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Study Resources (Anthropology)

51.Which of the following is the scientific failing in which a researcher concludes from a few cases that something is true for all? a.violating the principle of falsifiability b.generalizing from small sample sizes c.relying on emotional reactions rather than sound reasoning d.basing theories on retrospective accounts 52.Some psychologists critique psychodynamic theories because they are largely.
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11.In psychoanalysis, which component of personality is present at birth and is the reservoir of unconscious psychological energies and the motives to avoid pain and obtain pleasure? a.the id b.the ego c.the libido d.the superego 12.In psychoanalysis, which component of personality is a “referee” between the needs of instinct and the demands of society? a.the id b.the.
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11. How is the brain influenced by physical exercise and mental stimulation during old age? 12. What characteristics tend to promote resilience in a child? 1. Describe, in detail, the process of language acquisition beginning in the first months of life and extending to the age of 2 years. 2. Dr. Swanson asks.
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31.According to Freud, the psychosexual stage that occurs during the grade school years until puberty is called the: a.latency stage. b.oral stage. c.anal stage. d.phallic stage. 32._______________ occurs when people refuse to admit to an event, feeling, or memory that causes them anxiety or distress. a.Projection b.Sublimation c.Displacement d.Denial 33.Which defense mechanism involves reversion to an earlier phase of psychological development? a.repression b.regression c.displacement d.projection 34.Diego.
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11.Critics point out that one of the problems of the DSM is that: a.it has strict criteria needed for making a diagnosis and has reduced the number of people who can be                                           labeled with a disorder. b.it is too resistant to change and too reluctant to add new diagnostic.
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  Multiple Choice Questions   1.When people are said to be insane, this means that: a.psychologists have compared their behaviors to characteristics of individuals with disorders and found a strong correlation. b.a psychiatrist has determined that they are suffering from one of the psychological disorders, as described in the DSM. c.a legal determination has been made.
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41. When parents value academic achievement but the child’s peers do not, the child usually follows the 42. In collectivist cultures, the self is often defined as a collection of personality traits. 43. In collectivist cultures, group harmony takes precedence over the wishes of the individual. 44. In individualist cultures, the self is.
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61.Today, a developmental psychologist studying moral development is likely to emphasize: a.how children learn to regulate their own emotions and behavior. b.the distinct stages of moral development. c.the development of the universal human rights orientation. d.how young children lack a moral sense. 62.The concept of a moral sense can be described as: a.the ability to detect.
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31. Heritability is an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of behavior and 32. Heritability is a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to 33. Social-cognitive learning theory emphasizes the continual interaction between persons and a given 34. The process of.
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  1.Which method of disciplining a child who is hitting his younger brother is most likely to teach empathy? a.induction b.indulgence c.power assertion d.spanking 2.What early ability predicts the development of conscience later on? 1.True or false: All intersexed people are transsexual. 2.A biological psychologist would say that a 3-year-old boy’s love of going “vroom, vroom” with his.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. Most developmental psychology studies use either longitudinal or cross-sectional research designs. Describe how a developmental psychologist could use a longitudinal design to study changes in fluid and crystallized intelligence as adults age. Then describe a similar cross-sectional study. Based on what you read about.
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1.The text defines mental disorder as: a.the inability to distinguish right from wrong. b.behavior that violates cultural standards. c.behavior or emotional state that cause an individual suffering, self-destructive, endangers others, or impairs a person’s ability to function and work with others. d.behavior that deviates strongly from the norm and prevents a person from functioning normally. 2.________.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 469 1.Melanie is playing happily on a jungle gym at her daycare center when she falls off and badly scrapes her               knee. She runs to her caregiver for a consoling hug. Melanie seeks ______. 2.True or false: To develop normally, infants must sleep in their own.
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  True-False Questions 1. Personality refers to a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, mannerisms, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual. 2. In Freud’s theory of personality, there are five major systems that influence a person’s actions. 3. Freud believed that the ego was the first of the personality components to.
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11. In Jungian theory, the collective unconscious is the universal memory and experience of humankind represented in the symbols, stories, and images that occur across all cultures. 12. Carl Jung’s theory of personality emphasizes the methods of empirical psychology in generating 13. Although Carl Jung was fascinated with the darker aspect of.
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  Short Answer Questions 1Julia is planning to have a baby. She finds out from her physician that she needs a vaccination for rubella. Why is it important for her to be vaccinated before she plans to become pregnant? 2. Given the information on alcohol and its effects on the developing baby, what.
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51.According to your textbook, girls are more dissatisfied than boys with their social behavior at school and with friends. 52. Boys who are lonely and depressed are more likely than depressed girls to become withdrawn and 53. Girls who are lonely and depressed are more likely than depressed boys to become withdrawn.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1._______________ is a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling. a.A personality b.A trait c.An archetype d.A temperament 2._______________, one of the oldest theories of personality, was very influential and still appeals to some               psychologists today. a.Humanist theory b.Genetic theory c.Psychoanalytic theory d.Cognitive theory 3._______________ is defined as a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts,.
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  1._______________ is a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling. a.A personality b.A trait c.An archetype d.A temperament 2.In psychoanalysis, the part of the personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control is a.the libido. b.the ego. c.the superego. d.the id. 3._______________ occurs when people refuse to admit to an event, feeling, or memory that               causes them a.Projectionb.Sublimation c.Displacement d.Denial 4.According to.
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1._______________ is defined as a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual throughout life. a.A trait b.Personality c.Temperament d.The ego 2.In psychoanalysis, which component of personality is present at birth and is the reservoir of unconscious psychological energy and the motives to avoid pain and obtain pleasure? a.the id b.the.
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91.In Kaiti’s culture, the wishes of the individual take precedence over group harmony. It is most likely that Kaiti defines her “self”: a.in the context of her community. b.in regard to her personality traits. c.in regard to her birth order position. d.in the context of her relationships. 92._______________ cultures are those in which the self.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 521 1.In behavioral-genetic studies, the heritability of personality traits, including the Big Five, is typically about: a..50. b..90. c..10 to .20. d.zero. 2.Researchers announce that their study of identical twins has revealed a high heritability for divorce (McGue               & Lykken, 1992). Given that our prehistoric ancestors hadn’t yet invented marriage,.
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21.In psychoanalytic theory, the inner voice that says you did something morally wrong is called the: a.libido. b.id. c.ego. d.superego. 22.During a grade school field trip, Ryan and his friends were running down a hill when he stepped on a snake. He was unharmed but shaken by the experience. When one of his friends mentioned.
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6. Define heritability. Describe an example of a highly heritable trait and an example of a trait that would have low heritability. 7. In behavioral-genetic research, what is the “nonshared environment”? 8. In behavioral-genetic research, what is “shared environment”? 9. What did psychologists discover when, in a study discussed in your textbook, they surveyed.
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  Essay Questions 1. It was over a century ago that Sigmund Freud published his theory. How has his work stood the test of time? How is psychoanalytic theory regarded by psychologists and other scholars of the twenty-first century? 2. Researchers measure genetic contributions to personality in three ways: by studying personality traits in other.
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  81.Comparisons of hormone production in boys and girls show that: a.before puberty, boys have higher levels of estrogen than do girls. b.from puberty on, boys and girls produce the same amounts of androgens and estrogens. c.before puberty, girls have higher levels of estrogen than do boys. d.from puberty on, boys produce more androgens and.
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11. Newborn infants do not have motor reflexes. 12. Emotional attachment is a universal capacity of all primates. 13. Margaret and Harry Harlow’s work suggests that babies become attached to their mothers because their mothers provide them with food and warmth. 14. Child-rearing practices influence the strength of separation anxiety and how long.
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31. According to Jean Piaget, a major accomplishment during the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development is grasping the concept of object permanence. 32. Piaget believed that very young infants lack object permanence. 33. Babies begin to love the game of “peekaboo” after they have attained object permanence. 34.Recent research has shown that preschoolers.
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61.Which of the following is one of the Big Five personality traits? a.boringness b.openness to experience c.cleanliness d.psychopathy 62._______________ is a fundamental personality dimension that describes the extent to which people are anxious and impulsive. a.Agreeableness versus antagonism b.Extroversion versus introversion c.Neuroticism versus emotional stability d.Openness to experience versus resistance to new experience 63._______________ is a fundamental personality dimension that.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. What are the three systems that comprise personality according to Sigmund Freud? Briefly describe them. 2. Describe Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious. 3.Describe the ways in which the object-relations school departs from Freudian theory in regard to the nature 4. Critics of psychodynamic theories argue that these theories are.
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  True-False Questions 1. Developmental psychologists study physiological and cognitive changes across the life span and how these               changes are affected by a person’s genetic predispositions, culture, circumstances and experiences. 2. Socialization is the process by which children learn the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations required of 3. Maturation is the process by which.
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71.Innate physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways that are present in infancy are called: a.personalities. b.aptitudes. c.temperaments. d.traits. 72.In the study of dogs and their owners, Samuel Gosling and his colleagues found that: a.dogs do not have personalities. b.the owners and neutral observers could not agree on the dogs’ personalities. c.all of the dogs.
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71.Intersexuality is: a.the process by which children learn the abilities, interests, and behaviors associated with being                                           masculine or feminine in their culture. b.a condition in which chromosomal or hormonal anomalies cause a child to be born with                                           ambiguous genitals, or genitals that conflict with the infant’s.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 509 Which Freudian concepts do the following events suggest? 1.A 4-year-old girl wants to snuggle on Daddy’s lap but refuses to kiss her mother. 2.A celibate priest writes poetry about sexual passion. 3.A man who is angry with his boss shouts at his kids for making noise. 4.A woman tells.
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  31.________ refers to a fear of being trapped in a crowded, public place. a.Claustrophobia b.Social phobia c.Mysophobia d.Agoraphobia 32.Psychologists regard _______________ as the “fear of fear.” a.panic attack b.posttraumatic stress disorder c.agoraphobia d.generalized anxiety disorder 33.After surviving an Amtrak derailment, John experienced frequent, vivid thoughts and images of the accident               for several months. He also had problems sleeping and.
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101.Emerging adulthood, the years between the ages of 18 and 25, is considered to be a new phase of life in which: a.people feel that they are no longer adolescents but are not yet fully adult. b.rates of emotional distress increase greatly as people assume adult responsibilities. c.people living in nonindustrialized cultures develop feelings.
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51. The humanist who described the importance of having peak experiences was Rollo May. 52. Abraham Maslow suggested that personality theorists study healthy, strong, creative individuals. 53. Abraham Maslow suggested that the most important personality traits were the “Big Five.” 54. Carl Rogers maintained that to become fully functioning, a person needs to.
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  1.The primary purpose of the DSM is to: a.help psychologists assess normal, as well as abnormal, behavior. b.keep the number of diagnostic categories of mental disorders to a minimum. c.provide descriptive criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. d.describe the causes of common psychological disorders. 2.The primary purpose of the ________ is to aid in the diagnosis.
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101.Male aggression is likely high in a culture: a.in which resources are abundant and there are no serious hazards. b.primarily based on agriculture. c.in which competition for limited resources is fierce and survival is difficult. d.with a history of slavery. 102.Hika comes from a small island culture where resources are abundant and there are no.
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21. Gordon Allport was one of the most influential psychologists in personality theory. 22. Central traits are changeable aspects of personality, such as musical preferences, habits, and casual opinions. 23. Secondary traits are changeable aspects of personality, such as musical preferences, habits, and casual 24. Raymond B. Cattell advanced the study of personality.
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81.The two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits is called: a.classical conditioning. b.congruence. c.reciprocal determinism. d.displacement. 82.In behavioral genetic research, _______________ includes personal experiences, such as winning the lead in the school play. a.the individualist culture b.the nonshared environment c.the shared environment d.the collectivist culture 83.In behavioral genetic research,.
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41.A patient confides his homosexual orientation to his psychoanalyst. If the psychoanalyst shares the opinions of Sigmund Freud, he will view this sexual orientation as: a.a sin. b.a variation of sexual function. c.a perversion. d.something shameful. 42._______________ said that there is a collective unconscious shared by all human beings, containing universal memories, symbols, and images.
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91.Adolescent boys who are lonely, depressed, worried, or angry are more likely than girls to: a.externalize their emotional problems in acts of aggression and other antisocial behavior. b.develop eating disorders. c.blame themselves for whatever goes wrong. d.internalize their feelings and become withdrawn. 92.Adolescent girls who are lonely, depressed, worried, or angry are more likely than.
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21. The process of acquiring language begins in the womb. 22. Until the age of 12 months, babies have difficulty responding to the pitch, intensity, and sound of language. 23. Parentese is defined as the parental use of symbolic gestures as a tool of communication with an infant. 24.Babies who were given infant.
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