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TRUE/FALSE 1.The New Stone Age, or Neolithic, began approximately 14,000 years ago. 2.The large size of the microlith utilized by Mesolithic peoples allowed them to re-sharpen it many times and create a wide array of different tools. 3.The ultimate source of all culture change is innovation. 4.Food foragers do not have to work as.
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11.The domestication of plant species is in direct correlation with the development of horticultural societies. 12.Increased dependence on farming is a direct result of population growth. 13.Because of a stressful life with little extra food reserves, foragers tend to have lower fertility rates than sedentary farming communities. 14.Diffusion was a powerful force during.
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11.A bioarchaeologist specializes in both archaeology and geology. 12.Analyses of DNA become increasingly unreliable when the sample is more than 5,000 years old. 13.Bioarchaeologists can determine gender from skeletal analyses. 14.There is no equivalent international law to NAGPRA to protect aboriginal graves worldwide. 15.Because of the controversy, Kennewick Man has not yet been studied.
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31.Chimpanzees use which of the following communication signals to announce the arrival of another individual? a.Lip smacking b.Pant hoots c.Trail marking d.Clapping hands e.Shaking hands 32.Which of the following statements is correct regarding vervet monkey alarm calls? a.They make alarm calls to signal the location of food. b.There is no distinction between any alarm calls. c.Each alarm call communicates.
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11.Why do human femora (thighbones) angle toward each other from the hip to the knee (“knee-in”)? a.The femora are angled so that foot stance of humans can be wider than the pelvis width b.They structurally orient the body from a wider pelvis to more narrowly spaced feet c.They shift support of the upper.
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31.Close contact with the farmers in Jericho and other villages is indicated in the common features found in all of the following except: a.art. b.ritual. c.use of prestige goods. d.burial practices. e.political organization. 32.For the first time in human history, clothing was made of woven textiles during the a.Mesolithic. b.Upper Paleolithic. c.Neolithic. d.Middle Pleistocene. e.Holocene. 33.The archaeological record shows that Neolithic peoples.
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11.Egyptian kings sent traders to Lebanon for cedar, wine, and funerary oils. 12.The emergence of a governing elite characterized early civilizations. 13.Governments of the past ensured that cities were safe from enemies by constructing fortifications and raising armies. 14.The Code of Hammurabi was first developed in Egypt. 15.In stratified societies, the elite usually live.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Cities are just like towns except they have more population in their central urban areas. 2.Ancient people incorporated their spiritual beliefs and social order into the cities they built. 3.The ancient city of Tikal was part of the Aztec civilization. 4.In Tikal, extensive excavation provided a sound basis for understanding everyday life and.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.The sexual division of labor that we find today among foragers is based on biological constraints. 2.Archaeologists have ascertained that early Homo was a tertiary scavenger based on microscopic analyses of cut marks on bones. 3.Modern-day humans do have wild predators that threaten them. 4.Larger hominid brains required parallel improvements in diet. 5.Remains of.
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21.Which of the following statements about the population of H. florensis is not correct? a.It was an island-dwelling dwarf hominid species. b.The hominid fossils there show very clear transition from H. erectus to H. sapiens. c.It has archaeological evidence of 800,000-year-old stone tools. d.It can be reached only by water navigation. e.The hominid fossils on.
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31.The massive, dense foot and leg bones typical of Neanderthals of Europe and southwestern Asia are suggestive of a.adaptation to a cold arctic climate. b.high levels of strength and endurance. c.large levels of food consumption. d.robust muscles in the shoulder and arm. e.high levels of ritual activity. 32.Which scientist argues that “classic” Neanderthal features such as.
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31.Skeletal analyses have become more difficult to carry out, especially in the U.S., where American Indian communities now often request the return of skeletons from archaeological excavations for reburial, as required by federal law. Which of the following techniques helps to resolve this conflict? a.Coating it with latex b.Dissolving it with chemicals c.3D.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.Which of the following scientists divided humans into subspecies based on geographic location? a.Johan Blumenbach b.Carolus Linnaeus c.Charles Darwin d.Franz Boas e.Fatimah Jackson 2.In Blumenbach’s classification of races, light-skinned peoples from Europe and adjacent parts of western Asia and northern Africa were part of which race? a.European b.Guinean c.Dravidian d.American Indian e.Caucasian 3.Human genetic variation generally is distributed in a continuous.
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11.Humans may have developed large brains as an accidental byproduct of jaw-size reduction. 12.The fossil record does provide evidence for the evolution of language. 13.The cranial capacity of late H. erectus is 47% bigger than that of the earlier forms. 14.Hafting tools begins around the time of the Mousterian tradition. 15.The Neanderthals were once.
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31.An individual seeking to remove the epicanthic fold in order to Occidentalize is seeking to do all of the following except: a.give their eyes a rounder look. b.remove a phenotypic trait. c.change their genotype. d.change their East Asian phenotype. e.fit into a more universal standard of beauty. 32.Which of the following protects skin against damaging ultraviolet.
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21.Clark Erickson calls the idea that the landscapes of the Americas were largely undisturbed and unchanged until the arrival of the Europeans a.the Myth of the Noble Savage. b.the Myth of the Pristine Environment. c.the Myth of the Conquest. d.the Myth of the Modified Environment. e.the truth. 22.What does Clark Erickson believe to be the purpose.
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21.Flutes and whistles made of bone have been found as early as 35,000 years ago, but it is reasonable to suggest that stringed bows during the Upper Paleolithic could have a.been used only for hunting. b.been used to make farming implements. c.served as the oldest stringed instrument. d.fostered entopic phenomena. e.been used by female hunters. 22.Abstract.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The durable aspects of culture such as tools, structures, and art are known as a.fossils. b.artifacts. c.material culture. d.prehistory. e.intangibles. 2.Which of the following statements about prehistory is incorrect? a.Prehistory refers to a time period that occurred before history existed. b.Prehistory occurs before the existence of written history. c.Paleoanthropologists and archaeologists share a focus on prehistory. d.Prehistory is an.
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11.According to this theory, animal domestication began because permanent water holes attracted hungry animals that came to graze on the stubble of the grain fields. People, finding these animals too thin to kill for food, began to fatten them up. This theory is known as the desiccation theory, or a.hilly flanks.
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31.How many people died of smallpox in the 20th century? a.1 billion b.722 million c.300 million d.105 million e.750,000 32.Which of the following is classified as a “prion” disease? a.Smallpox b.Tuberculosis c.Kuru d.Leishmaniasis e.Susto 33.How does the prion specifically function inside the human body? a.It increases blood flow to the brain and liver and causes encephalitis b.It grows into tumors and cuts off blood.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.The Cro-Magnon face was taller and narrower than the modern-day European face. 2.Living people today such as the aborigines of Australia do not meet the definition of anatomical modernity proposed in the recent African origins model. 3.Mitochondrial DNA is subject to very steady genetic recombination rates. 4.Paleoanthropologist Xinzhi Wu argues that Chinese evidence.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.European remains of the Upper Paleolithic after about 36,000 years ago are usually classified as a.Neanderthal. b.Upper Paleolithic peoples. c.Cro-Magnon. d.anatomically modern H. sapiens. e.Homo erectus. 2.What was the typical Upper Paleolithic tool? a.Burin b.Blade c.Hand axe d.Scraper e.Chopper 3.Modern Europeans resemble Cro-Magnon in all of the following physical characteristics except: a.similar shape of the braincase. b.narrow nasal openings. c.both had high, broad foreheads. d.both.
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11.The scientific team mentioned in the article “Whispers from the Ice,” determined by radiocarbon dating that the girl died about a.1 million B.C. b.20,000 B.C. c.5,200 A.D. d.1,200 A.D. e.1,200 B.P. 12.Laboratory tests and analysis of the girl’s frozen body in the original study “Whispers from the Ice” will not contribute much to which of the.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.Which of the following is not correct with regard to the Eocene epoch? a.Primates lived mainly in North America, Europe, and Asia. b.A few primates lived in Africa. c.All primates disappeared from North America by the end of this epoch. d.The primates initially spread widely and then almost disappeared toward the end of.
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11.The social environment contributes enormously to intelligence. 12.Anthropologists have abandoned the idea of using race as a way to study human biological variation. 13.A species cannot be polymorphic. This is a term applied to individual variation. 14.The epicanthic fold is common among Africans. 15.Though the distribution of human variation for a single trait reflects.
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11.The city of Tikal was governed by a.an egalitarian council of women. b.a hereditary ruling dynasty. c.a council of elders based on kinship. d.elected senators. e.craft guilds. 12.El Pilar is located not far from Tikal a.in Mexico. b.in Cuba. c.in Spain. d.on the border between Belize and Guatemala. e.on the border between Guatemala and Honduras. 13.“A pioneering conservation model that draws on.
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31.All of the following can provide archaeological evidence of class stratification within burials except: a.rate of organic decay in a particular body. b.amount of grave goods included in the burial. c.position and mode of body. d.nutritional status of the skeleton. e.size of the burial pit or chamber. 32.Objects such as utensils, figurines, and personal possessions placed.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.Percussive method of tool manufacture is a form of technology that is associated with all of the following except: a.marked the beginning of the Lower Paleolithic. b.utilized fossils. c.was evidenced in Oldowan tool tradition. d.made possible the butchering of meat from scavenged carcasses. e.used sharp-edged flakes from stones. 2.Experimental archaeology is best described as a.excavating test.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.The importance of the context in which artifacts are found cannot be overstated; without context, the archaeologist, in effect, knows nothing. 2.The only way to thoroughly investigate our past is to excavate sites where biological and cultural remains are found. Unfortunately, excavation results in the site’s destruction. 3.Archaeologists sometimes work on hostile.
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21.The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act was passed in a.1964. b.2006. c.1990. d.1887. e.2001. 22.Russian archaeologist S.A. Semenov studied the wear pattern on prehistoric scrapers and found that a.all tools were constructed by the same individual. b.all tools were constructed by left-handed individuals. c.virtually all tools were constructed by right-handed individuals. d.almost every tool was devoid of any.
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11.Since its discovery in 1887 by Eugene Dubois, which of the following has now been assigned to the species Homo erectus? a.Homo sapiens neanderthalensis b.Kenyanthropus erectus c.Australopithecus africanus d.Pithecanthropus erectus e.Pithecanthropus sahilensis 12.Up until about 1.8 million years ago, the only home of bipedal primates was Africa. However, after that time, humans began to spread into.
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31.Which of the following australopithecine species do scientists not believe to be ancestral to the Homo line? a.A. sediba b.A. anamensis c.A. africanus d.A. robustus e.A. garhi 32.Dated between 1.97 and 1.98 million years ago and including a variety of derived traits in the hand, forearm, and pelvis that appear in line with the later characteristics.
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11.At what time period does fossil evidence suggest that extreme Neanderthal and archaic features seem to disappear from the fossil record? a.14,000 years ago b.28,000 years ago c.36,000 years ago d.73,000 years ago e.150,000 years ago 12.Which of the following statements is correct? a.There is no genetic differentiation between modern human populations. b.There is a low level of.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.About 12,000 years ago, what environmental changes created a shift in food production? a.The climate of the north grew colder b.Tundras and the large herd animals that they supported spread throughout the Old World c.Glaciers melted and the sea levels rose d.Deserts replaced forests e.The fish disappeared from the ocean 2.About 12,000 years ago, climatic.
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11.Which of the following best describes accelerated breathing for a non-native at high altitude? a.Physiological adaptation b.Genetic adaptation c.Physical adaptation d.Hormonal adaptation e.Developmental adaptation 12.Over the course of our evolutionary history, most environmental stressors were climatic and geographic. Now, however, a.humans have little environmental stressors, climatic or geographic. b.nonhuman primates have more stressors than humans. c.humans face a series.
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21.Australopithecus is a genus that includes as many as eight species. Which of the following is not a proposed Australopithecine species? a.A. ramidus b.A. garhi c.A. boisei d.A. bahrelghazali e.A. robustus 22.Which of the following characteristics of A. anamensis is considered most ape-like? a.Bipedalism b.Thick enamel on the molar teeth c.A lower premolar tooth shaped to hone the upper.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.Societies in which large numbers of people live in cities, socially stratified and governed by centrally organized political systems, are called a.urbanizations. b.civilizations. c.nations. d.city-states. e.centralized governments. 2.The word civilization derives from the Latin word, civis, referring to one who is an inhabitant of a city, and civitas, which refers to the urban community in.
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11.Most cave-painted animals are rendered three-dimensionally. 12.Cave art rarely shows depictions of animals being hunted. 13.Venus figurines are interpreted differently by different scholars. 14.Upper Paleolithic peoples engaged in long-distance trade. 15.The United States has a World Heritage Site that is on the endangered list. 16.American Indian ancestry can be traced back to Asian origins. 17.The efficiency.
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21.All of the following statements about race and intelligence are correct except: a.they generally involve comparisons among races, a category that is biologically false. b.problems with defining intelligence cross-culturally exist as intelligence involves several different skills and abilities. c.most instruments (tests) used to measure intelligence are biased toward the dominant culture of the.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Today, any kind of biological research on human subjects without informed consent is illegal in the U.S. 2.Differential reproductive success cannot affect allele frequencies in the gene pool. 3.Identical twins do not necessarily share the same phenotype. 4.Brain growth in humans is most rapid during the first five years of life. 5.Menopause occurs when.
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31.Watercraft are suggested at least 60,000 years ago, perhaps as people managed to get to Australia and New Guinea, which were then connected to one another in a single land mass called a.Sunda. b.the Aleutians. c.the Philippine archipelago. d.the Malay Peninsula. e.Sahul. 32.Which hominid species is believed to have first inhabited the Sahul region? a.H. erectus b.H. habilis c.Archaic.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Chimpanzees are gathered into natal groups and not into communities. 2.Paleoanthropologists studied baboons as models for early human evolution because of their residence on savannahs. 3.Most New World monkeys are polyandrous with a single female and several males in a group. 4.A home range is the area in which a group of primates.
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11.In a study of the differences between populations of humans, Richard Lewontin found that the total amount of genetic variation between groups is a.37%. b.23%. c.14%. d.11%. e.7%. 12.Which field of science has begun commercially providing genomic data based on mitochondrial DNA for ancestry purposes? a.Genetic science b.Human population genetics c.Human growth and development science d.Evolutionary biology e.Forensic anthropology 13.All of the.
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11.The vast majority of primate species as monogamous. 12.Natural selection may have favored single births in so many primates because we evolved as tree-dwellers and could not effectively hold and protect more than one offspring. 13.Smiles and embraces have long been understood to be universal among humans and our closest relatives. 14.Vervet monkeys.
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11.The fossil Lucy was better adapted to tree climbing than more recent human ancestors. 12.The earliest Australopithecines were found in southern and western Africa. 13.Chimpanzees and humans use their ankles in much the same way while climbing. 14.Early hominins likely had to lose some of their climbing abilities in order to obtain efficient.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Human genetic variation generally is distributed across the globe in a continuous fashion. 2.Fingerprint patterns of loops, whorls, and arches are environmentally determined. 3.Racist ideology in the United States has played a role in our treatment of Africans, Native Americans, and Asians. 4.You are related to every other human being. 5.The ever-changing racial categories.
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21.Native Americans domesticated over 300 food crops, including two of the four most important ones in the world today: a.tomatoes and squash. b.wheat and rice. c.potatoes and maize. d.broccoli and asparagus. e.peas and carrots. 22.Sixty percent of the crops grown in the world today were invented by _____, who not only remain the developers of the.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.The arboreal theory for primate evolution argues that primate visual and grasping abilities were associated with hunting for insects by sight. 2.During the Eocene, the primates diversified and expanded their geographical range. 3.New World monkeys most likely emerged during the Oligocene epoch. 4.Proconsul was the first bipedal primate. 5.Bipedalism is the one trait that.
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21.A Western doctor’s “white coat” can be compared to a shaman’s a.poncho. b.drum or rattle. c.moccasins or sandals. d.bed or hammock. e.flute. 22.To effectively compare medical systems and health cross-culturally, medical anthropologists have made a theoretical distinction between a.Western medicine and folk medicine. b.doctors and health practitioners. c.medical systems and folk medicine. d.“diseases of health” and “mental sickness.” e.“disease” and “illness.” 23.A.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.What ethical dilemma was involved in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? a.A group of poor, African-American airmen from WW II was intentionally infected with syphilis in order to study the progress of the disease among minorities b.A group of poor, African-American men received the wrong medication for syphilis and were denied entrance.
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