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Study Resources (Anthropology)

  11.Anthropology is literally the study of __________. a.human history b.human population patterns c.humans d.the products of human societies 12.Applied anthropologists practice __________. a.in the field of cultural anthropology b.in the field of ethnology c.in the field of paleontology d.in all subfields of anthropology 13.The __________ seeks to understand how and why peoples of today and the recent past differ in.
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  21.In 1969, __________ argued that “blacks” were less intelligent than “whites.” a.Arthur Goldberg b.Arthur Ashe c.Art Garfunkel d.Arthur Jensen 22.The exact reproduction of an individual from cellular tissue is called __________. a.reproduction b.transplanting c.cloning d.mutation 23.__________ is an acclimatization. a.Tanning among light-skinned people b.Shivering c.Increased metabolic rates d.All of the above 24.__________ states that protruding body parts are relatively shorter in the cooler areas of.
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  31.Archaeologists do all of the following except __________. a.reconstruct the daily life and customs of peoples who lived in the past b.reconstruct prehistoric languages c.trace cultural changes d.offer possible explanations for why culture changed 32.How far do the earliest written languages date back? a.15,000 years ago b.10,000 years ago c.5,000 years ago d.2,000 years ago 33.A linguist studying the American.
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  1.The Mbuti people practice which form of social stratification? a.egalitarian b.caste c.class d.rank 2.A society is practicing which form of stratification when the members of the society have equal access to economic resources but not to prestige? a.egalitarian b.caste c.class d.rank 3.Modern industrial societies are noted for having disparate access to economic resources and power. What type of stratification exists.
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  1.The anthropological attitude that a society’s customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that society’s problems and opportunities is called __________. a.ethnocentrism b.cultural relativism c.humanistic d.empathetic 2.Why would !Kung individuals of the Kalahari Desert give away all of the animals they kill every day? a.They are really nice people who.
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  21.The use of more than one language in the course of conversation is referred to as _________.  a. spanglish b.code-switching c.annoying d.bilingual 22.The roles that determine how phrases and sentences are formed make up a language’s __________. a.morphology b.descriptive grammar c.syntax d.phonology 23.About 50 percent of the English general vocabulary originated in __________. a.Finnish b.Norman c.German d.French 24.Historical linguists reconstruct changes that have occurred.
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  1.A person’s ____________, or pronunciation, can tell a lot about the person’s background.   a. lexicon b.syntax c.grammar d.accent 2.When we say that a communication is __________, we mean at least two things. First, the communication has meaning even when the referent is not there, and second, the meaning is arbitrary. a.understandable b.symbolic c.representative d.rhetorical 3.To a linguist, __________ consists.
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  1.The first clear indication of a changeover to food production took place in the Near East about __________. a.10,000 B.C b.8000 B.C c.4000 B.C d.2000 B.C 2.The shift to food production is called the __________. a.Paleolithic Revolution b.Neolithic Revolution c.Cambrian Revolution d.Mesolithic Revolution 3.Settled life is called __________. a.sedentarism b.nomadism c.hunting d.wandering 4.Tools found at Natufian sites suggest they harvested _________ intensively. a.wild cows b.wild fruit c.wild grain d.domesticated.
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  1.Why do members of food-collecting societies not own land individually? a.Land has no intrinsic value to collectors. b.No system of surveying existed in these types of societies. c.Food-collectors were not interested in land because they needed family more. d.Land was an unknown commodity. 2.Of the following economic activities, which finds the individual ownership of land.
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  11.______________ is a population that consists of organisms able to interbreed and produce fertile and viable offspring. a.Species b.Gene c.DNA d.RNA 12.______________ is a change in the DNA sequence that can produce an altered gene. a.RNA b.Species c.Segregation d.Mutation 13.Mendel’s units of heredity were what we now call ____________. a.genes b.meiosis c.DNA d.mitosis 14.Messenger RNA is copied from a portion of ____________. a.DNA b.thymine c.uracil d.RNA 15.Each member of a.
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  1.Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution suggests that _____________. a.different species develop one from another b.inheritance plays no role in evolution c.acquired characteristics are predominant in evolution d.evolution is a myth 2.The third principle of natural selection is ____________. a.biodiversity and heritability b.natural selection c.particular environment d.differential reproductive success 3.In 1859, Charles Darwin published ____________. a.The Origin of Species b.The Descent of Man c.The.
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  21.The most well-known chronometric dating method is __________. a.stratigraphic dating b.Potassium-Argon dating c.radiocarbon dating d.fission-track dating 22.Potassium argon dating can be used to date samples from 5,000 years up to __________.                a. 300,000 years old b.3 million years old c.30 million years old d.3 billion years old 23.After about __________ years, the amount of 14C remaining in the.
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  11.The smallest unit of language that has meaning is a __________. a.phone b.phoneme c.morph d.morpheme 12.One way a society may reflect its corresponding culture is in its lexical content, or ________.  a. syntax b.linguistics c.terminology d.vocabulary 13.The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that __________. a.societies are heavily influenced by their languages b.language is a force in its own right, that affects how individuals.
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  11.Which of the following in not a prosimian? a.lemurs b.tarsiers c.lorises d.chimpanzees 12.Anthropoids include all of the following except _________. a.monkeys b.apes c.lorises d.humans 13.Which is not a characteristic of New World monkeys? a.three premolars b.arboreal c.two premolars d.prehensile tail 14.Old World monkeys have the same _________ as apes and humans. a.number of teeth b.brain to body ratio c.mating habits d.bipedalism 15.The hominoid group contains all of the following families.
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  1.Variation between human populations may be the result of __________. a.differences in genes b.growing up in a particular environment c.interaction between genes and environment d.all of the above 2.___________ are changes in the structure of genes. a.Mutations b.Gene frequencies c.DNA molecules d.Alleles 3.___________ are the ultimate source of all genetic variation. a.Mutations b.Gene frequencies c.DNA molecules d.Alleles 4.___________ results in more favorable genes becoming more.
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  21.Which of the following is least likely to interest an archaeologist? a.Ancient garbage heaps b.Ancient temples c.Pieces of ancient pottery d.Dinosaur bones 22.The study of anthropology may be useful for all of the following except _________. a.giving us a sense of humility about our own culture’s failings b.helping us avoid misunderstandings between people c.giving us a better understanding.
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  1.The famous footprints of Australopithecus were found at __________. a.Laetoli b.Alexandria c.Nairobi d.Addis Ababa 2.Gracile australopithecines include all of the following except __________. a.anamensis b.afarensis c.aethiopicus d.africanus 3.Robust australopithecines include all of the following except __________. a.aethiopicus b.boisei c.africanus d.robustus 4.The earliest Australopithecine species, anamensis, is dated to about __________ million years ago. a.3.9-4.2 b.5.8-4.4 c.8.8-10.3 d.11-12 5.Anthropologist Donald Johanson found 40 percent of the skeleton of a female hominid.
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  21.Hominid females can have sex __________. a.only when they are likely to conceive b.at any time during the year c.when the moon is blue d.when the moon is full 22.__________ is not a behavioral ability of hominids. a.Tool making b.Language c.Gender-role specialization d.Being arboreal 23.Compared with other primates, the human dependency period is much ________. a.longer b.shorter c.about the same d.Humans have no dependency.
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  21.Cro-Magnon first appeared in Europe about _________ years ago. a.75,000 b.65,000 c.45,000 d.35,000 22.To explain why human evolution would proceed gradually and in the same direction in various parts of the Old World, multiregional theorists point to cultural improvements  in ______________. a.clothing b.hunting tools and cooking technology c.teeth care d.language and communication 23.The Upper Paleolithic is characterized by a preponderance.
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  1.Marriage includes two major factors. These are __________. a.economic and kinship considerations b.economic and land-ownership considerations c.sexual and economic considerations d.sexual and kinship considerations 2.In a patrilocal residence, who leaves the household so that the married couple lives with or near the husband’s parents? a.son b.daughter c.sister d.brother 3.Which of the following is not a stated explanation for marriage? a.gender division.
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  11.Which of the following is not a theory about what happened to the Neandertals? a.interbreeding b.genocide c.extinction d.multi-national 12.Toward the end of the Acheulian period a technique was developed, called the __________ method, which enabled the toolmaker to produce flake tools of a predetermined size. a.Mousterian b.Oldowan c.Levalloisian d.none of the above 13.__________ thinks that the Klasies River people in.
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  21.The observable appearance of a pea plant is called its __________. a.stereotype b.phenotype c.prototype d.genotype 22.The genetic makeup of a pea plant is called its __________. a.genotype b.stereotype c.phenotype d.prototype 23.If two genes—or alleles—for a trait are the same, the organism is ________ for the trait. a.heterozygous b.homozygous c.monozygous d.bizygous 24.Once the mRNA is released from the DNA, it travels out of the cell nucleus.
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  1.Anthropology takes a(n) __________ approach that includes a wide geographic and historical range. a.personal b.cultural c.topical d.holistic 2.What explanation did American educators give when they discovered African American schoolchildren rarely drank milk? a.milk intolerance b.a lack of money or education c.a dislike for the flavor of milk d.milk was only drunk at home 3.A human paleontologist would be least interested.
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  11.Undisputed bipedal early hominids lived in __________ about 4 million years ago. a.China b.East Africa c.North America d.West Africa 12.Which of the following hominid characteristics came first? a.bipedalism b.modification of the female pelvis c.expansion of the brain d.reduction of the face 13.With the drying trend of 16 to 11 million years ago, the area called the ________ expanded  in Afric a. a.polar.
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  21.How is chiefly status obtained among the Ifaluk culture? a.War b.Purchase c.Genealogically in the female line d.Genealogically in the male line 22.Racial classifications are __________. a.biological categories b.cultural categories c.economic categories d.social categories 23.Anthropologists not consider __________ a caste? a.the Eta of Japan b.blacks in the American South in segregation days c.the Camar (leather-workers) of India d.Anthropologists would classify all of these groups as.
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  1.Humans belong to the order of __________. a.Mammalia b.Chordata c.Homo d.Primates 2.Humans evolved from earlier __________ which are now extinct. a.monkeys b.chimpanzees c.orangutans d.primates 3.Many skeletal features of primates reflect a(n) ___________ existence. a.agrarian b.terrestrial c.arboreal d.pastoral 4.Primates are generally ___________. a.frugivores b.omnivores c.carnivores d.herbivores 5.Primates have chewing teeth—molars and premolars—that are ___________, and front teeth—incisors and canines—that are ___________. a.unspecialized/unspecialized b.specialized/specialized c.specialized/unspecialized d.unspecialized/specialized 6.Primates are characterized as __________. a.stereoscopic b.monoscopic c.myopic d.hyperopic 7.A common primate trait is __________. a.forward-facing eyes b.grasping.
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  11.Why are maladaptive customs likely to disappear from a society? a.No one likes them. b.They diminish the chances of survival and reproduction. c.They are immediately destructive of the group. d.They are too unique for the group. 12.Participant observation refers to the __________ a.observation of how people interact in carefully contrived situations b.use of a laboratory to standardize.
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  11.The amount of melanin in the skin seems to be related to the __________ where a  person lives. a. weather b.climate c.rainfall d.moonlight 12.An advantage of light skin is greater absorption of Vitamin __________. a.A b.B c.C d.D 13.It can be concluded that _________ is related to height. a.weight b.nutrition c.genetic makeup d.all of the above 14.An abnormality of the red blood cells is.
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  11.Without exception, recent and modern industrial and postindustrial societies are __________.                 a. caste systems b.ranked c.egalitarian d.socially stratified 12.__________ are persons who do not own their own labor, and as such they represent a class. a.Peasants b.Serfs c.Slaves d.Prisoners 13.If all social groups in a society have equal access to wealth, prestige, and power, then anthropologists call that.
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  11.The remote sensing technique that is based upon the fact that the earth has a strong magnetic field that varies by what is beneath the ground is called __________. a.soil interface radar b.ground penetrating radar c.geomagnetic sensing d.excavation 12.Excavation has two goals: to find every scrap of evidence (or a statistically representative sample) about the.
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  1.Political life includes all of the following except __________. a.party politics b.the various branches of government c.the issuing of parking tickets d.the resolution of disputes 2.A __________ is politically autonomous and is comprised of the local group or community.   a. band b.tribe c.chiefdom d.state 3.Societies with tribal political organization are similar to band societies in their tendency to be.
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  21.People are most likely to be forced to work in __________. a.societies dependent on tree crops b.food collector societies c.complex societies d.societies dependent on shifting agriculture 22.A form of commercialization that took place in Tikopia and involved the movement of people to neighboring islands to find employment is __________. a.nonagricultural commercial production b.production of supplementary cash crops c.migratory.
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  21.The custom of allowing a man to marry more than one woman is __________. a.found in most of the societies anthropologists have studied b.found in only a small minority of the world’s societies c.unlikely to engender jealousy among co-wives d.strictly forbidden by the Muslim religion 22.A long post-partum sex taboo is most likely to occur.
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  11.Most archaeologists believe that the __________ was one of the earliest centers of plant and animal domestication. a.Kansas plains b.Sahara Desert c.African savanna d.Fertile Crescent 12.In Ali Kosh in southwestern Iran after about 5500 B.C., __________ were two important innovations. a.irrigation and the use of domesticated cattle b.the steel plow and crop rotation c.intercrop cultivation and fertilizer d.the growth.
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  1.Recent finds in Africa date Homo sapiens to about __________ years ago. a.300,000 b.200,000 c.160,000 d.50,000 2.In __________, fossils were found in the Neander Valley, near Düsseldorf, Germany. a.1859 b.1856 c.1850 d.1846 3.Darwin’s The Origin of Species was published in __________. a.1859 b.1856 c.1850 d.1846 4.Differences in Neandertal skulls from modern human skulls include the following, except  for ___________. a.sloping foreheads b.large brow ridges c.protruding chins d.flattened braincases 5.In __________,.
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  21.The term “subculture” refers to __________. a.the conscious behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals of a society b.the unconscious behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals of a society c.a cultural pattern considered inferior by members of a society d.the variant culture of a group of people within a larger society 22.The fact that monkeys and.
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  21.The widening of the female pelvis is related to __________. a.reduction of the face, teeth, and jaws b.decreased cranial capacity c.larger brained babies d.smaller brained babies 22. A. anamensis has been found in several locations in __________. a.Japan b.the United States c.Tanzania d.Kenya 23.The first hominid species to be widely distributed in the Old World was __________. a.Australopithecus afarensis b.Homo habilis c.Homo rudolfensis d.Homo erectus 24.The.
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  11.Which of the following societies is more likely to practice bride service? a.Asian horticulturalists b.African agriculturalists c.Native North and South American societies d.European industrialists 12.Most people in the United States practice which kinship system? a.ambilineal b.double unilineal descent c.bilateral d.unilineal 13.A __________ is a set or kin whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor or ancestress,.
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  11.Of the following societies, which is the most lenient about restrictions dealing with the timing of sexual intercourse inside of marriage? a.the Yapese b.the Chenchu c.American d.the Lesu 12.Of the following societies, which is the most pro-homosexual? a.American b.the Etoro c.the Siwans d.the Papago 13.Societies that frown on sexual expression by young children __________. a.allow premarital and extramarital sexual relations b.do not.
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  1.Archaeologists and paleoanthropologists rely on all of the following types of evidence to discover the past except __________. a.artifacts b.ecofacts c.features d.books 2.The most common artifacts of the past are __________. a.wooden tools b.stone tools c.iron tools d.plastic tools 3._________ are simply holes dug by humans that are later filled with garbage or eroded soil.                a. Dumps b.Living floors c.Hearths d.Pits 4.Pollen found.
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  21.Some archaeologists suggest that states first evolved in __________. a.Africa b.China c.Arabia d.Mesopotamia 22.The first evidence of writing in Sumer is found about __________ B.C. a.6000 b.3000 c.1500 d.1000 23.Sumerian writing is called __________. a.spiral form b.cuneiform c.hieroglyphics d.alphabetic 24.By A.D. 500, there were over __________ people in Teotihuacán. a.1,000,000 b.2,000,000 c.500,000 d.100,000 25.The Harappan civilization was found in the __________ Valley. a.Nile b.Yangtse c.Indus d.Niger 26.One way states change the lifestyles of people is.
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  11.__________ occurs when prices are subject to supply and demand and do not necessarily involve money. a.Redistribution b.Reciprocity c.Commercial exchange d.Balanced reciprocity 12.The concept of private ownership of land is least likely among __________. a.intensive agriculturalists b.food collectors c.horticulturalists d.pastoralists 13.Under the Homestead Act of 1862, how long did a person need to farm a 160-acre piece of land before.
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  31.Anthropologists must be cautious in drawing inferences about the past from observations on contemporary foragers for all of the following reasons EXCEPT __________ a.The environments most foragers live in today may not be representative or comparable to the environments foragers lived in the past b.Contemporary foragers have evolved and are not relics.
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  21.Cross-cultural studies show that __________ is related to higher status for women in many areas of life. a.being a member of an intensive agriculture society b.less hunting c.the presence of religions with many female deities, or a female high god d.kin groups and marital residence organized around women 22.Among the Iroquois, women __________. a.had a great.
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  31.This scholar argues that all humans have an innate language-acquisition device, leading to a basic, “universal” grammar. a.Roger Fouts b.Noam Chomsky c.Cecil Brown d.Derek Bickerton 32.In which language would you expect children to develop a concept of gender permanence at the earliest age? a.one in which many nouns are clearly defined as either masculine or feminine b.one.
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  1.Humans display __________. That is, the females and males of the species exhibit fairly marked differences in size and appearance. a.physiological differences b.chromosomal differences c.genotypic differences d.sexually dimorphic characteristics 2.Which of the following statements best describes humans as they grow taller? a.Females achieve their ultimate height shortly after puberty, but boys continue to grow for years.
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