to hominids/humans but found in at least three other primate species. 2)Speech probably evolved from language in a single event. 3)The authors of this book conclude there is no single factor that made humans human. 4)Bipedalism occurred in stages, not in one single event. 5)Early hominids and.
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