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  21. Transvestism, when members of one gender (usually males) dress as another (female), is A. very common in Brazil, given this country’s general acceptance of alternative gender roles. B. an example of the biological basis of sexual expression. C. evidence of the cultural limits in determining gender roles. D. perhaps the most common way.
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  16. As illustrated by a comparison between the Basseri and Qashqai, two Iranian nomadic tribes, illustrates how as regulatory problems increase, A. pastoralists are less likely to interact with other populations in the same space and time. B. rules regarding crime and punishment become more severe. C. political hierarchies become more complex. D. age.
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  16. Because nonindustrial economies can have features of both horticulture and agriculture, it is useful to discuss cultivators as being arranged along a cultivation continuum. Which of the following generally occurs in moving toward the more intensive end of the cultivating continuum? A. increased leisure time B. improved overall health status of.
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  41. Although agriculture is much more productive per acre than horticulture, horticulture is more reliable and dependable in the long run. 42. Agriculturalists tend to live in permanent villages that are larger and closer to other settlements than the semipermanent settlements of horticulturalists. 43. The high level of intensification and long-term dependability.
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  72. De facto discrimination occurs when laws exist that harm a specific group and its members. 73. Genocide refers to the physical destruction of an ethnic or religious group through mass murder. 74. Institutional discrimination happens when institutions rather than individuals are the targets of discrimination. 75. Ethnocide refers to the deliberate elimination.
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  6. By the 17th century, some scientists were beginning to break with long-held traditions and sought to investigate _______. a. natural phenomena b. the supernatural forces that created life c. the structure of the DNA molecule d. how genetic mutations occur e. fertility rates 7. __________________first recognized that species were groups of organisms that were distinguished.
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  11. What kinds of societies typically are associated with slash-and-burn cultivation? A. foraging societies B. state-level societies C. hydraulic societies D. nonindustrial societies E. nomadic societies 12. Which of the following statements about shifting cultivation is true? A. It is typically associated with the use of draft animals. B. It cannot support permanent villages. C. It requires irrigation. D. It.
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  11. If a patriarchy is a political system ruled by men, what would a matriarchy be—a political system ruled by women? Anthropologist Peggy Sanday, who investigated these questions among the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, found that A. true matriarchies do not exist. B. women in matriarchies see their male counterparts as being.
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1. Kottak prefers the term sociopolitical organization to Morton Fried’s term political organization in discussing the regulation or management of interrelations among groups and their representatives, because A. the term sociopolitical is more politically correct. B. anthropologists and political scientists have an interest in political systems and organization, but they cannot agree.
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  26. Which of the following is the most important factor in determining an individual’s power and prestige in a state? A. personality B. ancestry C. speaking ability D. anthropomorphism E. physical size 27. Which of the following is NOT typical of state-level societies? A. a purely foraging-based subsistence strategy B. class stratification C. boundary maintenance systems D. intensive, managed agriculture E..
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 34. The anthropological approach to the study of political systems and organization is global and comparative and includes nonstates as well as the states and nation-states usually studied by political scientists. 35. The sociopolitical organization of foragers tends to be bands. 36. In bands, the leader occupies an official office with.
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True/False Questions 1. Evolution is a theory that has considerable support from genetic evidence. 2. The concept of evolution is unique to Western science. 3. We credit Erasmus Darwin with significantly influencing Charles Darwin’s evolutionary thinking. 4. The theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics has recently displaced natural selection as mainstream science’s most.
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  21. Which of the following kinds of societies is most likely to have stratum endogamy (marriage within one’s own group)? A. band B. state C. chiefdom D. society with segmentary lineage organization E. tribe 22. How do chiefdoms differ from states? A. Chiefdoms are based on differential access. B. Chiefdoms lack socioeconomic stratification and stratum endogamy. C. Chiefdoms lack.
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  6. Which of the following statements about purported attempts to assign humans to discrete racial categories based on common ancestry is true? A. They are applied to endogamous breeding populations. B. They are based on genotypic rather than phenotypic characteristics. C. They are based on global racial categories that vary little among societies. D..
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  26. Economic anthropologists have been concerned with two main questions, one focusing on systems of human behavior and the other on the individuals who participate in those systems. The first question is: How are production, distribution, and consumption organized in different societies? The second question is: A. Why has the myth.
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  6. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of band-level societies? A. an egalitarian social structure B. nuclear families C. the sexual division of labor D. permanent villages E. mechanisms of social control 7. Which of the following is most characteristic of foragers? A. unilineal descent and ancestor worship B. territoriality and organized warfare C. high mobility and small.
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  49. States are complex systems of sociopolitical organization that aim to control and administer everything from conflict resolution to fiscal systems to population movements. 50. A fiscal system includes the judges, laws, and courts that resolve conflicts. 51. Population control in states refers to the police and military. 52. The elites of archaic.
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  26. What term describes a complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace having substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power? A. state B. ethnic group C. nationality D. bureaucracy E. culture 27. Nation-states A. are defined by their lack of ethnic identity. B. are ethnically homogeneous. C. are the same as tribes and ethnic groups. D. are.
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  21. What is a mode of production? A. a postindustrial adaptive strategy, such as commercial agriculture or international mercantilism B. the land, labor, technology, and capital of production C. the way a society’s social relations are organized to produce the labor necessary for generating the society’s subsistence and energy needs D. whether a society.
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  31. Which of the following is NOT associated with the market principle? A. the profit motive B. the law of supply and demand C. impersonal economic relations D. industrialism E. kin-based generalized reciprocity 32. Generalized reciprocity A. is characterized by the immediate return of the object exchanged. B. is the characteristic form of exchange in egalitarian societies. C. usually.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 37. An achieved status is not automatic. It comes through choices, actions, efforts, talents, or accomplishments, and is always perceived as positive by a society. 38. When an ethnic identity is flexible and situational, it can become an achieved status. 39. Ascribed statuses are based on an individual’s talents, abilities, and.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 36. Most contemporary foragers live in remote areas, completely cut off from contact with other modern, agricultural, and industrial communities. 37. Foragers typically live in mobile bands that disperse in the dry season and aggregate in the rainy season. 38. Horticulture refers to low-intensity farming that often uses slash-and-burn techniques to.
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  16. What is the view that the extinction and the subsequent appearance of more modern forms could be explained by a series of disasters and creations? a. natural selection b. catastrophism c. use-disuse theory d. uniformitarianism e. descent with modification 17. _________________was the opponent of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and the proposer of the view that the earth’s.
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  21. In Japan, the burakumin A. are perceived as pure Japanese even though one of their parents is not Japanese. B. are Japanese citizens of mixed ancestry who face discrimination. C. are the cream of Japan’s racial categories, having the purest blood. D. no longer face discrimination. E. constitute a numerical majority in Japan. 22. Which.
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  38. Domestic violence against women is prevalent in patrilineal-patrilocal systems in which women are cut off from their supportive kin ties. 39. In the United States, attitudes regarding the role of women in the workplace have varied according to economic needs. 40. The reason there are more modern-day Rosie the Riveters is.
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  44. In chiefdoms, chiefs occupy formal offices and administer or regulate a series of villages. 45. In chiefdoms, individuals are ranked according to seniority, but everyone is believed to have descended from a common set of ancestors. 46. Stratum endogamy is restricted to chiefdoms, wherein chiefs occupied a formal elite stratum in.
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  6. The domestic-public dichotomy refers to the separation of A. spheres of exchange. B. secular and sacred domains. C. the elite and commoners. D. home and the outside world. E. cooking and sleeping spaces in residential units. 7. Recently, India’s four largest cities introduced commuter trains exclusively for female passengers. The aim of this new service.
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  16. More than half of all U.S. families living in poverty are A. patrifocal. B. blended. C. headed by men. D. headed by women. E. dichotomized. 17. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. The feminization of poverty is unique to the United States. B. Households headed by women tend to be poorer than those headed.
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  21. Which concept, proposed by Charles Lyell, had a profound effect on 19th century scientific thought? a. recent origins for earth b. the role of catastrophic events in producing geological phenomena c. natural selection d. the immense age of the earth e. the inheritance of acquired characteristics 22. The principle of uniformitarianism a. stated that the geological.
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  26. The fact that individuals who possess favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those who possess less favorable traits is the basis for which theory? a. uniformitarianism b. natural selection c. the inheritance of acquired characteristics d. catastrophism e. the fixity of species 27. Which of the following concepts did NOT influence.
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  31. The presence of ethnic neighborhoods indicates what kind of coexistence? A. assimilation B. acculturation C. enculturation D. colonialism E. multiculturalism 32. What is the term for policies and practices that harm a group and its members? A. colonialism B. racism C. prejudice D. ethnocentrism E. discrimination 33. A policy of ethnic expulsion aims at removing from a country groups who are.
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1. With the term sex, anthropologists are referring to biological differences. In contrast, they define gender as A. the cultural construction of whether one is female, male, or something else. B. a political system ruled by men that defines the identity of women. C. the tasks and activities that a culture assigns to.
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6. Charles Darwin recognized the importance of beak variation in finches while visiting the Galápagos Islands. 7. Charles Darwin acknowledged the importance of sexual reproduction when formulating his theory of natural selection. 8. Charles Darwin refrained from immediately publishing his theory of natural selection because he was aware of its controversial nature. 9..
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  11. Charles Darwin was not the only one to conceive of natural selection. Who published an article suggesting current species were descended from other species? a. Jean Baptiste Lamarck b. Erasmus Darwin c. Georges-Louis Leclerk de Buffon d. Alfred Russel Wallace e. John Scopes 12. Who was the first to actually attempt to explain the mechanism.
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  51. With generalized reciprocity, the individuals participating in the exchange usually do not know the other person prior to the exchange. 52. With balanced reciprocity, the giver expects something in return equal to what was given. 53. Potlatching is a form of competitive feasting that enables individuals to redistribute surplus materials while.
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  11. In the early 20th century, the anthropologist Franz Boas described changes in skull form among the children of Europeans who had emigrated to North America. He found that the reason for these changes could not be explained by genetics. His findings underscore the fact that A. phenotypic similarities and differences.
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  31. Which is the best example of natural selection? a. the peppered moth b. the medium ground finch of the Galápagos c. the recent increase in resistant strains of disease-causing microorganisms d. the recent decrease in resistant strains of disease-causing microorganisms e. Mendel’s project with peas and beans 32. “Fitness,” in an evolutionary sense, refers to.
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30. In the anthropological study of political systems, social control maintains social norms (cultural standards) and regulates conflict. Which of the following is NOT a form of social control? A. hegemony B. shame C. making subordinates believe they will eventually gain power D. exogamy E. gossip 31. According to Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault, A. it is.
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  53. According to Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault, it is easier and more effective to dominate people in their minds than to try to control their bodies. 54. The efficacy of social control depends on how clearly people envision the sanctions that an antisocial act might trigger. 55. Social controls refers to.
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  11. As a stark reminder that no society truly is isolated, this chapter’s “Appreciating Diversity” segment describes how various levels of political regulation—local, regional, national, and international—now determine how contemporary people such as the Venezuelan Yanomami live their lives. All of the following are examples of this, EXCEPT that A. in.
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  46. A mode of production is a way of organizing production, whereas the means of production include the factors of production like land, labor, and technology. 47. In most foraging societies, private ownership of bounded land was almost nonexistent. 48. Band- and tribal-level societies actively promote craft and task specialization. 49. In nonindustrial.
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  16. Which of the following statements about ethnicity is true? A. Ethnicity is one’s identification with a group that shares a common set of beliefs, values, customs, and norms. B. Americans maintain a clear distinction between ethnicity and race. C. Ethnicity is based on common biological features. D. Ethnicity is the politically correct term.
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  33. The relative gender equality found in horticultural societies most likely characterizes the most natural state of gender differentiation. 34. Women in matrilineal societies tend to occupy elevated status positions. 35. Gender stratification tends to be extremely pronounced in patrilineal-patrilocal societies. 36. In agricultural societies, women generally dominate the practice of subsistence labor. 37..
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 28. The specific roles assigned to each gender vary from culture to culture. 29. Gender roles are the instinctual behaviors that are the exclusive domain of each sex. 30. Cross-culturally, women’s roles tend to be focused on activities associated with the home, but men are more active in the public domain. 31..
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