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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1.  In thinking about real-life problems, a person must be able to use dialectical reasoning, as explained in Chapter 9 (Thinking and Intelligence). Use dialectical reasoning to consider the controversial topic of eyewitness testimony presented in our chapter on memory. Should the testimony of preschoolers be trusted in.
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6.In general, people try to avoid losses when making a decision. Explain why this cognitive bias may affect a person’s decision about accepting or rejecting various aspects of medical treatment. 7.Connie’s method of studying worked effectively throughout high school until she took her first foreign language course. In this course, her.
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  31. Informal reasoning involves: a. using algorithms. b. finding a single correct answer. c. nonconscious responding. d. dialectical reasoning. 32.Dialectical reasoning involves: a.comparing and evaluating opposing points of view in order to determine the best solution. b.drawing conclusions from a set of observations or premises. c.generalizing from past experience. d.using an algorithm to solve a problem. 33._____________ is usually the.
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  61.________ is an inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from               experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment. a.Intelligence b.Dissonance c.Intelligence quotient d.Mental age 62.________ is defined as a general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and.
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  Essay Questions 1.One type of mental representation is the concept. How do concepts allow us to relate to the world around us in a manageable way? Create an example to show what a person’s experience in a novel situation could be like if humans didn’t organize the world based on concepts. 2.In.
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71. During short-term memory tasks, the ________ is especially active. a. frontal lobe b. hippocampus c. cerebellum d. amygdala 72. In his work with rabbits, Richard Thompson showed that classical conditioning of the eyeblink response depends on activity in the ________. a. frontal lobes b. amygdala c. hippocampus d. cerebellum 73. The ________ is the part of the brain that.
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11.  Researchers have been able to induce memories of events that never happened. 12.  Preschoolers’ memories are more vulnerable to suggestive questions than are the memories of school-aged children. 13.  Children can be induced to report traumatic experiences that never actually happened to them. 14.  Conscious, intentional recollection of an event is called.
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  21. Sarah enjoys playing games such as Jeopardy! and Trivial Pursuit, which require her to answer questions based on her ability to recall facts. These types of games test Sarah’s: a. explicit memory. b. flashbulb memory. c. reconstructive memory. d. implicit memory. 22. Maria wrote a shopping list prior to going to the grocery store..
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  21. ________ refers to mental inflexibility, inertia, and obliviousness to the present context. a.Implicit learning b.Multitasking c.Automatic processing d.Mindlessness 22.Harriet purchases a cupboard for her kitchen. She assembles the cupboard by following a series of steps illustrated in the instruction manual. Which type of problem-solving strategy has Harriet adopted? a.algorithmic b.heuristic c.multitasking d.intuitive 23.Catherine’s grandmother says that if Catherine follows the.
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51.  When patients are unable to form new declarative memories, they cannot acquire new procedural memories 52.  Different aspects of a memory are probably processed separately and stored at different locations that are distributed across wide areas of the brain, with all the sites participating in the representation of the event.
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  81._______________ intelligence refers to the practical application of intelligence. a.Creative b.Componential c.Contextual d.Experiential 82.Which of the following is one of the components in Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence? a.metacognitive intelligence b.cultural intelligence c.contextual intelligence d.emotional intelligence 83.According to the triarchic theory of intelligence, there are three kinds of intelligence. ________ intelligence refers to your creativity in transferring skills to new.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 348                   True or false: Mistaken identifications are more likely when a suspect’s ethnicity differs from that of the eyewitness, even when the witness feels certain about being accurate.                 Research suggests that the best way to encourage truthful testimony by children is to: a.  reassure them that.
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  True-False Questions 1.  In ancient times, philosophers compared memory to a soft wax tablet that would preserve anything imprinted on it. 2.  An accurate way to conceptualize memory is to think of it as a video camera that records each moment of a person’s life. 3.  When Sir Frederic Bartlett asked people to.
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31. Compared to Asians, Americans are much more likely to think that a person either has mathematical intelligence or doesn’t. 32. Japanese schoolteachers and students are much more likely than their American counterparts to believe that               the secret to doing well in math is working hard. 33. Asian students generally value.
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  Short Answer Questions 1.  What research technique did Sir Frederic Bartlett, the British psychologist, use in order to study how  memories are manufactured? 2.  One day after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center, college students were asked questions about the experience and about a mundane event that occurred within.
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41. In general, information in short-term memory is retained for about ________ if it is not rehearsed. a. 2–3 seconds or less b. 30 seconds c. 5–20 minutes d. 30 minutes 42. The case study of Henry Molaison (H.M.) is discussed throughout Chapter 10 in your textbook. Careful study of H.M.’s memory after his surgery.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 322                 What was Binet’s great insight?                 True or false: IQ tests designed to avoid cultural bias have failed to entirely eliminate average group differences in IQ scores.                 Hilda, who is 68, is about to take an IQ test, but she is worried because she knows.
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  True-False Questions 1. A prototype is a mental category that groups objects or activities that have common properties. 2. Propositions represent the relationships of concepts to one another. 3. A proposition is a unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea. 4. Research on visual images shows that.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 363                   Is long-term potentiation associated with (a) increased responsiveness of certain receiving neurons to transmitting neurons or (b) a decrease in receptors on certain receiving neurons?                 The cerebellum has been associated with __________ memories; the hippocampus has been associated with __________ memories.                 True or false:.
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91.Comparisons of attitudes and performance with regard to math tests in Asia and the U.S. showed that: a.although the attitudes toward intellectual success were similar among Asian children and American children, their actual performance on tests differed markedly. b.only 10 percent of the American children had scores as low on computations and.
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  1._________ is a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules. a.An attribution b.Emotion c.Galvanic skin response d. Body language 2.Paul Ekman and his colleagues gathered evidence supporting the universality of _________ facial a.five b.six c.seven d.nine 3.When Jose complies with instructions to look angry,.
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1. ________ memory refers to a vivid, detailed recollection of an emotional event. a. Semantic b. Declarative c. Flashbulb d. Episodic 2. The inability to distinguish an actual memory of an event from information you learned about the event elsewhere is called ________. a. confabulation b. source misattribution c. priming d. repression 3. Irene swears that she was there the night.
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81. Maintenance rehearsal involves: a. processing the physical features of the stimulus to be remembered. b. analyzing new material in order to make it memorable. c. associating new material to be learned with information maintained in long-term memory. d. the rote repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory. 82. ________ involves.
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7.One well-known theory of intelligence, the triarchic theory proposed by Robert Sternberg, distinguishes three different aspects of intelligence. Explain each of these aspects in detail. 8.One of the longest-running psychological studies ever conducted was begun by Lewis Terman in 1921 in order to learn about children who scored in the top.
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  Essay Questions 1. In the mid-1980s, the nation’s media focused on the McMartin preschool in Los Angeles, where children claimed to have been hung in trees, raped, and forced to eat feces. Although none of the children had shown symptoms or problems during their preschool experience, most of the accused teachers.
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91. Mood-congruent memory and state-dependent memory are examples of: a. encoding strategies. b. the use of cues in retrieval. c. interference effects. d. elaborative encoding. 92. ________ is defined as forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently stored material. a. Cue-dependent forgetting b. Proactive interference c. Decay d. Retroactive interference 93..
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21.  Trivial Pursuit, a popular board game that tests a player’s skills in retrieving and reproducing popular culture and general knowledge, requires the recall of explicit memories. 22.  This true-false question requires recognition. 23.  Priming is a method for measuring explicit memory. 24.  When the priming method is used for measuring implicit memory,.
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6.  Why is short-term memory sometimes called a “leaky bucket”? 7.  If the capacity of short-term memory is limited, how do we remember the beginning of a spoken sentence 8.  When a word is on the “tip-of-the-tongue,” what errors are likely until the target word is recalled? 9.  Declarative memories come in two.
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31. Which memory system has an unlimited capacity and can keep information for hours or decades? a. short-term memory b. long-term memory c. the sensory register d. working memory 32. In the “three-box model of memory,” which memory system holds information for no more than a few seconds, until it can be processed further? a. short-term.
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4.  Early in the 1990s, controversy arose regarding the accuracy of long-buried memories of sexual abuse. Freud would have explained this as an example of a repressed memory that later is brought to conscious awareness. What does the evidence say about repression? 5.  Famous psychologist Jean Piaget once reported having a.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1. Based on the powers of thought and intelligence, human beings are called homo sapiens, which translates as: a.rational man. b.creative man. c.anthropomorphic man. d.anthropocentric man. 2. A mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties is called a(n): a.mental set. b.concept. c.algorithm. d.prototype. 3.Which of the following statements defines basic concepts? a.They are.
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  1. Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened, is called ________. a. confabulation b. priming c. flashbulb memory d. repression 2. Eyewitness testimonies by victims are most likely to contain errors when the suspect: a. is of.
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  Short Answer Questions 1.The text discusses four elements of cognition: concepts, mental images, cognitive schemas, and propositions. In the diagram below, fill in the appropriate labels to create a visual summary of the elements of cognition. Section: Thought: Using What We KnowType: ConceptualPage(s): 302 2.Rita’s mental representation for Halloween includes knowledge, beliefs, and.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1._______________ is a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules. a.An attribution b.Emotion c.Galvanic skin response d. Body language 2.Three major components that psychologists focus on when defining “emotion” are: a.facial muscles, bodily changes, and stress. b.physiological changes, cognitive.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 305                   Which concept is most basic: furniture, chair, or high chair?                 Which example of the concept chair is prototypical: high chair, rocking chair, or dining room chair?                 What two findings in the previous section support Whorf’s theory that language affects perception and cognition?                 Peter’s mental.
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41.  Long-term memory formation involves lasting structural changes in the brain. 42.  Many researchers believe that long-term potentiation is the process underlying many, and perhaps all, forms of learning and memory. 43.  The formation of short-term memories and long-term memories involve the same chemical and structural 44.  Long-term potentiation is thought to be.
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4.Alfred Binet’s insight regarding a method of measuring mental development had an international impact in the twentieth century. Explain how he went about calculating a child’s mental abilities. What scoring system did later researchers base on Binet’s method, and how was it originally calculated? 5.Critics have argued that intelligence tests favor.
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  51.The day after the election, Josephine says that she knew all along who the winner would be. Although it is possible that she had some special insight into the election, it is more likely that Josephine is: a.avoiding loss. b.exhibiting confirmation bias. c.exaggerating the improbable. d.exhibiting hindsight bias. 52.The tendency to look for or pay.
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21. Scientists agree that a general ability underlies the specific abilities and talents measured by intelligence 22. Mental age is a measure of mental development expressed in terms of the average mental ability at a given age. 23. Standardized IQ tests predict school performance fairly well. 24. Stereotype threat is a burden of.
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  61. ________ could be called “knowing how to do something” memories. a. Procedural memories b. Semantic memories c. Declarative memories d. Episodic memories 62. Shannon is currently a college professor. Which memory from Shannon’s fourth grade experience would most likely be an episodic memory? a. The low-level clouds that look like sheets floating in the air.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1.Define your terms! In Chapter 1, we learned that this was an important guideline with regard to critical thinking. People refer to intelligence all the time, but how is intelligence usually defined? Does the musical genius of a world-class violinist count as intelligence? Based on.
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1.Three major components that psychologists focus on when defining “emotion” are: a.facial muscles, bodily changes, and stress. b.physiological changes, cognitive processes, and action tendencies. c. the alarm phase, the resistance phase, and the exhaustion phase. d. social rules, cultural rules, and relationship rules. 2.According to Paul Ekman, which of the following is one of the.
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  51.  In accordance with the three-box model of memory, the memory system involved in the prolonged storage of information is known as ________. a.  short-term memory b.  the sensory register c.  working memory d.  long-term memory 52. When researchers investigated the organization of long-term memory, they found that: a. it must be linked to sound, since.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1. ________ refers to the capacity to retain and retrieve information. a. Recall b. Memory c. Priming d. Recognition 2. Memory is critical to our lives because: a. it confers a sense of personal identity, which enhances our sense of coherence. b. without memory, we could not experience emotions. c. it operates as a video camera.
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31.  The sensory register can hold sensory images indefinitely, as long as we continue to rehearse the information. 32.  George Miller’s famous estimate of the capacity of short-term memory is the “magical 2 to 20 range.” 33.  In discussions of the capacity of short-term memory, a chunk is a meaningful unit of.
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  41. Most individuals do not show evidence of reflective judgment until their ________, if at all. a.teen years b.middle to late twenties c.early to middle thirties d.late thirties to early forties 42.The ________ involves consulting one’s emotions instead of estimating probabilities objectively. a.availability heuristic b.affect heuristic c.framing effect d.hindsight bias 43.Gertrude voted “yes” on a ballot question about whether convicted.
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11.A ________ is an integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world. a.proposition b.cognitive heuristic c.cognitive schema d.prototype 12.A mental image is: a.a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents. b.a mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties. c.a unit.
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  71.The original formula for determining IQ had a serious flaw in that: a.the formula did not make sense for use with adults. b.the formula did not separate the “g factor” from specific abilities. c.it overemphasized performance IQ in the computations. d.it overemphasized verbal IQ in the computations. 72.David Wechsler designed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.
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