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  6. Language and communication involve much more than just verbal speech. The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions is known as A. linguistic physiology. B. biosemantics. C. kinesics. D. protolinguistics. E. diglossia. 7. Linguistic anthropologists also are interested in investigating the structure of language and how it varies across time and.
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  26. Applied anthropology A. originated at the same time that anthropology’s four-field approach became established among early twentieth-century U.S. academics. B. has yet to be recognized by the American Anthropological Association. C. encompasses any use of the knowledge and/or techniques of its four subfields to identify, assess, and solve practical problems. D. focuses on.
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1. Culture A. is the exclusive domain of the elite. B. is acquired by humans as members of society through the process of enculturation. C. is being destroyed by electronic media. D. developed among nonhuman primates around 10,000 years ago. E. is more developed in industrial nations than among hunters and gatherers. 2. Which of the.
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1. Which of the following research methods is a distinctive strategy within anthropology? A. its practice of cross-cultural comparison B. the biological perspective C. ethnography D. the evolutionary perspective E. working with skilled respondents 2. All of the following are characteristic field techniques of the ethnographer EXCEPT A. detailed work with key consultants. B. direct, firsthand observation of.
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  42. Historically, scientists have approached the study of human biological diversity in two main ways: racial classification, which is now largely abandoned; and the current explanatory approach, which focuses on understanding specific differences. 43. Biological races have been scientifically discredited not just among humans but also among all living species. 44. Humanity.
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  41. Hunting is a distinctive human activity not shared with the apes. 42. Practice theory recognizes that the study of anthropology takes a lot of practice before resulting in accurate descriptions of a culture. 43. Although there are many different levels of culture, an individual can participate in only one level at.
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  46. Anthropology is characterized by a methodological rather than moral relativism; in order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members’ beliefs and motivations. 47. Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action. 48. The idea of universal and inalienable human rights that are superior to.
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  26. Despite the differences among theoretical paradigms of practitioners as varied as Harris (cultural materialism), White (neoevolutionism), Julian Steward (cultural ecology), and Margaret Mead (configurationalism), all of them have what in common? A. a strong sense of determinism, leaving very little (if any) room for the exercise of individual human agency B..
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  52. Morgan and Edward Tylor, both considered among the fathers of anthropology, worked within the paradigm of unilinear evolution. 53. Franz Boas’s famous biological studies of European immigrants to the United States revealed and measured phenotypical plasticity, showing that the environment and cultural forces could change human biology. 54. Boas and his.
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  47. Physical features cluster into discrete genetic units. 48. Phenotypic similarities and differences always have a genetic basis. 49. There is much greater variation within each of the traditional races than between them. 50. The role of natural selection in producing variation in human skin color illustrates the explanatory approach to explaining human.
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  21. What did Robert Redfield argue about the relations between urban and rural communities? A. Peasants are culturally isolated from cities. B. Cities are centers from which cultural innovations are spread to rural and tribal areas. C. Innovation tends to move from rural to urban areas. D. There are so many connections between rural.
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  16. Which of the following is a cultural generality? A. exogamy B. the use of fire C. the incest taboo D. the use of symbols E. the nuclear family 17. Which of the following LEAST explains the existence of cultural generalities? A. cultural borrowing B. globalization C. colonialism D. isolationism E. trade 18. What are cultural particularities? A. traits isolated from other traits.
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  57. The U.S. and Canadian governments use the same racial categories in their census. 58. Racial categories in Japan are more rigid than racial categories in Brazil. 59. In Japan, the burakumin represent an isolated breeding population that is genetically distinct from the rest of the country. 60. Racial categories in Brazil are.
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  38. Ethnosemantics studies how different members of different linguistic groups organize, categorize, and classify their experiences and perceptions. 39. Sociolinguists study linguistic performance by categorizing speakers as inadequate, competent, or highly proficient. 40. Diglossia refers to linguistic groups, like those in Papua New Guinea and Australia, that distinguish between only two colors:.
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  35. Ethnography involves the collection of data that is used to create an account of a particular community, society, or culture. 36. Ethnomusicology is one of the four main subfields of anthropology. 37. Archaeologists study only prehistoric communities. 38. Biological anthropologists study only human bones. 39. As an academic discipline, anthropology falls under both.
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  26. How are cultural rights different from human rights? A. Human rights are real, whereas cultural rights are just perceived. B. The United Nations protects human rights but not cultural rights. C. Cultural rights are vested in groups, not in individuals. D. Cultural rights are more clear-cut than human rights. E. The term cultural rights.
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  43. In all languages, the same honorifics have the same meaning, regardless of context. 44. Sociolinguistics has demonstrated that men lack the linguistic capacity to distinguish between slight changes in color. 45. Studies investigating differences in the way men and women talk are examples of sociolinguistics. 46. Black English Vernacular (BEV) is an.
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  42. The etic perspective refers to a non-scientific perspective. 43. Since there are so many anthropologists in the United States, the distinction between emic and etic does not apply to American culture. 44. Longitudinal research is the long-term study of a community, region, society, culture, or other unit, usually based on repeated.
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  41. When nations become more tied to the world economy, indigenous forms of social organization inevitably break down into nuclear family organization, impersonality, and alienation. 42. Sociolinguists and cultural anthropologists studying Puerto Rican communities in the Midwestern United States found that Puerto Rican parents valued education more than non-Hispanics. 43. In his.
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  48. Creole languages are commonly found in regions where different linguistic groups come into contact with one another. 49. Historical linguists use linguistic similarities and differences in the world today to study long-term changes in language. 50. The world’s linguistic diversity has been cut in half, as measured by the number of.
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  21. What terms are used to convey or imply a status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed? A. formal addresses, but sociolinguists rarely pay attention to them, because their use in a social situation is always a result of linguistic exploitation B. honorifics C. style shifts D. diglossia E..
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30. Anthropologists study only non-Western cultures. 31. Humans can adapt to their surroundings through both biological and cultural means. 32. Culture is not itself biological but rests on certain features of human biology. 33. Adaptation refers to the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses, such as those posed by.
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1. Ethnicity means identification with A. the cultural values of the dominant culture. B. and feeling part of a biologically racial group. C. your neighbors in a multicultural society. D. and feeling part of a cultural tradition and exclusion from other cultural traditions. E. and feeling part of two or more groups in a plural.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 31. Anthropology has three dimensions: academic, applied, and a mix of the two. 32. Ethnography is one of applied anthropology’s most valuable research tools, because it provides a firsthand account of the lives of ordinary people. 33. During World War II, the U.S. government recruited anthropologists to study Japanese and German.
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  21. Which of the following statements about subcultures is NOT true? A. Subcultures exemplify “levels of culture.” B. Subcultures have different learning experiences. C. Subcultures have shared learning experiences. D. Subcultures may originate in ethnicity, class, region, or religion. E. Subcultures are mutually exclusive; individuals may not participate in more than one subculture. 22. Which of.
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  36. Developmental anthropology is the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimensions of, moral development. 37. A commonly stated goal of recent development policy is to promote equity; that is, to reduce poverty and promote a more even distribution of wealth. 38. A comparative study.
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1. Applied anthropology is A. the purely academic dimension of anthropology. B. the term used for all anthropological research programs. C. the use of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary problems. D. rarely possible, as anthropological studies are not practical in the “real world.” E. is not guided by.
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  16. A sociolinguist studies A. the interaction of history and sociology. B. cross-cultural comparisons of phonemic distinctions. C. the universal grammar of language. D. linguistic competence. E. speech in its social context. 17. Which of the following statements about sociolinguists is NOT true? A. They are concerned more with performance than with competence. B. They look at society.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 31. Culture helps us define the world in which we live, to express feelings and ideas, and to guide our behavior and perceptions. 32. Culture is transmitted by both formal and informal instruction, but not by observation. 33. Culture is transmitted in society. 34. According to Leslie White, culture is dependent upon.
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  26. What is an illness? A. a nonexistent ailment (only diseases are real) B. an artificial product of biomedicine C. a scientifically described health threat D. a purely linguistic problem E. a condition of poor health perceived by an individual 27. Shamans and other magico-religious specialists are effective curers with regard to what kind of disease.
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  51. Independent invention occurs when two or more cultures independently come up with similar solutions to a common problem. 52. Acculturation is the process by which people lose the culture that they learned as children. 53. Indigenous cultures are at the mercy of the forces of globalization, as they can do nothing.
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  31. Practice theory A. focuses on how individuals, through their actions and practices, influence and transform the world they live in. B. was popularized by Margaret Mead in the 1940s. C. is the only theoretical paradigm to effectively solve the “culture-individual” problem. D. actually shares the same deterministic assumptions of earlier theoretical paradigms. E. explains.
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  16. In survey research, what term is used to refer to the attributes that vary among the members of a population? A. unknowns B. questionnaires C. interviews D. variables E. random samples 17. Despite the variety of research techniques that the ethnographer may utilize in the field, in the best studies the hallmark of ethnography remains A..
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  6. What do anthropologists mean when they say culture is shared? A. Culture is an attribute of particular individuals. B. Culture is an attribute of individuals as members of groups. C. Culture is what ensures that all people raised in the same society have the same opinions. D. Culture is universally regarded as more.
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  11. What is the study of the sounds used in speech? A. phones B. phonemes C. phonology D. phonetics E. phonemics 12. Just as in other areas of anthropology, the study of language involves investigating what is or isn’t shared across human populations and why these differences or similarities exist. The linguist Noam Chomsky has argued.
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  46. An illness is a scientifically identified health threat caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen. 47. Biomedicine, which aims to link an illness to scientifically-demonstrated agents that bear no personal malice toward their victims, is an example of naturalistic medicine. 48. Health care systems refers to the nationalized.
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  11. Traditional ethnographic research focused on the single community or culture, which was treated as more or less isolated and unique in time and space. However, A. all such single communities have already been studied, so anthropologists have very limited project choices. B. there has been a shift within the discipline toward.
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  6. In the field, ethnographers strive to establish rapport: a good, friendly working relationship based on personal contact A. that is necessary to conduct any valuable research in the social sciences, not just anthropology. B. that, if done properly, ensures the ethnographer’s ability to conduct detached, unbiased research. C. achieved in large part.
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  11. What is the commonly stated goal for most development projects? A. greater socioeconomic stratification B. ethnocide C. cultural assimilation D. decreased local autonomy E. increased equity 12. In a comparative study of 68 development projects, Kottak determined that A. overinnovation was the most productive development model. B. culturally compatible development projects were twice as successful as incompatible.
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  36. Cultures are integrated, patterned systems in which a change in one part often leads to changes in other parts. 37. Once an individual has been enculturated, that person must adhere to the cultural rules that govern that culture. 38. Although culture is one of the principal means humans use to adapt.
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  47. Given the realities of the contemporary world, anthropologists need to apply methods that protect their analyses from biases caused by external forces. 48. The American Anthropological Association Code of Ethics prohibits anthropologists from working with governments on matters of national security. 49. Survey research studies a small sample of a larger.
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  11. The human capacity for culture has an evolutionary basis that extends back at least 2.5 million years. This date corresponds to A. the earliest production of cave art found in South Africa. B. early toolmakers whose products survive in the archaeological record. C. a genetic mutation that caused the increase in brain.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 37. The characteristic field techniques of the ethnographer are participant observation, the genealogical method, and in-depth interviewing. 38. Traditionally, ethnographers have tried to understand the whole of a particular culture. 39. When an ethnographer uses an interview schedule to gather information from the field, this inevitably limits the researcher’s capacity to.
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  21. The view that each element of culture, such as the culture trait or trait complex, has its own distinctive history, and that social forms (such as totemism in different societies) that might look similar are not comparable because of their different histories, is known as A. historical particularism. B. cultural generalism. C..
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1. A key feature of language that helps explain anthropologists’ continued interest in studying it is that it A. enables us to compare human and nonhuman primate linguistic grammars. B. tells us a lot about the present, although nothing about the past. C. is always changing. D. helps them distinguish between the more and.
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  33. Phonology is the study of speech sounds. 34. Syntax refers to the rules that dictate the order of words in a language. 35. Sapir and Whorf argued that all humans share a single set of universal grammatical categories. 36. Focal vocabularies are found only in non-Western societies like the Eskimo and the.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 28. Animal call systems exhibit linguistic productivity. 29. Linguistic productivity refers to the fixed linguistic structures that prevent the creation of new expressions. 30. Recent genetic research suggests that a speech-friendly mutation took hold in humans around 150,000 years ago, thus conferring selective advantages (linguistic and cultural abilities) that allowed those.
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