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Study Resources (Anthropology)

  Essay Questions 1. Describe the four main classes of drugs used in the treatment of mental and emotional disorders, including the benefits and drawbacks of each. For which disorders would each class be prescribed? 2. The benefits of drug therapy are proclaimed in magazines and on television commercials, but there are some disadvantages,.
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1.Which of the following drugs is a first-generation neuroleptic drug? a.Clozaril b.Risperdal c.Zyprexa d.Thorazine 2.Antipsychotic drugs offer little relief from which of the following symptoms of schizophrenia? a.emotional flatness b.agitation c.delusions d.hallucinations 3.In addition to depression, antidepressant drugs are also used in the treatment of: a.bipolar disorder. b.anxiety. c.delusions. d.schizophrenia. 4.Many people respond positively to a new drug just because of the enthusiasm surrounding it.
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21.Generalized anxiety disorder involves a continuing sense of doom and worry. 22.Genes may be implicated in dysfunction in the amygdala, the core structure for the acquisition of fear. 23.By definition, panic attacks occur within one week of the actual frightening experience. 24.Although panic attacks seem to occur out of nowhere, they in fact.
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  41.________ is the process in which the client transfers unconscious emotions or reactions, such as emotional               feelings about his or her parents, onto the therapist. a.Flooding b.Counterconditioning c.Transference d.Repression 42.Psychologists who practice behavioral therapy focus on the client’s: a.unconscious anxieties. b.relationships with parents. c.methods of coping with inescapable realities of life. d.current behavior and attitudes. 43.A form of therapy.
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16. Why do most researchers consider schizophrenia a brain disorder? Explain the genetic predispositions, prenatal problems and aspects of adolescent biology that influence schizophrenia. 17. The legal system is based on the assumption of personal responsibility, but a dilemma exists when considering the possibility of psychological problems. Explore this dilemma and.
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  51.Virtual reality devices permit behavior therapists to conduct _______________ in their offices. a.rational emotive behavior therapy b.transference c.exposure therapy d.existential therapy 52.Which of the behavioral therapy techniques requires clients to keep careful data on the frequency and the consequences of the behavior to be changed? a. behavioral self-monitoring b. counterconditioning c. skills training d. graduated exposure 53.Don’s therapist has directed.
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21. Briefly describe the hallmarks of  borderline personality disorder. 22. Describe the ways that antisocial personality disorder might take different forms over time, from childhood to adulthood. 23. What are the common traits of a psychopath? 24. Explain the ways in which addiction patterns vary according to cultural practices and the social environment. 25..
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61.Heritable factors seem to be involved: a.when alcoholism begins in adolescence and is linked to antisocial behaviors. b.when alcoholism begins in adulthood with frequent episodes of heavy drinking. c.for the male children of alcoholics but not for the female children. d.for the female children of alcoholics but not for the male children. 62.People with high.
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  Quick Quiz – textbook page 591 A.Match these treatments with the problems for which they are typically used: 1.antipsychotic drugs 2.antidepressant drugs 3.lithium carbonate 4.electroconvulsive therapy a.suicidal depression b.bipolar disorder c.schizophrenia d.depression and anxiety e.obsessive-compulsive disorder B.What are five cautions about taking medications for psychological disorders? C.Several years ago, a news story reported that scientists had high hopes for new pills that.
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16. When individuals are diagnosed with OCD, are the obsessive thoughts usually positive or negative? Illustrate your answer with an example of an obsessive thought. 17. What are some behavioral changes seen in a depressed person? 18. Explain why one depression researcher wrote that “Women think and men drink.” 19. Identify the symptoms of.
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  21.The tendency for journals to publish studies that have positive findings, rather than negative or ambiguous results, is called: a.confirmation bias. b.overreaching bias. c.publication bias. d.enterprise bias. 22.A person may have short-term success with antipsychotic or antidepressant drugs, but at least half of patients stop taking them, often because of the ________ of the medication. a.foul taste b.unpleasant.
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41.________ is a disorder involving disturbances in emotion, loss of interest in one’s usual activities, thoughts of hopelessness, fatigue, and loss of appetite. a.Generalized anxiety disorder b.Major depression c.Psychopathy d.Borderline personality disorder 42.In ________, episodes of both depression and mania occur. a.Borderline personality disorder b.Antisocial personality disorder c.Psychotic disorder d.Bipolar disorder 43.Which of the following is NOT a symptom of.
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  Essay Questions 1. We encounter dilemmas when we try to define “mental disorders.” The text considers three viewpoints in attempting to formulate this definition. What is the definition of “mental disorder” that the authors decide upon? 2. Disorders like brain tumors and appendicitis are the same throughout the world irrespective of the.
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21.A psychodynamic therapist would likely consider it part of the therapeutic process if a client reported that he had fallen in love with her. 22. Transference is an element of behavioral therapy. 23. Object-relations therapists emphasize the unconscious influence of people’s earliest mental representations of their parents and how these affect reactions.
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6. What is the assumption behind projective tests? 7. The authors of the textbook point out several reasons for the low validity of projective tests. List some of               the reasons for their low validity. 8. Although the MMPI is an objective test with fairly good reliability and validity, what problems have.
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8. What are the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? What evidence of a brain abnormality has been found to explain some cases of OCD? 9. Describe the vulnerability-stress explanation of depression. Provide examples of upsetting events that could trigger a depression. 10. Describe the research findings that emphasize the role of genetics.
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12. Cognitive explanations hold that depression results from specific, negative ways of thinking about one’s situation. Explain this approach. 13. Throughout history, societies have recognized and feared the few members in their midst who lack all human connection to anyone else. What diagnostic category is used to refer to these types.
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81.Some people with schizophrenia completely withdraw into a private world, sitting for hours without moving. This condition is called: a.disorganized behavior. b.a catatonic stupor. c.a bizarre behavior. d.a hallucination. 82.Research on the prognosis for recovering from schizophrenia suggests that: a.the outlook is not as favorable if the symptoms appeared abruptly. b.if the onset is gradual then the.
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71.PET scan studies have found that the prefrontal cortex of predatory murderers has less brain activity than does the prefrontal cortex of men who commit “heat of passion” murders. 72.Psychopaths are believed to exist in all cultures and throughout history, although they are more prevalent in collectivist societies. 73.Psychopaths are slow to.
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  31. Graduated exposure, systematic desensitization, behavioral records, and skills training are methods associated with cognitive therapy. 32. One of the most important predictors of successful therapy is the bond between therapist and client. 33.The scientist-practitioner gap has narrowed over time. 34. Cognitive therapy’s greatest success has been in the treatment of mood disorders,.
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41.Obsession involves recurrent, persistent, unwished-for images and thoughts that reflect impaired reasoning 42.Obsession involves repetitive, ritualized behaviors that a person feels must be carried out to avoid disaster. 43.In many cases of OCD, abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex lead to cognitive rigidity. 44.Major depression involves emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physical changes severe enough.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. Which symptoms of schizophrenia are reduced by antipsychotic medications? Which symptoms are resistant to antipsychotic medication? 2. Tranquilizers are often prescribed by physicians for patients who complain of panic and anxiety, however they are not considered the treatment of choice for extended periods. What problems are associated with.
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  1.The primary purpose of the DSM is to (a) provide descriptive criteria for diagnosing mental disorders, (b) help psychologists assess normal as well as abnormal behavior, (c) describe the causes of common disorders, (d) keep the number of diagnostic categories of mental disorders to a minimum. 2.List four criticisms of the.
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  True-False Questions 1.Psychologists consider the terms “abnormal behavior” and “mental disorder” to be synonyms. 2.Insanity is a legal term that is used neither by psychologists nor by psychiatrists in research or diagnosis. 3.The basic guideline for defining mental disorders is to use the viewpoint of people who are affected by the troubled individual. 4.Mental.
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  Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters 1. In Chapter Two, the challenges of test construction were explained, including issues pertinent to the concepts of validity and reliability. Define each of these concepts and then analyze projective and objective tests in view of the challenges of test construction. 2. Describe the function of.
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  Short Answer Questions 1. People all over the world paint their bodies, but what defines whether a particular type of body art is normal or abnormal in a particular culture? If residents of the United States have visible tattoos over half of their bodies, is that normal? Is it abnormal? Explain.
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  Quick Quiz 15.3 – textbook page 559 1.Biological researchers find that depressed people have unusually high levels of the stress hormone __________. 2.What are four main contributing factors in depression? 3.Depressed people tend to believe that the reasons for their unhappiness are (a) controllable, (b) temporary, (c) out of their hands, (d) caused.
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  51.A manic person feels powerful and is full of plans. 52. People who are depressed tend to have high levels of cortisol. 53.Biological research concerning the development of depressive disorders suggests that high cortisol levels in chronically depressed people could affect the hippocampus and amygdala. 54.Biological research concerning the development of depressive disorders.
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  61.Depressed people tend to believe that their situation is uncontrollable. 62.Cognitive psychologists hold that depressed people become depressed because they feel hopeless, believing that nothing good will ever happen to them. 63.Rumination contributes to longer-lasting depression in women. 64.Beginning in adolescence, men are more likely than women to develop a ruminating, introspective style.
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11.Today’s psychologists consider “drapetomania” to be a cruel and false diagnosis originating in the prevailing culture of the southern United States in the era of slavery. 12.An example of a cultural syndrome would be taijin kyofusho, a Japanese disorder in which a person has an intense fear that the body, its.
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  True-False Questions 1. Antidepressant drugs are also known as neuroleptics. 2.Antipsychotic drugs are no longer being prescribed “off label” for people with nonpsychotic disorders. 3. Neuroleptics have their primary effect by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). 4. Antipsychotic drugs offer schizophrenics relief from jumbled thoughts, difficulty concentrating, and the inability.
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11. Everyone experiences occasional shyness and social anxiety, but the person with a social phobia has intense reactions of fear. What are some of the common social phobias? 12. What is the fundamental fear in agoraphobia? 13. What are typical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder? 14. How might the hippocampal volume be related.
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  81.The ________ school of therapy’s primary goal is to help the client achieve insight into unconscious motives and feelings and a change in their symptoms. a.humanist b.behavioral c.psychodynamic d.cognitive 82.The ________ school of therapy has as one of its primary goals the modification of irrational or unvalidated               beliefs. a.humanist b.behavioral c.cognitive d.psychoanalytic 83.The ________ school of therapy has, as.
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  11.In a recent study (mentioned in your textbook) regarding people with aggressive outbursts, the group that received ___________ improved the most. a.Risperdal b.a placebo c.Haldol d.MAOIs 12.Antipsychotics have been shown to be ineffective for the treatment of: a.hallucinations. b.agitation. c.aggressive outbursts. d.delusions. 13.In addition to depression, antidepressant drugs are also used in the treatment of: a.bipolar disorder. b.anxiety. c.delusions. d.schizophrenia. 14.A drug that elevates the.
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  61.The therapeutic approach developed by Albert Ellis, known as ________, is a form of cognitive therapy. a.transference b.rational-emotive behavior therapy c.psychoanalysis d.unconditional positive analysis 62.Which of the following therapists developed rational emotive behavior therapy? a.B. F. Skinner b.Aaron Beck c.Albert Ellis d.Irvin Yalom 63.________ would be most likely to challenge the client’s thoughts directly, showing him why certain thoughts              .
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6. Describe the role of the therapeutic alliance in successful therapy. 7. Explain what is meant by the “justification of effort” effect in regard to psychotherapy. 8. Your textbook discusses the results of several PET-scan studies involving people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Among those who were taking the SSRI Prozac, the metabolism.
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  31.Researchers are now looking for new ways to stimulate the brains of severely depressed individuals. One method, called __________, involves the use of a pulsing coil held to a person’s skull at the left prefrontal cortex. a.psychosurgery b.deep brain stimulation c.electroconvulsive therapy d.transcranial magnetic stimulation 32.Which of the following procedures requires surgery to implant electrodes.
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81.Policies of total abstinence from alcohol tend to decrease rates of addiction. 82.Public health professionals who subscribe to the biological model or the learning model of addiction agree that former alcoholics cannot learn to drink moderately without becoming dependent on alcohol again. 83.Dissociative identity disorder is marked by the apparent appearance within.
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5. Analyze in detail three behavioral techniques, discussed in your textbook, which psychotherapists use to help clients change unwanted behaviors. Include key terms and definitions. 6. What basic assumptions underlie the humanist therapies? What are the goals of humanist therapy, and how does the client-centered (nondirective) approach suggest therapists can help.
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  101.Melcia’s parents were surprised to learn that _______________ is the most likely to be effective in the treatment of their daughter, even though her disorder, autism, has biological origins. a.psychodynamic therapy b.family intervention therapy c.cognitive therapy d.behavior therapy 102._________ psychologists are concerned with the assessment and treatment of people who are physically disabled. a.Community b.Psychoanalytical c.Motivational d.Rehabilitation 103.  A therapeutic.
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  71.In client-centered therapy, the therapist’s role is to: a.listen to the client’s needs in an accepting, nonjudgmental way and offer unconditional positive regard. b.help clients keep records of when their unwanted habits occur and what positive consequences keep these habits continuing. c.use rational arguments to directly challenge a client’s unrealistic beliefs or expectations. d.listen attentively.
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91.Yani has spent the last five years receiving traditional psychoanalysis. How is the concept of “justification of effort” likely to affect his response when his friend asks Yani whether he would recommend this type of therapy? a.It will make Yani less likely to recommend it. b.It will make Yani more likely to.
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  11.If a person is experiencing mild anxiety, then a tranquilizer would be an appropriate drug to use in treatment, at least on a temporary basis. 12.If a person is prescribed lithium carbonate, it is most likely that she has been diagnosed as suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder. 13.Much of the effectiveness of antidepressants.
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71.The biological and learning models of addiction differ in their explanations of drug abuse and in their proposed solutions. According to the biological model: a.people can grow beyond the need for alcohol. b.the degree of addiction will vary, depending on the situation. c.the solution is medical treatment and group support. d.most problem drinkers can.
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51.________ disorder is characterized by extreme negative emotionality and an inability to regulate emotions. a.Antisocial personality b.Borderline personality c.Bipolar d.Psychopathic 52.________ disorder is characterized by a lifelong pattern of irresponsible, antisocial behavior such as law-breaking, violence, and other impulsive, reckless acts. a.Antisocial personality b.Borderline personality c.Bipolar d.Psychopathic 53.Mark would bite and hit the other children in his preschool class, and.
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  Multiple Choice Questions 1.At this time, _________________ explanations and treatments for mental disorders are dominant. a.humanist b.biological c.behavioral d.psychodynamic 2.Antipsychotic drugs are also known as: a.tricyclics. b.monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). c.neuroleptics. d.serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). 3.Which of the following drugs is a first-generation neuroleptic drug? a.Clozaril b.Risperdal c.Zyprexa d.Thorazine 4.Which of the following drugs is a second-generation neuroleptic drug? a.Elavil b.Clozaril c.Thorazine d.Haldol 5. In his first year of college,.
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  1.Antipsychotic drugs are also known as: a.tricyclics. b.monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). c.neuroleptics. d.serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). 2.Who would likely benefit most from taking lithium carbonate? a.Zara, who is near death from starving herself. b.Jonathan, who swings from mania to thoughts of suicide. c.Josué, who has hallucinations and delusions. d.Barbara, who experiences excessive worry and anxiety. 3.This class of drugs.
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31.The typical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder include reliving the trauma in recurrent and               intrusive thoughts. 32.Episodes of posttraumatic stress disorder may recur for months, years, or even decades. 33.In a study mentioned in the text, children with above-average IQs were less likely to develop PTSD after a trauma than the.
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