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Study Resources (Anthropology)

  11.Leona engages in activities only if she will receive a reward. She: a. has a need for affiliation. b. is intrinsically motivated. c. is extrinsically motivated. d.is mastering a goal. 12.________ is the genetically influenced weight range of an individual, maintained by biological a.Extrinsic weight b.Set point c.Intrinsic weight d.Goal weight 13.The evidence for psychological theories that attribute obesity to.
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1.Which of the following is an example of intrinsic motivation? a.accepting a new job because it pays more than your current job b.accepting a new job because it will be more fulfilling than your current job c.trying out for the football team to please your father d.reading an extra book to get bonus points.
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81.In general, a person whose culture emphasizes primary control would agree that: a.true tolerance is to tolerate the intolerable. b.to lose is to win. c.if you have a problem, live with it. d.if you don’t like it, change it. 82.________ is an effort to modify reality by changing other people, the situation, or events. a.Primary control b.Secondary.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. Name the seven facial expressions of emotion that Paul Ekman identified as having distinctive physiological patterns and corresponding universal facial expressions. 2. Charles Darwin argued that human facial expressions are innate. What evolutionary reason did Darwin give for the evolution of these expressions? 3.Everyone knows that feeling happy makes.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.For many decades, the study of motivation was dominated by a focus on ________, although this did not account for the full complexity of human motivation. a.mastery goals b.the need for affiliation c.biological drives d.performance goals 2.According to your textbook: a.all motivation comes from the desire for external rewards. b.today’s motivation researchers emphasize the biological.
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  Essay Questions 1. Emotions are often visibly expressed on the face. In what ways have modern psychologists confirmed Darwin’s concepts regarding facial expressions? Describe Paul Ekman’s research regarding the expression of emotion. 2. Facial expressions do not always reveal the emotions underneath. The villain in Shakespeare’s 3. Many components of emotional experience are.
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71. When people rehearse their grievances and hold unforgiving grudges, their blood pressure, heart rate, and 72. One way to reduce negative emotions and lower the risk of illness is physical exercise. 73. Emotion-focused coping strategies concentrate on the emotions that a problem has caused. 74. Learning deep-breathing techniques to reduce anxiety about.
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11.Whitney says that her goal in graduate school is to specialize in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). What does Whitney intend to study? 12.Contrast the responses of humans and mice in situations where crowding occurs. 13. Define internal locus of control and external locus of control, and explain the concepts with suitable examples. 14. Define primary.
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11.Which of the following outcomes may occur when the mother has German measles (rubella) early in pregnancy? a.defects in the eye, ear, and heart b.attention problems and lower IQ c.increased likelihood of prematurity and low birth weight d.intellectual disabilities, blindness, and other physical disorders 12.Dr. McKenzie decides to perform a Cesarean section in order to.
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31. Display rules are social and cultural rules that regulate when, how, and where a person may express, or 32. Display rules involve universal, biologically-based emotional displays evoked by particular emotional 33. Research has shown that smiles always signal the same underlying emotion, regardless of culture or situational factors. 34. After a Japanese/American.
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41. The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome follows the alarm stage as the body attempts to 42. When a person is under stress, the hypothalamus sends messages to the endocrine glands along two major pathways. 43. People with high incomes usually have more stressful lives than people with low incomes. 44..
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  1.After implantation of the zygote in the uterine wall is complete, the ________ stage of prenatal development begins. a.germinal b.fetal c.embryonic d.uterine 2.According to your textbook, which of the following outcomes is associated with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy? a.defects in the eyes, ears, and heart b.smaller brain, facial deformities, lack of coordination c.increased likelihood of miscarriage, prematurity,.
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  1.Which of the following is an example of an extrinsically motivated behavior? a. reading a mystery book by your favorite author b. working to earn a paycheck c. bringing your mother flowers because it makes you feel good d. marrying someone because you love being with him or her 2.________ refers to a genetically influenced.
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21. Sweets decrease dopamine levels in the brain. 22. Increases in obesity rates have occurred in both sexes, all social classes, and all age groups across the world. 23.Human beings are genetically predisposed to gain weight when rich food is abundant. 24.The increased abundance of fast food and processed foods is one of.
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  41.A man with a(n) ________ attachment style will find that others are often reluctant to get as close as he would like, and he worries that his partner won’t stay with him. a.secure b.avoidant c.anxious d.intimate 42.According to the attachment theory of love, anxious lovers worry that: a. they cannot control their own desires to cheat. b..
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6. The textbook discusses an example of how sexual scripts for African-American men and women can contribute to unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. What are the scripts that were found to be associated with unsafe sex in this community? 7. Describe the difference between mastery goals and performance goals. Which.
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51.Getting money, taking revenge, and “evening the score” fall under the ________ category of motives for sex. a.“pleasure” b.“attaining a goal” c.“peer approval” d.“insecurity” 52.Which of the following is one of the reasons for rape given in the text? a.narcissism and hostility toward women b.unrequited love c.anxious attachment d.curiosity 53.A set of implicit rules that specifies proper sexual behavior for.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.Psychologists who study physiological and cognitive changes across the life span and how these are affected by a person’s genetic predispositions, culture, circumstances, and experiences are called: a.developmental psychologists. b.humanistic psychologists. c.maturational psychologists. d.individualist psychologists. 2.________ is the sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behavior and physical characteristics. a.Socialization b.Maturation c.Induction d.Acculturation 3.________ is the process by which children.
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41.Securely attached babies are more likely to become securely attached lovers in adulthood. 42. Intimacy is based on deep knowledge of the other person, which accumulates gradually. 43. The only “real love” is romantic love, and if a relationship begins to lose its passion, then it never was true 44. The passion at.
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5. Why do some people have a homosexual orientation and others have a heterosexual orientation? Although researchers are still searching for explanations, some causes have been ruled out and others have only weak support. What theories of sexual orientation have been ruled out? Describe the possible biological theories regarding the.
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71.An expectation that comes true because of the tendency of the person holding it to act in ways that bring it about is called: a.a self-fulfilling prophecy. b.an approach goal. c.a mastery goal. d.self-efficacy. 72.Which of the following work conditions is most likely to increase worker motivation and satisfaction? a.The assigned tasks are varied rather than.
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21.Injecting leptin into a leptin-deficient mouse would cause it to: a.become sedentary. b.experience pleasure. c.gain weight. d.lose weight. 22.During a critical period in infancy, __________ influences the formation of neural circuits in the hypothalamus, which are responsible for determining the body’s set point. a.leptin b.sucrose c.fructose d.pectin 23.At least ________ percent of all children and teenagers in America are now.
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51.According to Jean Piaget, at what developmental stage would a child come to understand conservation and cause and effect? a.sensorimotor b.preoperational c.concrete operations d.formal operations 52.According to Piaget, children develop abstract reasoning at the ________ stage of cognitive development. a.preoperational b.sensorimotor c.concrete operations d.formal operations 53.According to Jean Piaget, the last stage of a child’s cognitive development is the ________.
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11. The amygdala plays a key role in emotion, especially fear. 12. The amygdala scrutinizes information for its emotional importance and makes the initial decision to 13.The thalamus scrutinizes information for its emotional importance and makes the initial decision to 14. The amygdala generates a more complete picture of a person or situation.
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51. Homosexuality has been documented only in humans and other primates. 52. There is evidence that sexual orientation is moderately heritable, particularly in men. 53. Approach goals are positive experiences that you seek directly. 54. People who have a strong sense of self-efficacy tend to be quick to cope with problems that befall.
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  Essay Questions 1.What is the set point theory? Explain the implications of set point theory for dieting. 2. Although large numbers of people report that they are dieting, there have been dramatic increases in the number of overweight individuals. What are some of the environmental reasons for this epidemic of overweight and.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. Mice show signs of stress when they are crowded, but humans often seek crowds. Chapter 11 gave us insight into this topic. Integrate the research on crowding with your knowledge from Chapter 8, Behavior in Social and Cultural Context, concerning cultural differences in personal.
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31.Anatolie was raised in a substandard orphanage where he was given little attention. He wasn’t adopted until he was 6 years old. Anatolie is ________________ to become insecurely attached to his adoptive parents as compared to a child that did not experience the same level of abandonment and deprivation. a.no more.
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21.How did infant rhesus monkeys that were raised with both an artificial “wire mother” and an artificial “cloth mother” respond to these objects? a.They became attached to the artificial mother that supplied milk. b.They avoided both mothers except when they were hungry. c.They would not eat or drink, and soon died. d.They would cling.
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31.Zulma is currently in therapy for treatment of an eating disorder. Every day she eats a box of donuts and an entire bag of chips and then makes herself vomit. Zulma most likely has which of the following disorders? a.binge-eating disorder b.acquired taste aversion c.bulimia nervosa d.anorexia nervosa 32.________ is an eating disorder characterized by.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 406                Steve is unexpectedly called on in class to discuss a question. He hasn’t the faintest idea of the answer, and               he feels his heart pound and his palms sweat. According to Selye, Steve is in the ___________ phase of his               stress response. 2.Maria.
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1.During the prenatal stage, the fertilized egg is called a(n): a.ovum. b.embryo. c.fetus. d.zygote. 2.The most common consequence of ________ during pregnancy is deafness. a.alcohol use b.German measles c.cigarette smoking d.cocaine use 3.The research by Margaret and Harry Harlow demonstrated a need for ________ in young rhesus monkeys. a.contact comfort b.adequate nutrition c.maternal sensitivity d.a peer group 4.Based on Mary Ainsworth’s studies, ________ children did not.
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  41.________ refers to a child’s first word combinations, which omit unnecessary words. a.Telegraphic speech b.Parentese c.Universal grammar d.Symbolic gesture 42.Janis sees a bat flying over the lake and says, “Birdie”! Her mother says, “That flies like a bird, Janis, but that is a bat.” Janis begins pointing saying, “Bat! Bat! Bat!” Piaget would say that.
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11. Obesity is almost always based on overeating. 12.Set point is defined as the genetically influenced weight range for an individual, maintained by biological 13. According to set point theory, biological mechanisms try to keep a person’s weight within 25 percent of a               target weight. 14. Obese people’s fat cells are bigger.
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21. No physiological patterns of responses are specific to lying. 22. Innocent people may react to the polygraph because they are nervous about the procedure. 23. Practiced liars can beat the polygraph machine by tensing muscles during the neutral questions. 24. The polygraph detects the physiological patterns of responses that are specific to.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 446 1.Biological research finds that: a.homosexual behavior is found in hundreds of animal species. b.male and female sexual responses are physiologically very different. c.women have a stronger sex drive than men do, contrary to the stereotype. 2.Research on the motives of rapists finds that rape is usually a result of: a.thwarted.
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91.An effective way to deal with thoughts and feelings that make you ashamed, worried, frightened, or sad is to: a.suppress them. b.continue to think about them until they decrease. c.confess them to someone else. d.try not to think about them. 92.In addition to confession, another important way of letting go of negative emotions is: a.forgiveness. b.rumination. c.revenge. d.dissociation. 93.Which of.
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  True-False Questions 1. There is little support for Darwin’s contention that certain human facial expressions are innate or “hardwired.” 2. When people try to hide their feelings with an inauthentic expression, they use different groups of muscles 3.People trying to hide their real feelings with fake expressions use the same muscle groups that.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. The words “motivation” and “emotion” are derived from the same Latin root word. What is the meaning of the Latin root and why is it well-suited in the naming of “motivation”? 2.What is leptin and what role does it play in the biology of body weight? 3. For many years.
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  101.Thornton drops his eyeglasses on the sidewalk and they shatter. Which of the following would be a response that shows reappraisal? a.“I’ll put it out of my mind by going for a swim.” b.“I am a stupid, clumsy idiot, that’s for sure.” c.“That’s a shame, but I’ve wanted new glasses anyway.” d.“I can’t ever.
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61. Secondary control is a “learn to live with it” philosophy. 62. Primary control is a “learn to live with it” philosophy. 63. The Japanese proverb “To lose is to win” illustrates secondary control. 64. The Japanese proverb “To lose is to win” illustrates primary control. 65. People with a Type A personality are.
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61.________ are goals framed in terms of positive experiences that you seek directly. a.Approach goals b.Performance goals c.Secure goals d.Self-efficacy goals 62.________ are goals framed in terms of avoiding unpleasant experiences. a.Avoidance goals b.Insecure goals c.Mastery goals d.Learning goals 63.Evan wants to earn a black belt in karate. Which way of thinking is most likely to help Evan reach his.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1.In Chapter 1 (What Is Psychology?), the textbook authors point out that one of the hardest lessons of life is how to live with uncertainty. Many questions currently don’t have answers. Integrate this critical thinking guideline (tolerate uncertainty) with the information in Chapter 12 (Motivation).
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 391                 Three-year-old Olivia sees her dad dressed as a gorilla and runs away in fear. What brain structure is               probably involved in her emotional reaction?                 Ana Maria is watching an old Laurel and Hardy film, which makes her chuckle and makes her want to.
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  True-False Questions 1. The English words “motivation” and “emotion” both come from the Latin root meaning “to move.” 2.Motivation refers to the process within a person or animal which causes organisms in a deprived state to 3.To psychologists, motivation refers to an inferred process within a person or animal which causes that 4.To psychologists,.
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