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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.All of the following statements about sexual behavior among the Trobrianders is correct except: a.when the couple is ready to be married, they appear outside the woman’s household. b.by their mid-teens, young people begin having longer-term affairs that lead to marriage. c.young people traditionally have a great deal of sexual freedom. d.by the.
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31._____ is the cross-cultural study of humankind’s perception and use of space. a.Kinesics b.Phonetics c.Proxemics d.Syntax e.Ethnology 32.Paralanguage includes not only the way that people say things but also a variety of extralinguistic noises called a.phonemes. b.kinesics. c.vocalizations. d.substitution frames. e.syntax. 33.A language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning is.
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21.The influence of a person’s class status on what pronunciation he/she uses, a speaker’s choice of more complicated vocabulary and grammar when he/she is speaking to a professional audience, and the influence of language on culture are all concerns of a.descriptive linguistics. b.historical linguistics. c.sociolinguistics. d.linguistic nationalism. e.displacement. 22.Although language may be studied as an independent.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.Among the _____ of the Amazon, men not only work apart from women, but eat and sleep separately as well. a.Mundurucu b.Kapauku c.Ju/’hoansi d.Iroquois e.Ibo 2.Mundurucu see the relations between the sexes as one of opposition and challenge. This is based on a.the high cost of bridewealth. b.the power and dominance women hold in the political sphere. c.their.
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11.In India, it is understood that matches (marriages) would be arranged only within the same caste and general social class. 12.The Western ideal that an individual should be free to marry whomever he or she chooses is not universally embraced. 13.Your mother’s sister’s child is your parallel cousin. 14.A marriage of a woman.
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31.Clans, because they may have members living in many different villages, depend on _____ to provide symbolic identification and promote solidarity. a.totems b.signs c.promises d.treaties e.feasts 32.A phratry is a unilineal descent group composed of two or more _____ that believe they are related to each other. a.moieties b.totems c.kindred d.lineages e.clans 33.Members of a moiety a.belong to one of two major descent.
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11.An individual’s personality is all of the following except: a.a product of enculturation. b.influenced by an individual’s genetic makeup. c.a kind of cognitive map functioning throughout an individual’s lifetime. d.an integrated, dynamic system of perceptual assemblages, which includes the self and its behavioral environment, that develops over time. e.is never part of the internalized awareness.
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11.Cattle herding is the mainstay around which all of Kapauku Papuan society revolves. 12.A society’s economic base is part of the superstructure. 13.The most important symbolic aspect of culture is religion. 14.Bronislaw Malinowski used standard methods of fieldwork for his work among the Trobriand. 15.Every culture provides its members ways to think of the.
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31.According to Bronislaw Malinowski, the nature of an institution is determined by its a.structure. b.function. c.culture. d.superstructure. e.infrastructure. 32._____ set a new standard for fieldwork in anthropology through his research with the Trobriand people. a.E.E. Evans-Pritchard b.Claude Levi-Strauss c.Bronislaw Malinowski d.Ruth Benedict e.Alfred Wallace 33.Which of the following statements is correct? a.A society is a union of multiple cultures. b.Human survival depends on every.
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31.Food producers who specialize in animal husbandry, and who consider their way of life to be ideal and central to defining their identities, are called a.food foragers. b.horticulturalists. c.agriculturalists. d.pastoralists. e.industrialists. 32.The Bakhtiari are a a.pastoral group who raise goats and sheep. b.pastoral group who raise pigs and cows. c.foraging group with an extensive home range. d.horticultural group that raises.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.If a group is well adapted to its environment, it will never change as long as conditions remain the same. 2.An anthropologist would probably find it difficult to define what “progress” is. 3.The process of adaptation establishes a continually changing balance between the needs of the population and the potential of its.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.What do we call a system in which goods are produced, distributed, and consumed? a.Economic b.Political c.Religious d.Kinship e.Industrial 2.When a man works hard in his garden in the Trobriand Islands to produce yams, he does this to satisfy which of the following demands? a.To have food for his household to eat b.To gain prestige by giving.
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31.All of the following were differences between Bronislaw Malinowski’s original field research in the Trobriands and that of Annette Weiner some 60 years later except: a.differences in field methodology. b.differences in theoretical interests. c.differences in researchers’ disciplines. d.changes over time. e.differences in researchers’ genders. 32.Validation in ethnographic research is difficult because of all of the following.
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11.Ethnolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and the cultural setting in which it is used. 12.Code switching refers to the tendency of people who speak more than one language to confuse which language they are currently speaking in as they converse with others. 13.All languages recognize a stable set.
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21.Balanced reciprocity a.is part of a long-term process in which nothing is specified about what is expected in return or when it is expected. b.involves the expectation of a specific and immediate exchange. c.usually occurs between members of different communities who may have a hostile, distrustful relationship. d.is exemplified by your stopping to give.
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21.Which of the following refers to the idea that character traits that occur with the most frequency in a cultural society are representative of the values that culture embraces? a.National cultural traits b.Modal personality c.National personality d.Social conformity models e.Community training 22.Ideal “cultural personality” traits among Yanomamo men would include being a.irritated and whiny. b.loving and respectful. c.questioning and.
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11.The entire formal structure of a language consisting of all observations about its meaningful units of sounds and the rules or principles of making phrases and sentences is called its a.syntax. b.form classes. c.morphology. d.phonology. e.grammar. 12.The development of different languages from a single ancestral language is called a.descriptive linguistics. b.historical linguistics. c.language subgroups. d.linguistic divergence. e.linguistic nationalism. 13.Which of the following.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.The significance of the concept of tabula rasa is that it emphasizes the importance of culture rather than biological inheritance in determining an individual’s characteristics. 2.American children are among the earliest to develop a concept of self because of the high level of social stimulation they receive. 3.Names are a form of.
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11.Anthropologists use only qualitative data-gathering techniques. Quantitative data is used by sociologists and psychologists. 12.Among the Canela, it is improper for a mother, sister, or daughter to cut a man’s hair. 13.Both Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson were pioneers in the method of field mapping. 14.It is often an indication of acceptance when.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.All societies have cultural rules to regulate sexual relations. 2.The Trobrianders have a rigidly controlled sex life and puritan attitudes toward sexuality. 3.There are no cultures that prescribe male-to-male sexual acts, for any reason. 4.The social rules and cultural meanings of all sexual behavior are subject to great variability from one society to.
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11.Although all societies have some kind of incest taboo, the relationship which is considered incestuous may vary. Concepts of incest seem to be related to a group’s definitions of endogamy and exogamy, thus suggesting that incest taboos may help to promote: a.stability of the family. b.inbreeding genetic errors. c.brother-sister marriages. d.parallel cousin marriages. e.cross-cousin marriages. 12.Marriage.
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31.From an economist’s point of view, “market exchange” is defined by a.the purchase of goods in a marketplace. b.the buying and selling of goods and services whose value is determined by supply and demand. c.the role of middlemen who bring buyers and sellers together. d.face-to-face bargaining for goods and/or services. e.the role of large multinational.
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11.You belong to a patrilineal descent group. Which of the following belong(s) to the same group? a.Your mother b.Your father’s sister c.Your mother’s sister d.Your mother’s father e.Your father’s sister’s children 12.An extended unilineal descent group whose members claim descent from a common ancestor but who cannot trace their genealogical links to that ancestor is called.
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31.People who cross over or occupy an intermediate position in the binary male-female gender construction are called a.transsexuals. b.intersexuals. c.transgenders. d.eunuchs. e.third genders. 32.All of the following are associated with eunuchs except: a.castration is a widespread cultural practice to transform sexual status. b.there is evidence of castration in the archaeological record in Egypt. c.castration was always carried out as.
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21.Bilateral descent is commonly found among all of the following except: a.postindustrial societies. b.agricultural societies. c.tribal societies. d.industrial societies. e.foraging societies. 22.What are honor killings? a.Murder condoned by the genealogical group in order to retaliate for shame of unapproved sexual activity b.Murder against the genealogical group by those who wish to take its women and other possessions c.Public shaming.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.DNA studies prove that the Maori origin myths about migration routes from northern Africa are correct. 2.The more individuals become enmeshed into larger social networks, as happens in political states, the more they rely on kinship. 3.Unilineal descent means that relatives are traced on either the male or female side only. 4.The Han.
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11.Lineages use endogamy as a way of creating new social alliances. 12.Totemism is associated with clan organizations. 13.A moiety is a larger group than a phratry. 14.Kindred and bilateral descent can be used interchangeably since they mean the same thing. 15.Another name for kindred is “the relatives.” 16.The Hawaiian form of kinship is the least.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Everything that humans do well is adaptive. 2.Behavior that has been adaptive at one time may become maladaptive later. 3.Examples of socially learned behavior are particularly evident among other primates. 4.A group of people without a common culture who are stranded together for a month on a desert island and who learn to.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.Cultural anthropology is composed of which two scholarly components? a.Ethnography and ethnohistory b.Ethnography and ethnology c.Ethnology and ethnohistory d.Ethnohistory and ethnoarchaeology e.Linguistics and ethnography 2.The new term for salvage ethnography is a.contemporary ethnography. b.urgent anthropology. c.critical anthropology. d.fieldwork anthropology. e.historical anthropology. 3.Anthropology has sought directly to do each of the following except: a.document the practice of culture. b.impose a Western and modern approach.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.A system of communication using sounds, gestures, or marks that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of share rules is called a(n) a.signal set. b.language. c.code. d.linguistic system. e.analogue. 2.Which of the following is not a signal? a.Coughs from cold b.Winking from pleasure c.Screams from fear d.Crying from sadness e.Sneezing from sickness 3.What are the long-term goals.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The gradual process of making beneficial adjustments to the environment is called a.adjustment. b.adaption. c.adaptation. d.acclimatization. e.alteration. 2.Humans’ major mode of adaptation, which enables them to live effectively in diverse environments, is a.education. b.culture. c.bureaucracy. d.religion. e.biology. 3.All of the following are long-term challenges associated with high-yield marginal farmlands in the U.S. except: a.loss of topsoil. b.high cost of fossil fuel. c.decreasing salinity of.
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21.All of the following statements about pluralistic societies are correct except: a.these are societies in which two or more ethnic groups coexist within the same state. b.together these societies comprise a nation. c.pluralistic societies did not exist before about 5,000 years ago. d.these societies have a more complex order than those states composed of.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Anthropologists focus on culture as a way of explaining economic behavior. 2.Economic behavior can be analyzed in purely economic terms without ignoring crucial noneconomic considerations. 3.Raw materials, labor, and technology are the productive resources used by all societies. 4.Among food foragers, tools may be given or loaned to others in exchange for the.
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11.Disease cannot exist in the absence of illness. 12.A shaman is an indigenous healer. 13.Down syndrome is found only in the U.S. 14.James McKenna’s research on brain-wave patterns of mothers and infants shows that co-sleeping is not the best practice for families. 15.Evolutionary medicine proposes that many of the symptoms of illness are the.
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11.Anthropologist _____ is a leading advocacy anthropologist today and a special rapporteur for the United Nations High Commission on Human Rights. a.Rodolfo Stavenhagen b.Clifford Geertz c.Stephen Lansang d.Gregory Bates e.Jonathan Marks 12.Laura Nader has called on anthropologists to “study up.” What does she mean by this term? a.Anthropologists should study high-altitude peoples and cultures in order to.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Anthropology emerged as a scientific discipline less than 20 years ago. 2.Historically, anthropologists have worked with non-Western peoples. 3.Ruth Benedict was able to develop “culture-at-a-distance” studies without changing anthropology’s methodology. 4.Hortense Powdermaker was an early pioneer in “national character” studies. 5.One of the first advocacy projects in anthropology was among the Meskwaki (or, Fox.
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11.The concept that states humans are moving forward to a better, more advanced stage in their cultural development is called a.advancement. b.evolution. c.progress. d.success. e.convergence. 12.The oldest and most universal mode of subsistence is a.food foraging. b.subsistence farming. c.hunting. d.pastoralism. e.fishing. 13.Today, food-foraging societies a.are found only in the world’s most marginal areas. b.make up the majority of the world’s population. c.have not existed for.
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TRUE/FALSE 1.Humans are programmed for language. 2.Chantek was a gorilla who learned American Sign Language. 3.Descriptive linguistics of the analysis of a language and its component parts. 4.The study of language sounds is grammar. 5.Linguistic nationalism refers to the establishment of a nation where everyone speaks only one language. 6.Over the past 500 years, about half.
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21.Marriage by proxy, such as that which might occur with a prisoner, a dead partner for inheritance reasons, or between those separated by deployment, is called a.delayed marriage. b.group marriage. c.primate marriage. d.approximate marriage. e.fictive marriage. 22.An important source of contacts in trying to arrange an Indian marriage is/are a.social clubs. b.newspaper personals. c.Internet chat rooms. d.match-making businesses. e.the Hindu temple. 23.Which.
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11.Which of the following statements is incorrect? a.All culture is learned. b.All learned behavior is cultural. c.Culture is humankind’s “social heredity.” d.Culture is not biologically inherited. e.Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next through enculturation. 12.In the movie Witness, a policeman named John Book was able to hide from his corrupt boss by staying.
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21.When researchers use things such as photographs in order to prompt people to speak with them about a particular topic, these are called a.soliciting devices. b.eliciting devices. c.prompting devices. d.circular conversations. e.participant tools. 22.Why are informal interviews central to ethnographic fieldwork? a.They provide a fixed structure that allows the researcher to quantify the data collection b.They are conversations.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.The process organisms undergo to achieve a beneficial adjustment to a particular environment, which not only leads to biological changes in the organisms but also impacts their environment, is called a.accommodation. b.acculturation. c.adaptation. d.assimilation. e.incorporation. 2.Among the Tsembaga of Papua New Guinea, there is a relationship between the physical and social environments that involves ritual.
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11.National character studies have focused on the modal characteristics of emerging Third World countries. 12.Values highly promoted by a particular culture can be considered its core values. 13.About 3% of all humans are intersexed. 14.All cultures practice gender bending (creating more than two gender categories) as a way of dealing with different types.
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31.In Western societies between A.D. 1000 and 1800, divorce was next to impossible, but few marriages lasted more than about 10 or 20 years, owing to a.irreconcilable differences. b.high death rates. c.patrilineal societies. d.matrilineal societies. e.high economic cost of marriage. 32.Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption are called a(n) a.family. b.conjugal bond. c.endogamous group. d.nuclear family. e.serial.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.A network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations is called a.kinship. b.descent. c.relative network. d.social network. e.affinal relationships. 2.Descent groups are associated with all of the following except: a.they provide social security for the elderly members. b.they promote harmony through worship of ancestors. c.they play a role in arranging marriages for members. d.they make.
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21.Which of the following is most likely to require cooperative hunting skills? a.Bow hunting b.Net hunting c.Spear hunting d.Rifle hunting e.Dart hunting 22.The cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes is a type of farming called a.agriculture. b.slash-and-burn. c.horticulture. d.low-tech farming. e.pastoralism. 23.The extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is.
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11.A customary practice such as hosting a birthday party is an example of negative reciprocity. 12.The Inca Empire featured a highly efficient redistributive system. 13.Because these events were sponsored alternately by different ethnic groups, the potlatch was a form of balanced reciprocity. 14.Leveling mechanisms are found in every society, although they are less.
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11.Which of the following situations represents a flexible/integrated pattern of gender division of labor? a.A pastoral nomadic camp in which the men spend most of the time with the herds, and women remain in camp and make butter and clothing b.An intensive agricultural society in which the men are out plowing the.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.John Locke’s theory of tabula rasa was not sufficient because it did not a.focus on the individual, only the group. b.take genetic contributions into account. c.address any society except Europe. d.consider that culture and environment are important. e.explain why language is so important to development. 2.Which of the following statements is not correct? a.Enculturation begins before.
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