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  41. Although agriculture is much more productive per acre than horticulture, horticulture is more reliable and dependable in the long run. 42. Agriculturalists tend to live in permanent villages that are larger and closer to other settlements than the semipermanent settlements of horticulturalists. 43. The high level of intensification and long-term dependability.

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  •   41. Although agriculture much more productive per acre than horticulture,
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  6. The domestic-public dichotomy refers to the separation of A. spheres of exchange. B. secular and sacred domains. C. the elite and commoners. D. home and the outside world. E. cooking and sleeping spaces in residential units. 7. Recently, India’s four largest cities introduced commuter trains exclusively for female passengers. The aim of this new service.

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  •   6. The domestic-public dichotomy refers to the separation of A. spheres
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  6. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of band-level societies? A. an egalitarian social structure B. nuclear families C. the sexual division of labor D. permanent villages E. mechanisms of social control 7. Which of the following is most characteristic of foragers? A. unilineal descent and ancestor worship B. territoriality and organized warfare C. high mobility and small.

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  •   6. Which of the following NOT characteristic of band-level societies? A.
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 34. The anthropological approach to the study of political systems and organization is global and comparative and includes nonstates as well as the states and nation-states usually studied by political scientists. 35. The sociopolitical organization of foragers tends to be bands. 36. In bands, the leader occupies an official office with.

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  • TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 34. The anthropological approach to the study of political
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  21. What is a mode of production? A. a postindustrial adaptive strategy, such as commercial agriculture or international mercantilism B. the land, labor, technology, and capital of production C. the way a society’s social relations are organized to produce the labor necessary for generating the society’s subsistence and energy needs D. whether a society.

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  •   21. What a mode of production? A. a postindustrial adaptive strategy,
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  11. What kinds of societies typically are associated with slash-and-burn cultivation? A. foraging societies B. state-level societies C. hydraulic societies D. nonindustrial societies E. nomadic societies 12. Which of the following statements about shifting cultivation is true? A. It is typically associated with the use of draft animals. B. It cannot support permanent villages. C. It requires irrigation. D. It.

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  •   11. What kinds of societies typically associated with slash-and-burn cultivation? A.
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  51. With generalized reciprocity, the individuals participating in the exchange usually do not know the other person prior to the exchange. 52. With balanced reciprocity, the giver expects something in return equal to what was given. 53. Potlatching is a form of competitive feasting that enables individuals to redistribute surplus materials while.

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  •   51. With generalized reciprocity, the individuals participating in the exchange
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  16. Because nonindustrial economies can have features of both horticulture and agriculture, it is useful to discuss cultivators as being arranged along a cultivation continuum. Which of the following generally occurs in moving toward the more intensive end of the cultivating continuum? A. increased leisure time B. improved overall health status of.

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  •   16. Because nonindustrial economies can have features of both horticulture
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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 36. Most contemporary foragers live in remote areas, completely cut off from contact with other modern, agricultural, and industrial communities. 37. Foragers typically live in mobile bands that disperse in the dry season and aggregate in the rainy season. 38. Horticulture refers to low-intensity farming that often uses slash-and-burn techniques to.

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  • TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 36. Most contemporary foragers live in remote areas, completely
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  31. The presence of ethnic neighborhoods indicates what kind of coexistence? A. assimilation B. acculturation C. enculturation D. colonialism E. multiculturalism 32. What is the term for policies and practices that harm a group and its members? A. colonialism B. racism C. prejudice D. ethnocentrism E. discrimination 33. A policy of ethnic expulsion aims at removing from a country groups who are.

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  •   31. The presence of ethnic neighborhoods indicates what kind of
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  26. The fact that individuals who possess favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those who possess less favorable traits is the basis for which theory? a. uniformitarianism b. natural selection c. the inheritance of acquired characteristics d. catastrophism e. the fixity of species 27. Which of the following concepts did NOT influence.

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  •   26. The fact that individuals who possess favorable traits more
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  33. The relative gender equality found in horticultural societies most likely characterizes the most natural state of gender differentiation. 34. Women in matrilineal societies tend to occupy elevated status positions. 35. Gender stratification tends to be extremely pronounced in patrilineal-patrilocal societies. 36. In agricultural societies, women generally dominate the practice of subsistence labor. 37..

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  •   33. The relative gender equality found in horticultural societies most
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  31. Which is the best example of natural selection? a. the peppered moth b. the medium ground finch of the Galápagos c. the recent increase in resistant strains of disease-causing microorganisms d. the recent decrease in resistant strains of disease-causing microorganisms e. Mendel’s project with peas and beans 32. “Fitness,” in an evolutionary sense, refers to.

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  •   31. Which the best example of natural selection? a. the peppered
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  26. What term describes a complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace having substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power? A. state B. ethnic group C. nationality D. bureaucracy E. culture 27. Nation-states A. are defined by their lack of ethnic identity. B. are ethnically homogeneous. C. are the same as tribes and ethnic groups. D. are.

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  •   26. What term describes a complex sociopolitical system that administers
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6. Charles Darwin recognized the importance of beak variation in finches while visiting the Galápagos Islands. 7. Charles Darwin acknowledged the importance of sexual reproduction when formulating his theory of natural selection. 8. Charles Darwin refrained from immediately publishing his theory of natural selection because he was aware of its controversial nature. 9..

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  • 6. Charles Darwin recognized the importance of beak variation in
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  6. By the 17th century, some scientists were beginning to break with long-held traditions and sought to investigate _______. a. natural phenomena b. the supernatural forces that created life c. the structure of the DNA molecule d. how genetic mutations occur e. fertility rates 7. __________________first recognized that species were groups of organisms that were distinguished.

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  •   6. By the 17th century, some scientists were beginning to
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  21. Which of the following kinds of societies is most likely to have stratum endogamy (marriage within one’s own group)? A. band B. state C. chiefdom D. society with segmentary lineage organization E. tribe 22. How do chiefdoms differ from states? A. Chiefdoms are based on differential access. B. Chiefdoms lack socioeconomic stratification and stratum endogamy. C. Chiefdoms lack.

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  •   21. Which of the following kinds of societies most likely
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30. In the anthropological study of political systems, social control maintains social norms (cultural standards) and regulates conflict. Which of the following is NOT a form of social control? A. hegemony B. shame C. making subordinates believe they will eventually gain power D. exogamy E. gossip 31. According to Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault, A. it is.

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  • 30. In the anthropological study of political systems, social control
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  72. De facto discrimination occurs when laws exist that harm a specific group and its members. 73. Genocide refers to the physical destruction of an ethnic or religious group through mass murder. 74. Institutional discrimination happens when institutions rather than individuals are the targets of discrimination. 75. Ethnocide refers to the deliberate elimination.

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  •   72. De facto discrimination occurs when laws exist that harm
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True/False Questions 1. Evolution is a theory that has considerable support from genetic evidence. 2. The concept of evolution is unique to Western science. 3. We credit Erasmus Darwin with significantly influencing Charles Darwin’s evolutionary thinking. 4. The theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics has recently displaced natural selection as mainstream science’s most.

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  • True/False Questions 1. Evolution a theory that has considerable support from
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  26. Which of the following is the most important factor in determining an individual’s power and prestige in a state? A. personality B. ancestry C. speaking ability D. anthropomorphism E. physical size 27. Which of the following is NOT typical of state-level societies? A. a purely foraging-based subsistence strategy B. class stratification C. boundary maintenance systems D. intensive, managed agriculture E..

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  •   26. Which of the following the most important factor in
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1. Kottak prefers the term sociopolitical organization to Morton Fried’s term political organization in discussing the regulation or management of interrelations among groups and their representatives, because A. the term sociopolitical is more politically correct. B. anthropologists and political scientists have an interest in political systems and organization, but they cannot agree.

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  • 1. Kottak prefers the term sociopolitical organization to Morton Fried’s
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  16. What is the view that the extinction and the subsequent appearance of more modern forms could be explained by a series of disasters and creations? a. natural selection b. catastrophism c. use-disuse theory d. uniformitarianism e. descent with modification 17. _________________was the opponent of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and the proposer of the view that the earth’s.

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  •   16. What the view that the extinction and the subsequent
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  31. Which of the following is NOT associated with the market principle? A. the profit motive B. the law of supply and demand C. impersonal economic relations D. industrialism E. kin-based generalized reciprocity 32. Generalized reciprocity A. is characterized by the immediate return of the object exchanged. B. is the characteristic form of exchange in egalitarian societies. C. usually.

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  •   31. Which of the following NOT associated with the market
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  21. Which concept, proposed by Charles Lyell, had a profound effect on 19th century scientific thought? a. recent origins for earth b. the role of catastrophic events in producing geological phenomena c. natural selection d. the immense age of the earth e. the inheritance of acquired characteristics 22. The principle of uniformitarianism a. stated that the geological.

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  •   21. Which concept, proposed by Charles Lyell, had a profound
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