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11.Anthropologists use only qualitative data-gathering techniques. Quantitative data is used by sociologists and psychologists. 12.Among the Canela, it is improper for a mother, sister, or daughter to cut a man’s hair. 13.Both Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson were pioneers in the method of field mapping. 14.It is often an indication of acceptance when.
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21.When researchers use things such as photographs in order to prompt people to speak with them about a particular topic, these are called a.soliciting devices. b.eliciting devices. c.prompting devices. d.circular conversations. e.participant tools. 22.Why are informal interviews central to ethnographic fieldwork? a.They provide a fixed structure that allows the researcher to quantify the data collection b.They are conversations.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The gradual process of making beneficial adjustments to the environment is called a.adjustment. b.adaption. c.adaptation. d.acclimatization. e.alteration. 2.Humans’ major mode of adaptation, which enables them to live effectively in diverse environments, is a.education. b.culture. c.bureaucracy. d.religion. e.biology. 3.All of the following are long-term challenges associated with high-yield marginal farmlands in the U.S. except: a.loss of topsoil. b.high cost of fossil fuel. c.decreasing salinity of.
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21.All of the following statements about pluralistic societies are correct except: a.these are societies in which two or more ethnic groups coexist within the same state. b.together these societies comprise a nation. c.pluralistic societies did not exist before about 5,000 years ago. d.these societies have a more complex order than those states composed of.
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21.A Western doctor’s “white coat” can be compared to a shaman’s a.poncho. b.drum or rattle. c.moccasins or sandals. d.bed or hammock. e.flute. 22.To effectively compare medical systems and health cross-culturally, medical anthropologists have made a theoretical distinction between a.Western medicine and folk medicine. b.doctors and health practitioners. c.medical systems and folk medicine. d.“diseases of health” and “mental sickness.” e.“disease” and “illness.” 23.A.
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31.All of the following were differences between Bronislaw Malinowski’s original field research in the Trobriands and that of Annette Weiner some 60 years later except: a.differences in field methodology. b.differences in theoretical interests. c.differences in researchers’ disciplines. d.changes over time. e.differences in researchers’ genders. 32.Validation in ethnographic research is difficult because of all of the following.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Anthropology emerged as a scientific discipline less than 20 years ago. 2.Historically, anthropologists have worked with non-Western peoples. 3.Ruth Benedict was able to develop “culture-at-a-distance” studies without changing anthropology’s methodology. 4.Hortense Powdermaker was an early pioneer in “national character” studies. 5.One of the first advocacy projects in anthropology was among the Meskwaki (or, Fox.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Human genetic variation generally is distributed across the globe in a continuous fashion. 2.Fingerprint patterns of loops, whorls, and arches are environmentally determined. 3.Racist ideology in the United States has played a role in our treatment of Africans, Native Americans, and Asians. 4.You are related to every other human being. 5.The ever-changing racial categories.
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31.Food producers who specialize in animal husbandry, and who consider their way of life to be ideal and central to defining their identities, are called a.food foragers. b.horticulturalists. c.agriculturalists. d.pastoralists. e.industrialists. 32.The Bakhtiari are a a.pastoral group who raise goats and sheep. b.pastoral group who raise pigs and cows. c.foraging group with an extensive home range. d.horticultural group that raises.
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21.The influence of a person’s class status on what pronunciation he/she uses, a speaker’s choice of more complicated vocabulary and grammar when he/she is speaking to a professional audience, and the influence of language on culture are all concerns of a.descriptive linguistics. b.historical linguistics. c.sociolinguistics. d.linguistic nationalism. e.displacement. 22.Although language may be studied as an independent.
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21.Which of the following refers to the idea that character traits that occur with the most frequency in a cultural society are representative of the values that culture embraces? a.National cultural traits b.Modal personality c.National personality d.Social conformity models e.Community training 22.Ideal “cultural personality” traits among Yanomamo men would include being a.irritated and whiny. b.loving and respectful. c.questioning and.
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31.How many people died of smallpox in the 20th century? a.1 billion b.722 million c.300 million d.105 million e.750,000 32.Which of the following is classified as a “prion” disease? a.Smallpox b.Tuberculosis c.Kuru d.Leishmaniasis e.Susto 33.How does the prion specifically function inside the human body? a.It increases blood flow to the brain and liver and causes encephalitis b.It grows into tumors and cuts off blood.
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31.From an economist’s point of view, “market exchange” is defined by a.the purchase of goods in a marketplace. b.the buying and selling of goods and services whose value is determined by supply and demand. c.the role of middlemen who bring buyers and sellers together. d.face-to-face bargaining for goods and/or services. e.the role of large multinational.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The process organisms undergo to achieve a beneficial adjustment to a particular environment, which not only leads to biological changes in the organisms but also impacts their environment, is called a.accommodation. b.acculturation. c.adaptation. d.assimilation. e.incorporation. 2.Among the Tsembaga of Papua New Guinea, there is a relationship between the physical and social environments that involves ritual.
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11.National character studies have focused on the modal characteristics of emerging Third World countries. 12.Values highly promoted by a particular culture can be considered its core values. 13.About 3% of all humans are intersexed. 14.All cultures practice gender bending (creating more than two gender categories) as a way of dealing with different types.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Everything that humans do well is adaptive. 2.Behavior that has been adaptive at one time may become maladaptive later. 3.Examples of socially learned behavior are particularly evident among other primates. 4.A group of people without a common culture who are stranded together for a month on a desert island and who learn to.
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31.In Western societies between A.D. 1000 and 1800, divorce was next to impossible, but few marriages lasted more than about 10 or 20 years, owing to a.irreconcilable differences. b.high death rates. c.patrilineal societies. d.matrilineal societies. e.high economic cost of marriage. 32.Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption are called a(n) a.family. b.conjugal bond. c.endogamous group. d.nuclear family. e.serial.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.John Locke’s theory of tabula rasa was not sufficient because it did not a.focus on the individual, only the group. b.take genetic contributions into account. c.address any society except Europe. d.consider that culture and environment are important. e.explain why language is so important to development. 2.Which of the following statements is not correct? a.Enculturation begins before.
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11.Which of the following situations represents a flexible/integrated pattern of gender division of labor? a.A pastoral nomadic camp in which the men spend most of the time with the herds, and women remain in camp and make butter and clothing b.An intensive agricultural society in which the men are out plowing the.
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11.Which of the following statements is incorrect? a.All culture is learned. b.All learned behavior is cultural. c.Culture is humankind’s “social heredity.” d.Culture is not biologically inherited. e.Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next through enculturation. 12.In the movie Witness, a policeman named John Book was able to hide from his corrupt boss by staying.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.If a group is well adapted to its environment, it will never change as long as conditions remain the same. 2.An anthropologist would probably find it difficult to define what “progress” is. 3.The process of adaptation establishes a continually changing balance between the needs of the population and the potential of its.
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31._____ is the cross-cultural study of humankind’s perception and use of space. a.Kinesics b.Phonetics c.Proxemics d.Syntax e.Ethnology 32.Paralanguage includes not only the way that people say things but also a variety of extralinguistic noises called a.phonemes. b.kinesics. c.vocalizations. d.substitution frames. e.syntax. 33.A language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning is.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.All societies have cultural rules to regulate sexual relations. 2.The Trobrianders have a rigidly controlled sex life and puritan attitudes toward sexuality. 3.There are no cultures that prescribe male-to-male sexual acts, for any reason. 4.The social rules and cultural meanings of all sexual behavior are subject to great variability from one society to.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.What ethical dilemma was involved in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? a.A group of poor, African-American airmen from WW II was intentionally infected with syphilis in order to study the progress of the disease among minorities b.A group of poor, African-American men received the wrong medication for syphilis and were denied entrance.
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21.Which of the following is most likely to require cooperative hunting skills? a.Bow hunting b.Net hunting c.Spear hunting d.Rifle hunting e.Dart hunting 22.The cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes is a type of farming called a.agriculture. b.slash-and-burn. c.horticulture. d.low-tech farming. e.pastoralism. 23.The extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is.
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21.Balanced reciprocity a.is part of a long-term process in which nothing is specified about what is expected in return or when it is expected. b.involves the expectation of a specific and immediate exchange. c.usually occurs between members of different communities who may have a hostile, distrustful relationship. d.is exemplified by your stopping to give.
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31.According to Bronislaw Malinowski, the nature of an institution is determined by its a.structure. b.function. c.culture. d.superstructure. e.infrastructure. 32._____ set a new standard for fieldwork in anthropology through his research with the Trobriand people. a.E.E. Evans-Pritchard b.Claude Levi-Strauss c.Bronislaw Malinowski d.Ruth Benedict e.Alfred Wallace 33.Which of the following statements is correct? a.A society is a union of multiple cultures. b.Human survival depends on every.
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11.Ethnolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and the cultural setting in which it is used. 12.Code switching refers to the tendency of people who speak more than one language to confuse which language they are currently speaking in as they converse with others. 13.All languages recognize a stable set.
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31.People who cross over or occupy an intermediate position in the binary male-female gender construction are called a.transsexuals. b.intersexuals. c.transgenders. d.eunuchs. e.third genders. 32.All of the following are associated with eunuchs except: a.castration is a widespread cultural practice to transform sexual status. b.there is evidence of castration in the archaeological record in Egypt. c.castration was always carried out as.
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11.Although all societies have some kind of incest taboo, the relationship which is considered incestuous may vary. Concepts of incest seem to be related to a group’s definitions of endogamy and exogamy, thus suggesting that incest taboos may help to promote: a.stability of the family. b.inbreeding genetic errors. c.brother-sister marriages. d.parallel cousin marriages. e.cross-cousin marriages. 12.Marriage.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.A system of communication using sounds, gestures, or marks that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of share rules is called a(n) a.signal set. b.language. c.code. d.linguistic system. e.analogue. 2.Which of the following is not a signal? a.Coughs from cold b.Winking from pleasure c.Screams from fear d.Crying from sadness e.Sneezing from sickness 3.What are the long-term goals.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.Cultural anthropology is composed of which two scholarly components? a.Ethnography and ethnohistory b.Ethnography and ethnology c.Ethnology and ethnohistory d.Ethnohistory and ethnoarchaeology e.Linguistics and ethnography 2.The new term for salvage ethnography is a.contemporary ethnography. b.urgent anthropology. c.critical anthropology. d.fieldwork anthropology. e.historical anthropology. 3.Anthropology has sought directly to do each of the following except: a.document the practice of culture. b.impose a Western and modern approach.
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11.Anthropologist _____ is a leading advocacy anthropologist today and a special rapporteur for the United Nations High Commission on Human Rights. a.Rodolfo Stavenhagen b.Clifford Geertz c.Stephen Lansang d.Gregory Bates e.Jonathan Marks 12.Laura Nader has called on anthropologists to “study up.” What does she mean by this term? a.Anthropologists should study high-altitude peoples and cultures in order to.
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11.The concept that states humans are moving forward to a better, more advanced stage in their cultural development is called a.advancement. b.evolution. c.progress. d.success. e.convergence. 12.The oldest and most universal mode of subsistence is a.food foraging. b.subsistence farming. c.hunting. d.pastoralism. e.fishing. 13.Today, food-foraging societies a.are found only in the world’s most marginal areas. b.make up the majority of the world’s population. c.have not existed for.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.All of the following statements about sexual behavior among the Trobrianders is correct except: a.when the couple is ready to be married, they appear outside the woman’s household. b.by their mid-teens, young people begin having longer-term affairs that lead to marriage. c.young people traditionally have a great deal of sexual freedom. d.by the.
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11.A customary practice such as hosting a birthday party is an example of negative reciprocity. 12.The Inca Empire featured a highly efficient redistributive system. 13.Because these events were sponsored alternately by different ethnic groups, the potlatch was a form of balanced reciprocity. 14.Leveling mechanisms are found in every society, although they are less.
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11.The entire formal structure of a language consisting of all observations about its meaningful units of sounds and the rules or principles of making phrases and sentences is called its a.syntax. b.form classes. c.morphology. d.phonology. e.grammar. 12.The development of different languages from a single ancestral language is called a.descriptive linguistics. b.historical linguistics. c.language subgroups. d.linguistic divergence. e.linguistic nationalism. 13.Which of the following.
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11.The social environment contributes enormously to intelligence. 12.Anthropologists have abandoned the idea of using race as a way to study human biological variation. 13.A species cannot be polymorphic. This is a term applied to individual variation. 14.The epicanthic fold is common among Africans. 15.Though the distribution of human variation for a single trait reflects.
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11.Which of the following best describes accelerated breathing for a non-native at high altitude? a.Physiological adaptation b.Genetic adaptation c.Physical adaptation d.Hormonal adaptation e.Developmental adaptation 12.Over the course of our evolutionary history, most environmental stressors were climatic and geographic. Now, however, a.humans have little environmental stressors, climatic or geographic. b.nonhuman primates have more stressors than humans. c.humans face a series.
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11.In India, it is understood that matches (marriages) would be arranged only within the same caste and general social class. 12.The Western ideal that an individual should be free to marry whomever he or she chooses is not universally embraced. 13.Your mother’s sister’s child is your parallel cousin. 14.A marriage of a woman.
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11.Disease cannot exist in the absence of illness. 12.A shaman is an indigenous healer. 13.Down syndrome is found only in the U.S. 14.James McKenna’s research on brain-wave patterns of mothers and infants shows that co-sleeping is not the best practice for families. 15.Evolutionary medicine proposes that many of the symptoms of illness are the.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.The significance of the concept of tabula rasa is that it emphasizes the importance of culture rather than biological inheritance in determining an individual’s characteristics. 2.American children are among the earliest to develop a concept of self because of the high level of social stimulation they receive. 3.Names are a form of.
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11.Cattle herding is the mainstay around which all of Kapauku Papuan society revolves. 12.A society’s economic base is part of the superstructure. 13.The most important symbolic aspect of culture is religion. 14.Bronislaw Malinowski used standard methods of fieldwork for his work among the Trobriand. 15.Every culture provides its members ways to think of the.
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11.An individual’s personality is all of the following except: a.a product of enculturation. b.influenced by an individual’s genetic makeup. c.a kind of cognitive map functioning throughout an individual’s lifetime. d.an integrated, dynamic system of perceptual assemblages, which includes the self and its behavioral environment, that develops over time. e.is never part of the internalized awareness.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Anthropologists focus on culture as a way of explaining economic behavior. 2.Economic behavior can be analyzed in purely economic terms without ignoring crucial noneconomic considerations. 3.Raw materials, labor, and technology are the productive resources used by all societies. 4.Among food foragers, tools may be given or loaned to others in exchange for the.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.What do we call a system in which goods are produced, distributed, and consumed? a.Economic b.Political c.Religious d.Kinship e.Industrial 2.When a man works hard in his garden in the Trobriand Islands to produce yams, he does this to satisfy which of the following demands? a.To have food for his household to eat b.To gain prestige by giving.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Humans are programmed for language. 2.Chantek was a gorilla who learned American Sign Language. 3.Descriptive linguistics of the analysis of a language and its component parts. 4.The study of language sounds is grammar. 5.Linguistic nationalism refers to the establishment of a nation where everyone speaks only one language. 6.Over the past 500 years, about half.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Today, any kind of biological research on human subjects without informed consent is illegal in the U.S. 2.Differential reproductive success cannot affect allele frequencies in the gene pool. 3.Identical twins do not necessarily share the same phenotype. 4.Brain growth in humans is most rapid during the first five years of life. 5.Menopause occurs when.
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21.Marriage by proxy, such as that which might occur with a prisoner, a dead partner for inheritance reasons, or between those separated by deployment, is called a.delayed marriage. b.group marriage. c.primate marriage. d.approximate marriage. e.fictive marriage. 22.An important source of contacts in trying to arrange an Indian marriage is/are a.social clubs. b.newspaper personals. c.Internet chat rooms. d.match-making businesses. e.the Hindu temple. 23.Which.
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